Gibson D. Lewis Library

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Syndicate content NCBI pubmed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 2 hours 12 min ago

Risk factors for and assessment of symptomatic pseudarthrosis after lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy in adult spinal deformity.

Thu, 04/23/2015 - 3:29am
Related Articles

Risk factors for and assessment of symptomatic pseudarthrosis after lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy in adult spinal deformity.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Jul 1;39(15):1190-5

Authors: Dickson DD, Lenke LG, Bridwell KH, Koester LA

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes for pseudarthrosis after a lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO).
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There exists no large series that examines pseudarthrosis rates of PSOs.
METHODS: Data of 171 consecutive patients with adult deformity who underwent a lumbar PSO by 2 surgeons at a single institution with a minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed. Pseudarthrosis diagnosed through sagittal malalignment and instrumentation failure noted on radiograph was confirmed intraoperatively.
RESULTS: Eighteen (10.5%) of 171 patients developed pseudarthrosis after a PSO. Eleven of the 18 patients (6.4% of all patients, 61.1% of the 18 patients with pseudarthrosis) had pseudarthrosis at the PSO site, L3 being the most common; other locations included the lumbosacral junction (4/18), thoracolumbar junction (2/18), and upper thoracic spine (1/18). Preoperative pseudarthrosis level was a predictor of the postoperative level of pseudarthrosis (93%). Fifteen of the 18 patients (83%) had no interbody fusion directly above or below the PSO site, 16 (88%) had a history of pseudarthrosis at the time of PSO surgery and 2 of 3 patients who had prior radiation to the lumbar region developed pseudarthrosis. Most pseudarthroses occurred within the first 2 years (n = 13/18), between 2 and 5 years (n = 3/18), and more than 5 years (n = 2/18) postoperatively. Prior pseudarthrosis (P < 0.0001), pseudarthrosis at the PSO site (P < 0.0001), prior decompression in the lumbar region (P = 0.0037), prior radiation to the lumbar region (P < 0.0001), and presence of inflammatory/neurological disorders (P < 0.0036) were identified as risk factors. All 18 patients with pseudarthroses required revision surgery (posterior-only surgery, n = 12; anteroposterior surgery, n = 6) due to loss of sagittal alignment and pain. The mean pre-revision Scoliosis Research Society score was 85, post-revision score was 95 (P = 0.0166), and the mean pre-revision Oswestry Disability Index score was 42.5, post-revision score was 34.5 (P = 0.0203).
CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of pseudarthrosis was 10.5% of which 61% occurred at the actual PSO site and Scoliosis Research Society and Oswestry Disability Index scores improved significantly after pseudarthrosis repair.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

PMID: 25171067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Detergent screening of the human voltage-gated proton channel using fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography.

Thu, 04/23/2015 - 3:29am
Related Articles

Detergent screening of the human voltage-gated proton channel using fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography.

Protein Sci. 2014 Aug;23(8):1136-47

Authors: Agharkar A, Rzadkowolski J, McBroom M, Gonzales EB

Abstract
The human voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1) is a membrane protein consisting of four transmembrane domains and intracellular amino- and carboxy-termini. The protein is activated by membrane depolarization, similar to other voltage-sensitive proteins. However, the Hv1 proton channel lacks a traditional ion pore. The human Hv1 proton channel has been implicated in mediating sperm capacitance, stroke, and most recently as a biomarker/mediator of cancer metastasis. Recently, the three-dimensional structures for homologues of this voltage-gated proton channel were reported. However, it is not clear what artificial environment is needed to facilitate the isolation and purification of the human Hv1 proton channel for structural study. In the present study, we generated a chimeric protein that placed an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the amino-terminus of the human Hv1 proton channel (termed EGFP-Hv1). The chimeric protein was expressed in a baculovirus expression system using Sf9 cells and subjected to detergent screening using fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography. The EGFP-Hv1 proton channel can be solubilized in the zwitterionic detergent Anzergent 3-12 and the nonionic n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) with little protein aggregation and a prominent monomeric protein peak at 48 h postinfection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric protein exhibits a monomeric protein peak, which is distinguishable from protein aggregates, at the final size-exclusion chromatography purification step. Taken together, we can conclude that solubilization in DDM will provide a useable final product for further structural characterization of the full-length human Hv1 proton channel.

PMID: 24863684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neonatal Variables, Altitude of Residence and Aymara Ancestry in Northern Chile.

Wed, 04/22/2015 - 3:29am

Neonatal Variables, Altitude of Residence and Aymara Ancestry in Northern Chile.

PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121834

Authors: Rothhammer F, Fuentes-Guajardo M, Chakraborty R, Lorenzo Bermejo J, Dittmar M

Abstract
Studies performed in the Andean plateau, one of the highest inhabited areas in the world, have reported that reduced availability of oxygen is associated to fetal growth retardation and lower birth weight, which are established predictors of morbidity and mortality during the first year of life. To test this hypothesis, perinatal variables of neonates born at the Juan Noé Hospital of Arica, Chile, were analyzed in relation to altitude of residence and Aymara ancestry of their mothers. The study population comprised the offspring of 5,295 mothers born between February 2004 and August 2010. Information included birth weight, height, head circumference, gestational age, altitude of residence and socioeconomic status, and was obtained from medical records. Mother´s ancestry was assessed based on surnames which were linked to percentages of Aymara admixture estimates relying on 40 selected ancestry informative markers. After correcting for the effect of multicollinearity among predictor variables, neonates born to mothers with an increased component of Aymara ancestry showed significantly higher birth weight and height at sea level, a marginally significant (p-value 0.06) decrease of birth weight and a significant decrease of height with altitude in comparison with the offspring of mothers with low Aymara ancestry. Since observed tendencies are suggestive of a possible genetic adaptation to hypoxia of the Chilean Aymara, we discuss briefly preliminary evidence related to fetal oxygen transport, particularly polymorphisms in the promoters of the HBG1 and HBG2 genes that are modulators of HbF synthesis, obtained in this ethnic group.

PMID: 25885573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inhibition of triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and migration by Annexin A2 antibodies.

Sat, 04/18/2015 - 3:31am
Related Articles

Inhibition of triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and migration by Annexin A2 antibodies.

Br J Cancer. 2014 Dec 9;111(12):2328-41

Authors: Chaudhary P, Thamake SI, Shetty P, Vishwanatha JK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein, is abundantly present at the surface of triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancer cells. Interactions between cell-surface AnxA2 and tyrosine kinase receptors have an important role in the tumour microenvironment and act together to enhance tumour growth. The mechanism supporting this role is still unknown.
METHODS: The membrane function of AnxA2 was blocked by incubating cells with anti-AnxA2 antibodies. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), flow cytometry, Clonogenic, and wound-healing assays were performed in this study.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that AnxA2 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface and has an important role in cancer cell proliferation and migration by modulating EGFR functions. Blocking AnxA2 function at the cell surface by anti-AnxA2 antibody suppressed the EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and internalisation by blocking its homodimerisation. Furthermore, addition of AnxA2 antibody significantly inhibited the EGFR-dependent PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK downstream pathways under both EGF-induced and basal growth conditions, resulting in lower cell proliferation and migration.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that cell-surface AnxA2 has an important regulatory role in EGFR-mediated oncogenic processes by keeping EGFR signalling events in an activated state. Therefore, AnxA2 could potentially be used as a therapeutic target in triple-negative and Herceptin-resistant breast cancers.

PMID: 25321192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diversity of piroplasms detected in blood-fed and questing ticks from several states in the United States.

Sat, 04/18/2015 - 3:31am
Related Articles

Diversity of piroplasms detected in blood-fed and questing ticks from several states in the United States.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Jun;5(4):373-80

Authors: Shock BC, Moncayo A, Cohen S, Mitchell EA, Williamson PC, Lopez G, Garrison LE, Yabsley MJ

Abstract
Piroplasms in the genera Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon are tick-borne parasites that may be animal and human pathogens. Most piroplasms with known life cycles are transmitted by ixodid ticks; however, for many species, the vector is unknown. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and diversity of piroplasms in ticks from several US states. Piroplasm-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to test 1631 ticks from Georgia (n=486), Kentucky (n=103), Pennsylvania (n=1), Tennessee (n=626), and Texas (n=414). Ticks were either questing (n=42) or collected from animals (n=627) or humans (n=962). The 2 primary species tested were Dermacentor variabilis (n=702) and Amblyomma americanum (n=743), but Amblyomma cajennense (n=99), Amblyomma maculatum (n=16), Ixodes scapularis (n=4), I. woodi (n=1), and unidentified Amblyomma spp. nymphs (n=64) were also tested. A low prevalence of piroplasms was detected with 37 (2.3%), 35 (2.1%), and 9 (0.6%) ticks positive for Theileria spp., Babesia spp., or Cytauxzoon felis, respectively. Based on sequence analysis, at least 6 Babesia spp. were detected and 15 of the 35 (41%) Babesia-positive ticks were A. americanum, 19 (56%) were D. variabilis, and one (3%) was an I. scapularis. Nine Babesia-positive ticks were removed from humans from Kentucky (n=1), Georgia (n=2), Texas (n=5), and Pennsylvania (n=1). Three Babesia-positive ticks were questing A. americanum which represents the first report of Babesia-infected questing Amblyomma in the US. Theileria infections were only detected in A. americanum, and all sequences were similar to white-tailed deer associated Theileria spp. C. felis was only detected in D. variabilis. These data suggest that A. americanum may be a vector of Babesia spp., although experimental studies are needed to confirm vector competence. Finally, these data demonstrate a high diversity of piroplasms in both questing and partially fed ticks in the US; although, host-blood meals can be present in non-questing ticks.

PMID: 24709338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning in combination with post-conditioning reduces brain damage and promotes neuroglobin expression in the rat brain after ischemic stroke.

Fri, 04/17/2015 - 3:30am

Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning in combination with post-conditioning reduces brain damage and promotes neuroglobin expression in the rat brain after ischemic stroke.

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Apr 13;

Authors: Ren C, Wang P, Wang B, Li N, Li W, Zhang C, Jin K, Ji X

Abstract
PURPOSE: Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning or post-conditioning has been shown to be neuroprotective after cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the effect of combining remote per-conditioning with post-conditioning on ischemic/reperfusion injury as well as the underlying mechanisms are largely unexplored.
METHODS: Here, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The limb ischemic stimulus was immediately applied after onset of focal ischemia (per-conditioning), followed by repeated short episodes of remote ischemia 24 hr after reperfusion (post-conditioning). The infarct volume, motor function, and the expression of neuroglobin (Ngb) were measured at different durations after reperfusion.
RESULTS: We found that a single episode of limb remote per-conditioning afforded short-term protection, but combining repeated remote post-conditioning during the 14 days after reperfusion significantly ameliorated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, we also found that ischemic per- and post-conditioning significantly increased expression of Ngb, an oxygen-binding globin protein that has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective against stroke, at peri-infarct regions from day 1 to day 14 following ischemia/reperfusion.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the conventional per-conditioning combined with post-conditioning may be used as a novel neuroprotective strategy against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and Ngb seems to be one of the important players in limb remote ischemia-mediated neuroprotection.

PMID: 25868435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) gene deletion induces early onset of age-dependent cataracts in mice.

Fri, 04/17/2015 - 3:30am
Related Articles

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) gene deletion induces early onset of age-dependent cataracts in mice.

J Biol Chem. 2014 Dec 26;289(52):36125-39

Authors: Wu H, Yu Y, David L, Ho YS, Lou MF

Abstract
Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is an isozyme of glutaredoxin1 (thioltransferase) present in the mitochondria and nucleus with disulfide reductase and peroxidase activities, and it controls thiol/disulfide balance in cells. In this study, we investigated whether Grx2 gene deletion could induce faster age-related cataract formation and elucidated the biochemical changes effected by Grx2 gene deletion that may contribute to lens opacity. Slit lamp was used to examine the lenses in Grx2 knock-out (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice ages 1 to 16 months. In the Grx2 null mice, the lens nuclear opacity began at 5 months, 3 months sooner than that of the control mice, and the progression of cataracts was also much faster than the age-matched controls. Lenses of KO mice contained lower levels of protein thiols and GSH with a significant accumulation of S-glutathionylated proteins. Actin, αA-crystallin, and βB2-crystallin were identified by Western blot and mass spectroscopy as the major S-glutathionylated proteins in the lenses of 16-month-old Grx2 KO mice. Compared with the WT control, the lens of Grx2 KO mice had only 50% of the activity in complex I and complex IV and less than 10% of the ATP pool. It was concluded that Grx2 gene deletion altered the function of lens structural proteins through S-glutathionylation and also caused severe disturbance in mitochondrial function. These combined alterations affected lens transparency.

PMID: 25362663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

HIV-1 Tat alters neuronal autophagy by modulating autophagosome fusion to the lysosome: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

Fri, 04/17/2015 - 3:30am
Related Articles

HIV-1 Tat alters neuronal autophagy by modulating autophagosome fusion to the lysosome: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

J Neurosci. 2015 Feb 4;35(5):1921-38

Authors: Fields J, Dumaop W, Elueteri S, Campos S, Serger E, Trejo M, Kosberg K, Adame A, Spencer B, Rockenstein E, He JJ, Masliah E

Abstract
Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in monocyte-derived cells. Despite these findings, the mechanisms leading to dysregulated autophagy in the CNS remain unclear. Here we sought to determine how HIV Tat dysregulates autophagy in neurons. Tat caused a dose-dependent decrease in autophagosome markers, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain β II (LC3II), and sequestosome 1(SQSTM1), in a membrane-enriched fraction, suggesting Tat increases autophagic degradation. Bafilomycin A1 increased autophagosome number, LC3II, and SQSTM1 accumulation; Tat cotreatment diminished this effect. Tat had no effect when 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 blocked early stages of autophagy. Tat increased numbers of LC3 puncta and resulted in the formation of abnormal autophagosomes in vitro. Likewise, in vivo studies in GFAP-Tat tg mice showed increased autophagosome accumulation in neurons, altered LC3II levels, and neurodegeneration. These effects were reversed by rapamycin treatment. Tat colocalized with autophagosome and lysosomal markers and enhanced the colocalization of autophagosome with lysosome markers. Furthermore, co-IP studies showed that Tat interacts with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) in vitro and in vivo, and LAMP2A overexpression reduces Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Hence, Tat protein may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion through interaction with LAMP2A leading to abnormal neuronal autophagy function and dysregulated degradation of critical intracellular components. Therapies targeting Tat-mediated autophagy alterations may decrease neurodegeneration in aging patients with HAND.

PMID: 25653352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Enhancement of anti-tumor effect of particulate vaccine delivery system by 'bacteriomimetic' CpG functionalization of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles.

Wed, 04/15/2015 - 3:29am

Enhancement of anti-tumor effect of particulate vaccine delivery system by 'bacteriomimetic' CpG functionalization of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles.

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015 Mar;10(6):915-929

Authors: Kokate RA, Thamake SI, Chaudhary P, Mott B, Raut S, Vishwanatha JK, Jones HP

Abstract
AIM: Low immunogenicity remains a major obstacle in realizing the full potential of cancer vaccines. In this study, we evaluated CpG-coated tumor antigen (Tag)-encapsulating 'bacteriomimetic' nanoparticles (CpG-nanoparticle [NP]-Tag NPs) as an approach to enhance anti-tumor immunity.
MATERIALS & METHODS: CpG-NP-Tag NPs were synthesized, characterized for their physicochemical properties and tested in vivo.
RESULTS: We found CpG predosing followed by intraperitoneal (IP) immunization with CpG-NP-Tag NPs significantly attenuated tumor growth in female BALB/c mice compared with respective controls. Histopathological and Immunofluorescence data revealed CpG-NP-Tag tumors had lower proliferation, higher apoptotic activity, greater CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration as well as higher IFN-γ levels as compared with control groups.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest CpG-NP-Tag NPs can enhance anti-tumor effect of nanoparticulate tumor vaccination system.

PMID: 25867857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Clinical Outcomes Associated With Serial Sharp Debridement of Diabetic Foot Ulcers With and Without Clostridial Collagenase Ointment.

Tue, 04/14/2015 - 3:29am

Clinical Outcomes Associated With Serial Sharp Debridement of Diabetic Foot Ulcers With and Without Clostridial Collagenase Ointment.

Wounds. 2014 Mar;26(3):57-64

Authors: Motley TA, Lange DL, Dickerson JE, Slade HB

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Fifty-five subjects with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 and a neuropathic, nonischemic foot ulcer were enrolled into this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial designed to examine the effects of debridement with clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) used in conjunction with serial sharp debridement for a period of 6 weeks.
METHODS: Serial sharp debridement without adjunctive CCO was used in the control group. Various standard care therapies thought to support debridement by endogenous proteases were selected at the discretion of the investigators for use in the control group. The primary outcome measure of this trial was the percent change in ulcer area from baseline at the end of the debridement/treatment period (EOT) and at the end of an additional 6 weeks of follow-up (EOS). Secondary objectives were to assess wound status at EOT and EOS using a standardized wound assessment tool, and to compare the average time to closure for ulcers debrided with serial sharp debridement with and without adjunctive CCO.
RESULTS: Wound area decreased relative to baseline for both the CCO group (-68%, -61%) and the control group (-36%, -46%) at EOT and EOS, respectively. While the inter-group differences did not reach statistical significance, wound area was significantly decreased from baseline at both EOT and EOS for the CCO (P < 0.001) but not for the control group. Wound status scores (scale range 8 to 40) improved for both groups during treatment (CCO: -3.5, control: -3.2) and follow-up (CCO: -5.3, control: -6.4). No differences were observed in the number of sharp debridements (CCO: 3.7, control: 4.0). Median time to closure for wounds that healed was 6 weeks for CCO and 8 weeks for control. On average, ulcers treated with serial sharp debridement plus adjunctive CCO decreased in size more rapidly than ulcers treated without adjunctive CCO debridement. No safety issues were identified based on a review of reported adverse events.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest there is more to wound debridement than meets the eye, and establish a foundation for larger, confirmatory studies.

PMID: 25860329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to identify mitochondrial complex I subunits modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE).

Tue, 04/14/2015 - 3:29am

Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to identify mitochondrial complex I subunits modified by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE).

Front Physiol. 2015;6:98

Authors: Wu J, Luo X, Yan LJ

Abstract
The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) can form protein-linked HNE adducts, thereby impacting protein structure and function. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), containing at least 45 subunits in mammalian cells, sits in a lipid-rich environment and is thus very susceptible to HNE modifications. In this paper, a procedure for the identification of HNE-modified complex I subunits is described. Complex I was isolated by first dimensional non-gradient blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The isolated complex I band, visualized by either Coomassie blue staining or silver staining, was further analyzed by second dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). HNE-modified proteins were visualized by Western blotting probed with anti-HNE antibodies. HNE-positive bands were then excised and the proteins contained in them were identified by mass spectrometric peptide sequencing. The method was successfully applied for the identification of two complex I subunits that showed enhanced HNE-modifications in diabetic kidney mitochondria.

PMID: 25859224 [PubMed]

Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage from Statin Use in Asians: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Tue, 04/14/2015 - 3:29am

Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage from Statin Use in Asians: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Circulation. 2015 Apr 9;

Authors: Chang CH, Lin CH, Caffrey JL, Lee YC, Liu YC, Lin JW, Lai MS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: -Reports of statin usage and increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconsistent. This study examined potential associations between statin usage and the risk of ICH in subjects without a prior history of stroke.
METHODS AND RESULTS: -Patients initiating statin therapy between 2005 and 2009 without a prior history of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Participants were stratified by advanced age (≥ 70 years), sex, and diagnosed hypertension. The outcome of interest was hospital admission for ICH (ICD-9-CM codes 430, 431, 432). Cox regression models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ICH. The cumulative statin dosage stratified by quartile and adjusted for baseline disease risk score served as the primary variable using the lowest quartile of cumulative dosage as a reference. There were 1,096,547 statin initiators with an average follow-up of 3.3 years. The adjusted HR for ICH between the highest the lowest quartile was non-significant at 1.06 with a 95% confidence interval [CI] spanning 1.00 (0.94-1.19). Similar non-significant results were found in sensitivity analyses using different outcome definitions or model adjustments, reinforcing the robustness of the study findings. Subgroup analysis identified an excess of ICH frequency in patients without diagnosed hypertension (adjusted HR 1.36 [1.11-1.67]).
CONCLUSIONS: -Generally, no association was observed between cumulative statin use and risk of ICH among subjects without a prior history of stroke. An increased risk was identified among the non-hypertensive cohort, but this finding should be interpreted with caution.

PMID: 25858194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Personalized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: an update of Walters & Neighbors (2005).

Tue, 04/14/2015 - 3:29am
Related Articles

Personalized feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: an update of Walters & Neighbors (2005).

Psychol Addict Behav. 2013 Dec;27(4):909-20

Authors: Miller MB, Leffingwell T, Claborn K, Meier E, Walters S, Neighbors C

Abstract
Personalized drinking feedback is an evidence-based and increasingly common way of intervening with high-risk college drinking. This article extends an earlier review by Walters and Neighbors (S. T. Walters & C. Neighbors, 2005, Feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: What, why, and for whom? Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1168-1182) by reviewing the literature of published studies using personalized feedback as an intervention for heavy drinking among college students. This article updates and extends the original review with a more comprehensive and recent set of 41 studies, most of which were not included in the original article. This article also examines within-subject effect sizes for personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) for high-risk alcohol use and examines the content of PFIs more closely to provide insight on the most essential components that will guide the future development of feedback-based interventions. In general, PFIs appear to be reliably effective at reducing harmful alcohol misuse among college students. Some components are almost universally included (i.e., drinking profile and normative comparison), precluding inferences regarding their unique contribution. Significantly larger effect sizes were observed for interventions that included decisional balance, practical costs, and strategies to limit risks. The present research provides an important empirical foundation for determining the relative contribution of individual components and facets in the efficacy of PFIs.

PMID: 23276309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Acute intermittent optogenetic stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons induces sympathetic long-term facilitation.

Sat, 04/11/2015 - 3:30am
Related Articles

Acute intermittent optogenetic stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons induces sympathetic long-term facilitation.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Feb 15;308(4):R266-75

Authors: Yamamoto K, Lalley P, Mifflin S

Abstract
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces sympathetic and phrenic long-term facilitation (LTF), defined as a sustained increase in nerve discharge. We investigated the effects of AIH and acute intermittent optogenetic (AIO) stimulation of neurons labeled with AAV-CaMKIIa, hChR2(H134R), and mCherry in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically ventilated rats. We measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), phrenic nerve activity (PNA), power spectral density, and coherence, and we made cross-correlation measurements to determine how AIO stimulation and AIH affected synchronization between PNA and RSNA. Sixty minutes after AIH produced by ventilation with 10% oxygen in balanced nitrogen, RSNA and PNA amplitude increased by 80% and by 130%, respectively (P < 0.01). Sixty minutes after AIO stimulation, RSNA and PNA amplitude increased by 60% and 100%, respectively, (P < 0.01). These results suggest that acute intermittent stimulation of NTS neurons can induce renal sympathetic and phrenic LTF in the absence of hypoxia or chemoreceptor afferent activation. We also found that while acute intermittent optogenetic and hypoxic stimulations increased respiration-related RSNA modulation (P < 0.01), they did not increase synchronization between central respiratory drive and RSNA. We conclude that mechanisms that induce LTF originate within the caudal NTS and extend to other interconnecting neuronal elements of the central nervous cardiorespiratory network.

PMID: 25519734 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response.

Fri, 04/10/2015 - 3:29am

Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response.

J Proteome Res. 2015 Apr 8;

Authors: Allen MS, Hurst GB, Lu TY, Perry LM, Pan C, Lankford PK, Pelletier DA

Abstract
Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. To begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σ(RPA4225) (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that ECF σ(RPA4225) and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.

PMID: 25853567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration.

Thu, 04/09/2015 - 3:30am

Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration.

PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123096

Authors: Roy Choudhury G, Winters A, Rich RM, Ryou MG, Gryczynski Z, Yuan F, Yang SH, Liu R

Abstract
Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration.

PMID: 25848957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An overview of the families improving together (FIT) for weight loss randomized controlled trial in african american families.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 7:29am

An overview of the families improving together (FIT) for weight loss randomized controlled trial in african american families.

Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Mar 30;

Authors: Wilson DK, Kitzman-Ulrich H, Resnicow K, Lee Van Horn M, George SM, Rebekah Siceloff E, Alia KA, McDaniel T, Heatley V, Huffman L, Coulon S, Prinz R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents.
DESIGN AND SETTING: The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11-16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M+FWL (Motivational Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M+FWL vs. CHE group) x 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
INTERVENTION: The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback.

PMID: 25835731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lysyl oxidases in the trabecular meshwork.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 7:29am
Related Articles

Lysyl oxidases in the trabecular meshwork.

J Glaucoma. 2014 Oct-Nov;23(8 Suppl 1):S55-8

Authors: Wordinger RJ, Clark AF

Abstract
The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in maintaining cellular function and overall tissue homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that biomechanical modifications of the ECM may be initiators and/or drivers of disease, exemplified by increased tissue stiffness. Specific ECM cross-linking enzymes (tissue transglutaminase, lysyl oxidase, and lysyl oxidase-like 1) are expressed in the trabecular meshwork and are regulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) isoforms. As TGF-β isoforms are elevated in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients, trabecular meshwork stiffness mediated by ECM cross-linking may be responsible for increased aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevated intraocular pressure.

PMID: 25275908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of a novel material, Diomics X-Swab™, for collection of DNA.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 7:29am
Related Articles

Evaluation of a novel material, Diomics X-Swab™, for collection of DNA.

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2014 Sep;12:192-8

Authors: Marshall PL, Stoljarova M, Larue BL, King JL, Budowle B

Abstract
Success of DNA typing is related to the amount of target material recovered from an evidentiary item. Generally, the more DNA that is recovered, the better the chance is of obtaining a typing result that will be robust and reliable. One method of collecting stain materials is by swabbing. Recovery of DNA from a number of commercially available swabs is not an efficient process. The X-Swab™ (Diomics Corporation, La Jolla, CA) is a unique bio-specimen collection material with highly absorptive properties and can be dissolved during certain extraction conditions. Therefore, more DNA may be collected from a substrate and be released from the swab matrix than other swabs. The ability to recover DNA from X-Swab material and success in STR typing were compared with the Copan 4N6FLOQSwab™ (Brescia, Italy), a device which utilizes a proprietary flocked-swab technology to maximize DNA collection and elution efficiency. Both types of swabs were impregnated with known amounts of DNA and body fluids and allowed to air dry. In addition, blood was placed onto glass slides, allowed to dry and collected using both types of swabs. DNA recovery was assessed by DNA quantitation and by STR typing. Results suggested that X-Swab material yielded greater DNA recovery, particularly of low quantity samples (defined as diluted neat samples), compared with the 4N6FLOQSwab. Results also indicated that X-Swab material itself enhances yield of PCR products.

PMID: 25016249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 7:29am
Related Articles

A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2014 Sep;12:155-60

Authors: Marshall PL, Stoljarova M, Schmedes SE, King JL, Budowle B

Abstract
DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.

PMID: 24997320 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Contact Us