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Antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins extracted from kunlun chrysanthemum flowers.

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Antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins extracted from kunlun chrysanthemum flowers.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:983484

Authors: Jing S, Zhang X, Yan LJ

Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

PMID: 25628774 [PubMed - in process]

Pharmacological modulation of abnormal involuntary DOI-induced head twitch response in male DBA/2J mice: I. Effects of D2/D3 and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds.

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Pharmacological modulation of abnormal involuntary DOI-induced head twitch response in male DBA/2J mice: I. Effects of D2/D3 and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Aug;83:18-27

Authors: Rangel-Barajas C, Malik M, Vangveravong S, Mach RH, Luedtke RR

Abstract
Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of human neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been difficult to identify animal models that mimic the symptoms of these neuropathologies and can be used to screen for antipsychotic agents. For this study we selected the murine 5HT2A/2C receptor agonist-induced head twitch response (HTR) induced by the administration of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), which has been proposed as an animal model of symptoms associated with a variety of behavioral and psychiatric conditions. We investigated the DOI-induced HTR in male DBA/2J mice using a panel of D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) and D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds. When DBA/2J mice were administered a daily dose of DOI (5 mg/kg), tolerance to the DOI occurs. However, administrations of the same dose of DOI every other day (48 h) or on a weekly basis did not lead to tolerance and the ability to induce tolerance after daily administration of DOI remains intact after repeated weekly administration of DOI. Subsequently, a panel of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists was found to effectively inhibit the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. However, the benzamide eticlopride, which is a high affinity D2-like antagonist, was a notable exception. SV 293, SV-III-130s and N-methylbenperidol, which exhibit a high affinity for D2 versus the D3 dopamine receptor subtypes (60- to 100-fold binding selectivity), were also found to inhibit the HTR in DBA/2J mice. This observation suggests a functional interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems through D2 dopamine receptors and the 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in vivo.

PMID: 24680675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The therapeutic promise of positive allosteric modulation of nicotinic receptors.

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The therapeutic promise of positive allosteric modulation of nicotinic receptors.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Mar 15;727:181-5

Authors: Uteshev VV

Abstract
In the central nervous system, deficits in cholinergic neurotransmission correlate with decreased attention and cognitive impairment, while stimulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves attention, cognitive performance and neuronal resistance to injury as well as produces robust analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The rational basis for the therapeutic use of orthosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic receptors arises from the finding that functional nicotinic receptors are ubiquitously expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues including brain regions highly vulnerable to traumatic and ischemic types of injury (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). Moreover, functional nicotinic receptors do not vanish in age-, disease- and trauma-related neuropathologies, but their expression and/or activation levels decline in a subunit- and brain region-specific manner. Therefore, augmenting the endogenous cholinergic tone by nicotinic agents is possible and may offset neurological impairments associated with cholinergic hypofunction. Importantly, because neuronal damage elevates extracellular levels of choline (a selective agonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) near the site of injury, α7-PAM-based treatments may augment pathology-activated α7-dependent auto-therapies where and when they are most needed (i.e., in the penumbra, post-injury). Thus, nicotinic-PAM-based treatments are expected to augment the endogenous cholinergic tone in a spatially and temporally restricted manner creating the potential for differential efficacy and improved safety as compared to exogenous orthosteric nicotinic agonists that activate nicotinic receptors indiscriminately. In this review, I will summarize the existing trends in therapeutic applications of nicotinic PAMs.

PMID: 24530419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sigma-1 receptor stimulation protects retinal ganglion cells from ischemia-like insult through the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2.

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Sigma-1 receptor stimulation protects retinal ganglion cells from ischemia-like insult through the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2.

Exp Eye Res. 2014 Nov;128:156-69

Authors: Mueller BH, Park Y, Ma HY, Dibas A, Ellis DZ, Clark AF, Yorio T

Abstract
Sigma-1 receptor (σ-1) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine if σ-1 receptor stimulation with pentazocine could promote neuroprotection under conditions of an ischemia-like insult (oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)) through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK)1/2. Primary RGCs were isolated from P3-P7 Sprague-Dawley rats and purified by sequential immunopanning using Thy1.1 antibodies. RGCs were cultured for 7 days before subjecting the cells to an OGD insult (0.5% oxygen in glucose-free medium) for 6 h. During the OGD, RGCs were treated with pentazocine (σ-1 receptor agonist) with or without BD 1047 (σ-1 receptor antagonist). In other experiments, primary RGCs were treated with pentazocine in the presence or absence of an MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD098059. Cell survival/death was assessed by staining with the calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer reagent. Levels of pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, and beta tubulin expression were determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining. RGCs subjected to OGD for 6 h induced 50% cell death in primary RGCs (p < 0.001) and inhibited pERK1/2 expression by 65% (p < 0.001). Cell death was attenuated when RGCs were treated with pentazocine under OGD (p < 0.001) and pERK1/2 expression was increased by 1.6 fold (p < 0.05) compared to OGD treated RGCs without pentazocine treatment. The co-treatment of PD098059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) with pentazocine significantly abolished the protective effects of pentazocine on the RGCs during this OGD insult. Activation of the σ-1 receptor is a neuroprotective target that can protect RGCs from an ischemia-like insult. These results also established a direct relationship between σ-1 receptor stimulation and the neuroprotective effects of the ERK1/2 pathway in purified RGCs subjected to OGD. These findings suggest that activation of the σ-1 receptor may be a therapeutic target for neuroprotection particularly relevant to ocular neurodegenerative diseases that effect RGCs.

PMID: 25305575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arsenic exposure, hyperuricemia, and gout in US adults

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Kuo, C.-C. | Weaver, V. | Fadrowski, J.J. | Lin, Y.-S. | Guallar, E. | Navas-Acien, A.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Environment International

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Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and molecular modeling studies of triazole containing dopamine D3 receptor ligands

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Peng, X. | Wang, Q. | Mishra, Y. | Xu, J. | Reichert, D.E. | Malik, M. | Taylor, M. | Luedtke, R.R. | Mach, R.H.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters

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Chronic Pain and Health Care Spending: An Analysis of Longitudinal Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Stockbridge, E.L. | Suzuki, S. | Pagán, J.A.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Health Services Research

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Aberrant histone acetylation promotes mitochondrial respiratory suppression in the brain of alcoholic rats

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Jung, M.E. | Metzger, D.B.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

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Determination of thailandepsin B in rat plasma with a LC-MS/MS method

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Cheng, Z. | Ding, L. | Zhang, Y. | Chen, G. | Chen, C. | Cheng, Y.-Q. | Jiang, H.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Bioanalysis

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STRait Razor v2.0: The improved STR Allele Identification Tool-Razor

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Warshauer, D.H. | King, J.L. | Budowle, B.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International: Genetics

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Cerebral regulatory T cells restrain microglia/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via IL-10

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Xie, L. | Choudhury, G.R. | Winters, A. | Yang, S.-H. | Jin, K.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: European Journal of Immunology

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High sensitivity multiplex short tandem repeat loci analyses with massively parallel sequencing

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Zeng, X. | King, J.L. | Stoljarova, M. | Warshauer, D.H. | LaRue, B.L. | Sajantila, A. | Patel, J. | Storts, D.R. | Budowle, B.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International: Genetics

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Urine osmolality in the US population: Implications for environmental biomonitoring

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Yeh, H.-C. | Lin, Y.-S. | Kuo, C.-C. | Weidemann, D. | Weaver, V. | Fadrowski, J. | Neu, A. | Navas-Acien, A.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Environmental Research

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Antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins extracted from Kunlun chrysanthemum flowers

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Jing, S. | Zhang, X. | Yan, L.-J.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

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Measurement properties of the sedentary behavior strategy self-management instrument in African-American breast cancer survivors

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Paxton, R.J. | Gao, Y. | Herrmann, S.D. | Norman, G.J.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: American Journal of Health Behavior

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Lenticular cytoprotection, part 2: Link between glycogen synthase kinase-3β, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and mitochondrial depolarization

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Neelam, S. | Brooks, M.M. | Cammarata, P.R.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Molecular Vision

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Platelet activation after presyncope by lower body negative pressure in humans

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Zaar, M. | Fedyk, C.G. | Pidcoke, H.F. | Scherer, M.R. | Ryan, K.L. | Rickards, C.A. | Hinojosa-Laborde, C. | Convertino, V.A. | Cap, A.P.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: PLoS ONE

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Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) gene deletion induces early onset of age-dependent cataracts in mice

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Wu, H. | Yu, Y. | David, L. | Ho, Y.-S. | Lou, M.F.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Journal of Biological Chemistry

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Cell–cell contact viral transfer contributes to HIV infection and persistence in astrocytes

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Luo, X. | He, J.J.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Journal of NeuroVirology

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Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Fri, 01/30/2015 - 11:31am
Author(s):Liu, Z. | Zhang, X. | Yu, Q. | He, J.J.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

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