Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Maryland Alcohol Sales Tax and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Natural Experiment.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Maryland Alcohol Sales Tax and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Natural Experiment.

Am J Prev Med. 2016 Mar;50(3):e73-80

Authors: Staras SA, Livingston MD, Wagenaar AC

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality, including infertility and certain types of cancer. Alcohol tax increases may decrease sexually transmitted infection rates overall and differentially across population subgroups by decreasing alcohol consumption in general and prior to sex, thus decreasing sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This study investigated the effects of a Maryland increase in alcohol beverage sales tax on statewide gonorrhea and chlamydia rates overall and within age, gender, and race/ethnicity subpopulations.
METHODS: This study used an interrupted time series design, including multiple cross-state comparisons, to examine the effects of the 2011 alcohol tax increase in Maryland on chlamydia and gonorrhea cases reported to the U.S. National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System for January 2003 to December 2012 (N=120 repeated monthly observations, analyzed in 2015). Effects were assessed with Box-Jenkins autoregressive moving average models with structural parameters.
RESULTS: After the alcohol-specific sales tax increase, gonorrhea rates decreased 24% (95% CI=11%, 37%), resulting in 1,600 fewer statewide gonorrhea cases annually. Cohen's d indicated a substantial effect of the tax increase on gonorrhea rates (range across control group models, -1.25 to -1.42). The study did not find evidence of an effect on chlamydia or differential effects across age, race/ethnicity, or gender subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: Results strengthen the evidence from prior studies of alcohol taxes influencing gonorrhea rates and extend health prevention effects from alcohol excise to sales taxes. Alcohol tax increases may be an efficient strategy for reducing sexually transmitted infections.

PMID: 26683415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

World military expenditures and global cardiovascular mortality.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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World military expenditures and global cardiovascular mortality.

J Public Health Policy. 2016 Feb;37(1):20-35

Authors: Brenner MH

Abstract
Can we estimate the consequences of world military expenditures for the physical and mental health of nations that produce and purchase armaments? If anxiety and fear are promoting military expenditures, then those sentiments may well reflect poorer mental health and war-related stress as it influences cardiovascular illness rates. Further, extensive military expenditure by a society implies that other societal needs are allocated fewer resources, including nutrition, water and sanitation, health care, and economic development. We use a model focused on military expenditures to predict cardiovascular mortality in world samples of industrialized and developing countries over 2000-2011. The cardiovascular mortality model controls for economic development, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and carbon dioxide emissions. Military expenditures as proportion of gross domestic product show significant positive relations to cardiovascular disease mortality in linear multiple regression analyses, using both cross-sectional and pooled cross-sectional time-series approaches.

PMID: 26675148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Combination of tolfenamic acid and curcumin induces colon cancer cell growth inhibition through modulating specific transcription factors and reactive oxygen species.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Combination of tolfenamic acid and curcumin induces colon cancer cell growth inhibition through modulating specific transcription factors and reactive oxygen species.

Oncotarget. 2016 Jan 19;7(3):3186-200

Authors: Sankpal UT, Nagaraju GP, Gottipolu SR, Hurtado M, Jordan CG, Simecka JW, Shoji M, El-Rayes B, Basha R

Abstract
Curcumin (Cur) has been extensively studied in several types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC); however its clinical application is greatly affected by low bioavailability. Several strategies to improve the therapeutic response of Cur are being pursued, including its combination with small molecules and drugs. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of Cur in combination with the small molecule tolfenamic acid (TA) in CRC cell lines. TA has been shown to inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, via targeting the transcription factor specificity protein1 (Sp1) and suppressing survivin expression. CRC cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were treated with TA and/or Cur and cell viability was measured 24-72 hours post-treatment. While both agents caused a steady reduction in cell viability, following a clear dose/ time-dependent response, the combination of TA+Cur showed higher growth inhibition when compared to either single agent. Effects on apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry (JC-1 staining to measure mitochondrial membrane potential), Western blot analysis (c-PARP expression) and caspase 3/7 activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured by flow cytometry and the translocation of NF-kB into the nucleus was determined using immunofluorescence. Results showed that apoptotic markers and ROS activity were significantly upregulated following combination treatment, when compared to the individual agents. This was accompanied by decreased expression of Sp1, survivin and NF-kB translocation. The combination of TA+Cur was more effective in HCT116 cells than HT29 cells. These results demonstrate that TA may enhance the anti-proliferative efficacy of Cur in CRC cells.

PMID: 26672603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exercise-Mediated Increase in Nigral Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Accompanied by Increased Nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 Expression in Aging Rats.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Exercise-Mediated Increase in Nigral Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Accompanied by Increased Nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 Expression in Aging Rats.

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2016 Feb 17;7(2):227-39

Authors: Arnold JC, Salvatore MF

Abstract
Exercise may alleviate locomotor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) or aging. Identifying molecular responses immediately engaged by exercise in the nigrostriatal pathway and allied tissue may reveal critical targets associated with its long-term benefits. In aging, there is loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, GFR-α1, in the substantia nigra (SN). Exercise can increase GDNF expression, but its effect on GFR-α1 expression is unknown. Infusion of GDNF into striatum or GFR-α1 in SN, respectively, can increase locomotor activity and TH function in SN but not striatum in aged rats. GDNF may also increase glutamate transporter expression, which attenuates TH loss in PD models. We utilized a footshock-free treadmill exercise regimen to determine the immediate impact of short-term exercise on GFR-α1 expression, dopamine regulation, glutamate transporter expression, and glutamate uptake in 18 month old male Brown-Norway/Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats. GFR-α1 and TH expression significantly increased in SN but not striatum. This exercise regimen did not affect glutamate uptake or glutamate transporter expression in striatum. However, EAAC1 expression increased in SN. These results indicate that nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 expression increased in conjunction with increased nigral TH expression following short-term exercise.

PMID: 26599339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic detection of protein carbonyls derivatized with biotin-hydrazide.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic detection of protein carbonyls derivatized with biotin-hydrazide.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016 Apr 15;1019:128-31

Authors: Wu J, Luo X, Jing S, Yan LJ

Abstract
Protein carbonyls are protein oxidation products that are often used to measure the magnitude of protein oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen species. Protein carbonyls have been found to be elevated during aging and in age-related diseases such as stroke, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present article, we provide detailed protocols for detection of mitochondrial protein carbonyls labeled with biotin-hydrazide followed by 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF)/SDS-PAGE and Western blotting probed with horse-radish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. The presented procedures can also be modified for detection of carbonylation of non-mitochondrial proteins.

PMID: 26590475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Spinal Stabilization Exercise Effectiveness for Low Back Pain in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Randomized Trial.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Spinal Stabilization Exercise Effectiveness for Low Back Pain in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Randomized Trial.

Pediatr Phys Ther. 2015;27(4):396-402

Authors: Zapata KA, Wang-Price SS, Sucato DJ, Thompson M, Trudelle-Jackson E, Lovelace-Chandler V

Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare 8 weeks of weekly supervised spinal stabilization exercises with 1-time treatment in participants with low back pain and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to the supervised or unsupervised group. Seventeen participants in the supervised group received weekly physical therapy, and 17 participants in the unsupervised group received a 1-time treatment followed by home exercises.
RESULTS: Significant between-group differences were found in the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale scores after 8 weeks (P < .01), indicating the supervised group had significantly more pain reduction and functional improvements than the unsupervised group. However, no between-group differences were found in back muscle endurance, the revised Oswestry Back Pain Disability Questionnaire scores, or the Global Rating of Change scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Supervised physical therapy may be more effective than 1-time treatment in reducing pain and improving function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and low back pain.
VIDEO ABSTRACT: For more insights from the authors, access Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/PPT/A85.

PMID: 26397085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Improving diabetic patient transition to home healthcare: leading risk factors for 30-day readmission.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Improving diabetic patient transition to home healthcare: leading risk factors for 30-day readmission.

Am J Manag Care. 2015 Jun;21(6):440-50

Authors: Chen HF, Popoola T, Radhakrishnan K, Suzuki S, Homan S

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of 30-day readmissions due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) for diabetic Medicare home healthcare beneficiaries in order to improve transition from hospital-based care to home healthcare.
STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed diabetic Medicare beneficiaries who received home healthcare within 14 days of hospital discharges in 2009. The unit of analysis is the home health episode for post acute care.
METHODS: The conceptual framework was guided by Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services. Data sources included: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program Supplemental Data File, Provider of Services File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variable was time to first 30-day ACSC-related readmission. Proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: The 30-day ACSC-related readmission rate was approximately 6% in our study sample, costing the Medicare program about $62 million. Predictors of readmissions due to ACSCs within 30 days of hospital discharge were: being aged 75 to 84 years, being an African American, requiring assistance in medication management, and having 1 or more of the following clinical conditions: congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, deficiency anemia, fluid and electrolyte diseases, depression and/or anxiety, and pressure or stasis ulcer. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or renal failure had a 40% higher risk of 30-day ACSC-related readmissions than their counterparts.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the risk factors identified above, hospital providers can improve care planning and transition of care to the home healthcare providers.

PMID: 26168064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Mar;53(2):1254-65

Authors: Cai B, Li W, Mao X, Winters A, Ryou MG, Liu R, Greenberg DA, Wang N, Jin K, Yang SH

Abstract
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

PMID: 25616953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study.

Wed, 12/14/2016 - 07:31
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Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study.

Anat Res Int. 2016;2016:6312027

Authors: Arguello E, Stoddard C, Liu HH, Richardson M, Hartis A

Abstract
Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician's thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51-91 years, and mean age = 76.9) were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94 ± 3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47 ± 3.0 mm) and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32 ± 2.1 mm) and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81 ± 6.8 mm) and 2 thumb widths (37.47 ± 4.7 mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31 ± 14.8 mm) inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46 ± 4.9 mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

PMID: 27957341 [PubMed - in process]

Control of cerebral ischemia with magnetic nanoparticles.

Tue, 12/13/2016 - 16:35

Control of cerebral ischemia with magnetic nanoparticles.

Nat Methods. 2016 Dec 12;:

Authors: Jia JM, Chowdary PD, Gao X, Ci B, Li W, Mulgaonkar A, Plautz EJ, Hassan G, Kumar A, Stowe AM, Yang SH, Zhou W, Sun X, Cui B, Ge WP

Abstract
The precise manipulation of microcirculation in mice can facilitate mechanistic studies of brain injury and repair after ischemia, but this manipulation remains a technical challenge, particularly in conscious mice. We developed a technology that uses micromagnets to induce aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles to reversibly occlude blood flow in microvessels. This allowed induction of ischemia in a specific cortical region of conscious mice of any postnatal age, including perinatal and neonatal stages, with precise spatiotemporal control but without surgical intervention of the skull or artery. When combined with longitudinal live-imaging approaches, this technology facilitated the discovery of a feature of the ischemic cascade: selective loss of smooth muscle cells in juveniles but not adults shortly after onset of ischemia and during blood reperfusion.

PMID: 27941784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The influence of vitamins E and C and exercise on brain aging.

Tue, 12/13/2016 - 16:35

The influence of vitamins E and C and exercise on brain aging.

Exp Gerontol. 2016 Dec 08;:

Authors: Thomas Mock J, Chaudhari K, Sidhu A, Sumien N

Abstract
Age-related declines in motor and cognitive function have been associated with increases in oxidative stress. Accordingly, interventions capable of reducing the oxidative burden would be capable of preventing or reducing functional declines occurring during aging. Popular interventions such as antioxidant intake and moderate exercise are often recommended to attain healthy aging and have the capacity to alter redox burden. This review is intended to summarize the outcomes of antioxidant supplementation (more specifically of vitamins C and E) and exercise training on motor and cognitive declines during aging, and on measures of oxidative stress. Additionally, we will address whether co-implementation of these two types of interventions can potentially further their individual benefits. Together, these studies highlight the importance of using translationally-relevant parameters for interventions and to study their combined outcomes on healthy brain aging.

PMID: 27939444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Comparison and Integration of MiSeq and MinION Platforms for Sequencing Single Source and Mixed Mitochondrial Genomes.

Sat, 12/10/2016 - 13:38
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A Comparison and Integration of MiSeq and MinION Platforms for Sequencing Single Source and Mixed Mitochondrial Genomes.

PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0167600

Authors: Lindberg MR, Schmedes SE, Hewitt FC, Haas JL, Ternus KL, Kadavy DR, Budowle B

Abstract
Single source and multiple donor (mixed) samples of human mitochondrial DNA were analyzed and compared using the MinION and the MiSeq platforms. A generalized variant detection strategy was employed to provide a cursory framework for evaluating the reliability and accuracy of mitochondrial sequences produced by the MinION. The feasibility of long-read phasing was investigated to establish its efficacy in quantitatively distinguishing and deconvolving individuals in a mixture. Finally, a proof-of-concept was demonstrated by integrating both platforms in a hybrid assembly that leverages solely mixture data to accurately reconstruct full mitochondrial genomes.

PMID: 27936026 [PubMed - in process]

Alcohol Use, Hooking-Up, Condom Use: Is There a Sexual Double Standard?

Sat, 12/10/2016 - 13:38
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Alcohol Use, Hooking-Up, Condom Use: Is There a Sexual Double Standard?

Am J Health Behav. 2017 Jan;41(1):92-103

Authors: Penhollow TM, Young M, Nnaka T

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the study were to: (1) identify judgments college students make of peers based on descriptions of drinking, hooking-up, and condom use behaviors; and (2) determine whether participants' judgments differed based on the sex of the person described.
METHODS: Participants (N = 574 college students) completed an online questionnaire that included one of 8 different vignettes (4 vignette types, female or male model). Participants evaluated statements, comprising 3 scales (likability, positive character, negative behavior) relative to the model depicted in the vignette.
RESULTS: For female participants, significant effects for vignette type for all 3 scales and significant effects for model sex (negative behavior) were revealed. Male participants only showed significant effects for vignette type for positive character traits.
CONCLUSIONS: Results should be of value to college level health educators and considered by those involved in drinking behavior and sexual health programming on college campuses.

PMID: 27935795 [PubMed - in process]

Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Purslane Seed Oil.

Fri, 12/09/2016 - 07:34
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Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Purslane Seed Oil.

J Hypertens (Los Angel). 2016 Jun;5(2):

Authors: Guo G, Yue L, Fan S, Jing S, Yan LJ

Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls. The results indicate that PSO significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Our studies suggest that PSO may be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in food preservation and may be potentially useful as a food and cosmetic ingredient. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress can cause hypertension, so PSO is expected to develop a health care products for the prevention and mitigation hypertensive symptoms.

PMID: 27928516 [PubMed - in process]

Markov Mixed Effects Modeling Using Electronic Adherence Monitoring Records Identifies Influential Covariates to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.

Wed, 12/07/2016 - 07:41
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Markov Mixed Effects Modeling Using Electronic Adherence Monitoring Records Identifies Influential Covariates to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Dec 06;:

Authors: Madrasi K, Chaturvedula A, Haberer JE, Sale M, Fossler MJ, Bangsberg D, Baeten JM, Celum C, Hendrix CW

Abstract
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used. This study included once-daily dosing regimens of placebo, oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF in combination with emtricitabine (FTC), administered to HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples. One-coin and first- to third-order Markov models were fit to the data using NONMEM(®) 7.2. Model selection criteria included objective function value (OFV), Akaike information criterion (AIC), visual predictive checks, and posterior predictive checks. Covariates were included based on forward addition (α = 0.05) and backward elimination (α = 0.001). Markov models better described the data than 1-coin models. A third-order Markov model gave the lowest OFV and AIC, but the simpler first-order model was used for covariate model building because no additional benefit on prediction of target measures was observed for higher-order models. Female sex and older age had a positive impact on adherence, whereas Sundays, sexual abstinence, and sex with a partner other than the study partner had a negative impact on adherence. Our findings suggest adherence interventions should consider the role of these factors.

PMID: 27922719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Plantar Shear Stress in Individuals With a History of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: An Emerging Predictive Marker for Foot Ulceration.

Fri, 12/02/2016 - 13:38
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Plantar Shear Stress in Individuals With a History of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: An Emerging Predictive Marker for Foot Ulceration.

Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov 29;:

Authors: Yavuz M, Ersen A, Hartos J, Schwarz B, Garrett AG, Lavery LA, Wukich DK, Adams LS

PMID: 27899495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Common Lung Microbiome Identified among Mechanically Ventilated Surgical Patients.

Wed, 11/30/2016 - 07:37

Common Lung Microbiome Identified among Mechanically Ventilated Surgical Patients.

PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166313

Authors: Smith AD, Zhang Y, Barber RC, Minshall CT, Huebinger RM, Allen MS

Abstract
The examination of the pulmonary microbiome in patients with non-chronic disease states has not been extensively examined. Traditional culture based screening methods are often unable to identify bacteria from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a culture-independent molecular based analysis to determine the microbial composition in the lung of this patient population. For this study, the Ion Torrent PGM system was used to assess the microbial complexity of culture negative bronchoalveolar lavage samples. A group of samples were identified that all displayed high diversity and similar relative abundance of bacteria. This group consisted of Hydrogenophaga, unclassified Bacteroidetes, Pedobacter, Thauera, and Acinetobacter. These bacteria may be representative of a common non-pathogenic pulmonary microbiome associated within this population of patients.

PMID: 27898681 [PubMed - in process]

Biomechanical behavior of novel composite PMMA-CaP bone cements in an anatomically accurate cadaveric vertebroplasty model.

Tue, 11/29/2016 - 07:33

Biomechanical behavior of novel composite PMMA-CaP bone cements in an anatomically accurate cadaveric vertebroplasty model.

J Orthop Res. 2016 Nov 27;:

Authors: Aghyarian S, Hu X, Haddas R, Lieberman IH, Kosmopoulos V, Kim HK, Rodrigues DC

Abstract
Vertebral compression fractures are caused by many factors including trauma and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis induced fractures are a result of loss in bone mass and quality that weaken the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, involving cement augmentation of fractured vertebrae, show promise in restoring vertebral mechanical properties. Some complications however, are reported due to the performance characteristics of commercially available bone cements. In this study, the biomechanical performance characteristics of two novel composite (PMMA-CaP) bone cements were studied using an anatomically accurate human cadaveric vertebroplasty model. The study involves mechanical testing on 2 functional cadaveric spinal unit (2FSU) segments which include monotonic compression and cyclical fatigue tests, treatment by direct cement injection, and microscopic visualization of sectioned vertebrae. The 2FSU segments were fractured, treated, and mechanically tested to investigate the stability provided by two novel bone cements; using readily available commercial acrylic cement as a control. Segment height and stiffness were tracked during the study to establish biomechanical performance. The 2FSU segments were successfully stabilized with all 3 cement groups. Stiffness values were restored to initial levels following fatigue loading. Cement interdigitation was observed with all cement groups. This study demonstrates efficient reinforcement of the fractured vertebrae through stiffness restoration. The pre-mixed composite cements were comparable to the commercial cement in their performance and interdigitative ability, thus holding promise for future clinical use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27891670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The genetic structure of native Americans in North America based on the Globalfiler® STRs.

Tue, 11/29/2016 - 07:33

The genetic structure of native Americans in North America based on the Globalfiler® STRs.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Nov;23:49-54

Authors: McCulloh KL, Ng J, Oldt RF, Weise JA, Viray J, Budowle B, Glenn Smith D, Kanthaswamy S

Abstract
Current forensic STR databases, such as CODIS, lack population genetic data on Native American populations. Information from a geographically diverse array of tribes is necessary to provide improved statistical estimates of the strength of associations with DNA evidence. The Globalfiler® STR markers were used to characterize the genetic structure of ten tribal populations from seven geographic regions in North America, including those not presently represented in forensic databases. Samples from the Arctic region, Baja California, California/Great Basin, the Southeast, Mexico, the Midwest, and the Southwest were analyzed for allele frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosities, and F-statistics. The tribal samples exhibited an FST or θ value above the conservative 0.03 estimate recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) for calculating random match probabilities among Native Americans. The greater differentiation among tribal populations computed here (θ=0.04) warrants the inclusion of additional regional Native American samples into STR databases.

PMID: 27890103 [PubMed - in process]

Redox imbalance and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung.

Sun, 11/27/2016 - 07:32

Redox imbalance and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung.

Redox Biol. 2016 Nov 17;11:51-59

Authors: Wu J, Jin Z, Yan LJ

Abstract
Although the lung is one of the least studied organs in diabetes, increasing evidence indicates that it is an inevitable target of diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes remain largely unexplored. Given that redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in diabetic tissue injury, we set out to investigate mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate NADH/NAD(+) redox status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung. Using STZ induced diabetes in rat as a model, we measured redox-imbalance related parameters including aldose reductase activity, level of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PAPR-1), NAD(+) content, NADPH content, reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and glucose 6-phophate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. For assessment of mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung, we measured the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I to IV and complex V as well as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) content and activity. We also measured the protein content of NAD(+) dependent enzymes such as sirtuin3 (sirt3) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Our results demonstrate that NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance occurs in the diabetic lung. This redox imbalance upregulates the activities of complexes I to IV, but not complex V; and this upregulation is likely the source of increased mitochondrial ROS production, oxidative stress, and cell death in the diabetic lung. These results, together with the findings that the protein contents of DLDH, sirt3, and NQO1 all are decreased in the diabetic lung, demonstrate that redox imbalance, mitochondrial abnormality, and oxidative stress contribute to lung injury in diabetes.

PMID: 27888691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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