Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Subscribe to Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC  feed Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 1 hour 49 min ago

Thymic involution beyond T-cell insufficiency.

Wed, 06/22/2016 - 06:34
Related Articles

Thymic involution beyond T-cell insufficiency.

Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 8;6(26):21777-8

Authors: Coder B, Su DM

PMID: 26318588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Combination of 13 cis-retinoic acid and tolfenamic acid induces apoptosis and effectively inhibits high-risk neuroblastoma cell proliferation.

Tue, 06/21/2016 - 06:31
Related Articles

Combination of 13 cis-retinoic acid and tolfenamic acid induces apoptosis and effectively inhibits high-risk neuroblastoma cell proliferation.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2015 Nov;46:92-9

Authors: Shelake S, Eslin D, Sutphin RM, Sankpal UT, Wadwani A, Kenyon LE, Tabor-Simecka L, Bowman WP, Vishwanatha JK, Basha R

Abstract
Chemotherapeutic regimens used for the treatment of Neuroblastoma (NB) cause long-term side effects in pediatric patients. NB arises in immature sympathetic nerve cells and primarily affects infants and children. A high rate of relapse in high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB) necessitates the development of alternative strategies for effective treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of a small molecule, tolfenamic acid (TA), for enhancing the anti-proliferative effect of 13 cis-retinoic acid (RA) in HRNB cell lines. LA1-55n and SH-SY5Y cells were treated with TA (30μM) or RA (20μM) or both (optimized doses, derived from dose curves) for 48h and tested the effect on cell viability, apoptosis and selected molecular markers (Sp1, survivin, AKT and ERK1/2). Cell viability and caspase activity were measured using the CellTiter-Glo and Caspase-Glo kits. The apoptotic cell population was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V staining. The expression of Sp1, survivin, AKT, ERK1/2 and c-PARP was evaluated by Western blots. The combination therapy of TA and RA resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability (p<0.0001) when compared to individual agents. The anti-proliferative effect is accompanied by a decrease in Sp1 and survivin expression and an increase in apoptotic markers, Annexin-V positive cells, caspase 3/7 activity and c-PARP levels. Notably, TA+RA combination also caused down regulation of AKT and ERK1/2 suggesting a distinct impact on survival and proliferation pathways via signaling cascades. This study demonstrates that the TA mediated inhibition of Sp1 in combination with RA provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the effective treatment of HRNB in children.

PMID: 26287661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The relationship between electronic goal reminders and subsequent drug use and treatment initiation in a criminal justice setting.

Tue, 06/21/2016 - 06:31
Related Articles

The relationship between electronic goal reminders and subsequent drug use and treatment initiation in a criminal justice setting.

Addict Behav. 2015 Dec;51:51-6

Authors: Spohr SA, Taxman FS, Walters ST

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Opportunities to influence behavior through the use of electronic reminders has not been examined in a criminal justice population. The purpose of this study was to assess probationer preferences for short-term goals from a web-based program and evaluate the role of voluntary electronic reminders (e.g., text messaging, email) in achieving early treatment and probation tasks.
METHODS: We used data from drug-involved offenders (n=76) participating in a clinical trial of a 2-session motivational computer program. As part of the program, participants could choose to receive text or email reminders about their probation and treatment goals for the next month. Poisson regression models were utilized to evaluate goal and reminder selection in relation to the days of substance use and treatment attendance at two-month follow-up.
RESULTS: The most common goals were related to probation and treatment tasks, relationships, and cognitive reappraisals. Forty-five percent of probationers elected to receive electronic goal reminders at Session 1 with a slight increase at Session two (49%). Probationers who opted to receive electronic goal reminders at Session one selected significantly more goals on average (M=4.4, SD=2.1) than probationers who did not want reminders (M=3.4, SD=1.8), (t=2.41, p=.019). Reminder selection and total number of goals selected predicted days of substance use and treatment attendance at a two-month follow-up. Probationers who opted not to receive electronic reminders and those who only chose to receive reminders at one visit had more days of substance use compared to those who chose to receive reminders at both visits, 1.66 and 2.31 times respectively. Probationers who chose not to receive electronic reminders attended 56% fewer days of treatment compared to those who chose to receive reminders at both visits.
CONCLUSIONS: People's choice of short-term goals and reminders can provide advance notification of the likelihood of substance use and treatment initiation. Probation systems might use such information to triage at-risk probationers to a higher level of service, before problems have emerged.

PMID: 26217929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Two novel high performing composite PMMA-CaP cements for vertebroplasty: An ex vivo animal study.

Tue, 06/21/2016 - 06:31
Related Articles

Two novel high performing composite PMMA-CaP cements for vertebroplasty: An ex vivo animal study.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015 Oct;50:290-8

Authors: Aghyarian S, Hu X, Lieberman IH, Kosmopoulos V, Kim HK, Rodrigues DC

Abstract
There is a growing body of the literature on new cement formulations that address the shortcomings of PMMA bone cements approved for use in vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP). The present study is a contribution to these efforts by further characterization of two pre-mixed CaP filler-reinforced PMMA bone cements intended for VP; namely, PMMA-HA and PMMA-brushite cements. Each of these cements showed acceptable levels of various properties determined in porcine vertebral bodies. These properties included radiographic contrast, maximum exotherm temperature setting time, cement extravasation, stiffness change after fatigue loading, change of VB height after fracture following fatigue loading, and interdigitation. Each property value was comparable to or better than that for a PMMA bone cement approved for use in BKP. Thus, the results for the composite bone cements are promising.

PMID: 26177392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Temporal Association Between Nonfatal Self-Directed Violence and Tree and Grass Pollen Counts.

Sat, 06/18/2016 - 06:34

Temporal Association Between Nonfatal Self-Directed Violence and Tree and Grass Pollen Counts.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jun 7;

Authors: Jeon-Slaughter H, Claassen CA, Khan DA, Mihalakos P, Lee KB, Brown ES

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Prior research suggests a possible association between pollen and suicide. No studies have examined the relationship between pollen and attempted suicide. This study examines the temporal association between airborne pollen counts and nonfatal suicidal and nonsuicidal self-directed violence (SDV) requiring an emergency department visit.
METHODS: Data on daily emergency department visits due to nonfatal SDV as identified by ICD-9 diagnosis criteria were extracted from emergency department medical records of Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas, between January 2000 and December 2003. Concurrent daily airborne tree, grass, and ragweed pollen data from the city of Dallas were extracted from the National Allergy Bureau online database. The data were analyzed using the time series method of generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant and positive temporal associations between tree pollen counts and the number of nonfatal SDV events among women (P = .04) and between grass pollen counts and number of nonfatal SDV events among both men (P = .03) and women (P < .0001). There was no significant temporal association found between ragweed pollen counts and number of nonfatal SDV events.
CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that an increase in nonfatal SDV is associated with changes in tree and grass pollen counts. This is the first study that has examined an association between seasonal variation in tree and grass pollen levels and nonfatal SDV event data. The study also used a narrowly defined geographic area and temporal window. The findings suggest that pollen count may be a factor influencing seasonal patterns in suicidal behavior.

PMID: 27314288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comparison of Outcomes between Individuals with Pure and Mixed Lupus Nephritis: A Retrospective Study.

Thu, 06/16/2016 - 06:30

Comparison of Outcomes between Individuals with Pure and Mixed Lupus Nephritis: A Retrospective Study.

PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0157485

Authors: Ilori TO, Enofe N, Oommen A, Cobb J, Navarrete J, Adedinsewo DA, Oshikoya O, Fevrier H, Farris AB, Plantinga L, Ojo AO

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Histologic overlap is relatively common in the six pathologic classes (I to VI) of LN. For example, mixed proliferative LN (MPLN) often includes features of classes III & V or classes IV & V combined. We performed a comparative evaluation of renal outcomes in patients with MPLN to patients with pure proliferative LN (PPLN) against pre-specified renal outcomes, and we also identified predictor of clinical outcomes among those with PPLN and MPLN.
HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with MPLN will have worse short-term renal outcomes compared to those with PPLN.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 278 adult LN patients (≥18 years old) identified from an Emory University Hospital registry of native renal biopsies performed between January 2000 and December 2011. The final analytic sample consisted of individuals with a diagnosis of PPLN (n = 60) and MPLN (n = 96). We analyzed differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics at baseline. We also assessed associations between LN category and renal outcomes (complete remission and time to ESRD) with logistic and Cox proportional hazards models within two years of baseline.
RESULTS: The study population was predominantly female (83.97%) and African American (71.8%) with a mean age of 33.4 years at baseline. Over a median follow up of 1.02 years, we did not find any statistically significant associations between MPLN and the development of ESRD or remission when compared to patients with PPLN (adjusted HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.26).
CONCLUSION: There was no association between mixed or pure histopathologic features of LN at presentation and rate of complete or partial remission but higher baseline eGFR was associated with a lower probability of complete remission among patients with lupus nephritis.

PMID: 27304068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cerebral blood velocity regulation during progressive blood loss compared with lower body negative pressure in humans.

Thu, 06/16/2016 - 06:30
Related Articles

Cerebral blood velocity regulation during progressive blood loss compared with lower body negative pressure in humans.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Sep 15;119(6):677-85

Authors: Rickards CA, Johnson BD, Harvey RE, Convertino VA, Joyner MJ, Barnes JN

Abstract
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is often used to simulate blood loss in humans. It is unknown if cerebral blood flow responses to actual blood loss are analogous to simulated blood loss during LBNP. Nine healthy men were studied at baseline, during three levels of LBNP (5 min at -15, -30, and -45 mmHg), and during three levels of blood loss (333, 667, and 1,000 ml). LBNP and blood loss conditions were randomized. Intra-arterial mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP was similar to that during blood loss (P ≥ 0.42). Central venous pressure (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 4.0 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8, and 0.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.1 ± 0.9 mmHg for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P ≤ 0.003) and stroke volume (71 ± 4 vs. 80 ± 3, 60 ± 3 vs. 74 ± 3, and 51 ± 2 vs. 68 ± 4 ml for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P ≤ 0.002) were lower during LBNP than blood loss. Despite differences in central venous pressure, middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) and cerebrovascular conductance were similar between LBNP and blood loss at each level (MCAv at level 3: 62 ± 6 vs. 66 ± 5 cm/s, P = 0.37; cerebrovascular conductance at level 3: 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.73 ± 0.05 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.53). While the slope of the MAP-MCAv relationship was slightly different between LBNP and blood loss (0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.66 ± 0.04 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively, P = 0.05), time domain gain between MAP and MCAv at maximal LBNP/blood loss (P = 0.23) and low-frequency MAP-mean MCAv transfer function coherence, gain, and phase were similar (P ≥ 0.10). Our results suggest that cerebral hemodynamic responses to LBNP to -45 mmHg and blood loss up to 1,000 ml follow a similar trajectory, and the arterial pressure-cerebral blood velocity relationship is not altered from baseline under these conditions.

PMID: 26139213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The US Cancer Moonshot initiative.

Wed, 06/15/2016 - 06:33

The US Cancer Moonshot initiative.

Lancet Oncol. 2016 May;17(5):e178-e180

Authors: Aelion CM, Airhihenbuwa CO, Alemagno S, Amler RW, Arnett DK, Balas A, Bertozzi S, Blakely CH, Boerwinkle E, Brandt-Rauf P, Buekens PM, Chandler GT, Chang RW, Clark JE, Cleary PD, Curran JW, Curry SJ, Roux AV, Dittus R, Ellerbeck EF, El-Mohandes A, Eriksen MP, Erwin PC, Evans G, Finnegan JR, Fried LP, Frumkin H, Galea S, Goff DC, Goldman LR, Guilarte TR, Rivera-Gutiérrez R, Halverson PK, Hand GA, Harris CM, Healton CG, Hennig N, Heymann J, Hunter D, Hwang W, Jones RM, Klag MJ, Klesges LM, Lahey T, Lawlor EF, Maddock J, Martin WJ, Mazzaschi AJ, Michael M, Mohammed SD, Nasca PC, Nash D, Ogunseitan OA, Perez RA, Perri M, Petersen DJ, Peterson DV, Philbert M, Pinto-Martin J, Raczynski JM, Raskob GE, Rimer BK, Rohrbach LA, Rudkin LL, Siminoff L, Szapocznik J, Thombs D, Torabi MR, Weiler RM, Wetle TF, Williams PL, Wykoff R, Ying J

PMID: 27301041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Increased Global DNA Methylation and Decreased TGFβ1 Promoter Methylation in Glaucomatous Lamina Cribrosa Cells.

Wed, 06/15/2016 - 06:33

Increased Global DNA Methylation and Decreased TGFβ1 Promoter Methylation in Glaucomatous Lamina Cribrosa Cells.

J Glaucoma. 2016 Jun 13;

Authors: McDonnell FS, McNally SA, Clark AF, O'Brien CJ, Wallace DM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that affects 60 million people worldwide. There is an underlying fibrosis associated with the lamina cribrosa (LC) in glaucoma. DNA methylation is well established in regulating fibrosis and may be a therapeutic target for glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to compare global DNA methylation levels in primary human normal (NLC) and glaucomatous (GLC) cells, and to investigate DNA methylation in driving fibrosis through regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LC cells were cultured from normal and glaucomatous human donors. Global methylation was assessed by ELISA. qPCR was conducted for DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), TGFβ 1 and 2, collagen 1α1 (COL1A1), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). TGFβ1 and DNMT1 were examined by immunofluorescence. Methylation of the TGFβ1 promoter was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
RESULTS: Global DNA methylation demonstrated an increase in GLC compared with NLC cells (P<0.05). The previously mentioned methylation and matrix genes were increased in GLC compared with NLC cells (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence showed increased TGFβ1 and DNMT1 in GLC compared with NLC cells. MSP showed increased unmethylated DNA in the TGFβ1 promoter of GLC compared with NLC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We found increased expression of fibrotic genes in GLC cells and demonstrated an increase in global DNA methylation and in associated enzymes in GLC cells. Furthermore, we showed decreased promoter methylation of TGFβ1 in GLC cells. Determining a role for methylation in glaucoma and in regulating TGFβ1 may provide a novel therapeutic approach.

PMID: 27300643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resolving the etiology of atopic disorders by using genetic analysis of racial ancestry.

Wed, 06/15/2016 - 06:33

Resolving the etiology of atopic disorders by using genetic analysis of racial ancestry.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jun 10;

Authors: Gupta J, Johansson E, Bernstein JA, Chakraborty R, Khurana Hershey GK, Rothenberg ME, Mersha TB

Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD), food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma are common atopic disorders of complex etiology. The frequently observed atopic march from early AD to asthma, allergic rhinitis, or both later in life and the extensive comorbidity of atopic disorders suggest common causal mechanisms in addition to distinct ones. Indeed, both disease-specific and shared genomic regions exist for atopic disorders. Their prevalence also varies among races; for example, AD and asthma have a higher prevalence in African Americans when compared with European Americans. Whether this disparity stems from true genetic or race-specific environmental risk factors or both is unknown. Thus far, the majority of the genetic studies on atopic diseases have used populations of European ancestry, limiting their generalizability. Large-cohort initiatives and new analytic methods, such as admixture mapping, are currently being used to address this knowledge gap. Here we discuss the unique and shared genetic risk factors for atopic disorders in the context of ancestry variations and the promise of high-throughput "-omics"-based systems biology approach in providing greater insight to deconstruct their genetic and nongenetic etiologies. Future research will also focus on deep phenotyping and genotyping of diverse racial ancestry, gene-environment, and gene-gene interactions.

PMID: 27297995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Involvement of AMPA Receptor and Its Flip and Flop Isoforms in Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation.

Wed, 06/15/2016 - 06:33
Related Articles

Involvement of AMPA Receptor and Its Flip and Flop Isoforms in Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Feb;57(2):508-26

Authors: Park YH, Broyles HV, He S, McGrady NR, Li L, Yorio T

Abstract
PURPOSE: The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR) subunits can be posttranscriptionally modified by alternative splicing forming flip and flop isoforms. We determined if an ischemia-like insult to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) increases AMPAR susceptibility to s-AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity through changes in posttranscriptional modified isoforms.
METHODS: Purified neonatal rat RGCs were subjected to either glucose deprivation (GD) or oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions followed by treatment with either 100 μM s-AMPA or Kainic acid. A live-dead assay and caspase 3 assay was used to assess cell viability and apoptotic changes, respectively. We used JC-1 dye and dihydroethidium to measure mitochondria depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Calcium imaging with fura-2AM was used to determine intracellular calcium, while the fluorescently-labeled probe, Nanoprobe1, was used to detect calcium-permeable AMPARs. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was done to determine RNA editing sites AMPAR isoforms.
RESULTS: Glucose deprivation, as well as an OGD insult followed by AMPAR stimulation, produced a significant increase in RGC death. Retinal ganglion cell death was independent of caspase 3/7 activity, but was accompanied by increased mitochondrial depolarization and increased ROS production. This was associated with an elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and calcium permeable-AMPARs. The mRNA expression of GLUA2 and GLUA3 flop isoform decreased significantly, while no appreciable changes were found in the corresponding flip isoforms. There were no changes in the Q/R editing of GLUA2, while R/G editing of GLUA2 flop declined under these conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Following oxidative injury, RGCs become more susceptible to AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity. RNA editing and changes in alternative spliced flip and flop isoforms of AMPAR subunits may contribute to increased RGC death.

PMID: 26868754 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MicroRNA-124 Targets Tip110 Expression and Regulates Hematopoiesis.

Wed, 06/15/2016 - 06:33
Related Articles

MicroRNA-124 Targets Tip110 Expression and Regulates Hematopoiesis.

Stem Cells Dev. 2015 Sep 1;24(17):2009-17

Authors: Liu Y, Huang X, Timani KA, Broxmeyer HE, He JJ

Abstract
MicroRNA (miR) regulates hematopoiesis through targeting different genes post-transcriptionally. We have recently shown that Tip110 expression is downregulated during hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. In this study, we identified a conserved miR-124-binding site on the Tip110 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and showed that Tip110 was downregulated by miR-124 through its 3'-UTR. We then examined the relationship among miR-124 and Tip110 expression and differentiation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells. We found that miR-124 was expressed in a low level in human cord blood CD34(+) cells, but it was considerably upregulated during culturing and differentiation of these cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-124 expression decreased Tip110 expression and promoted differentiation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells, while miR-124 knockdown increased Tip110 expression, slowed down differentiation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells, and caused an expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. Finally, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Tip110 transgenic mice, performed the exon array analysis, and found that Tip110 altered a number of genes in the hematopoiesis pathways. Dnmt3a as de novo methyltransferase was also significantly upregulated. That miR-124 was markedly upregulated during human cord blood CD34(+) cell differentiation could be the result of direct loss of its promoter methylation from Dnmt3a. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-124 regulates Tip110 expression and differentiation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells and suggests important roles of miR-124/Tip110 in hematopoiesis.

PMID: 25928721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

Tue, 06/14/2016 - 06:30
Related Articles

Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

Scientifica (Cairo). 2016;2016:3201678

Authors: Downey MW, Duncan K, Kosmopoulos V, Motley TA, Carpenter BB, Ogunyankin F, Garrett A

Abstract
The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB) has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB) technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing). The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288.

PMID: 27293969 [PubMed]

Homelessness and ED use: myths and facts- the author's reply.

Tue, 06/14/2016 - 06:30
Related Articles

Homelessness and ED use: myths and facts- the author's reply.

Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Feb;34(2):307-8

Authors: Wang H, Nejtek VA, Robinson RD

PMID: 26589465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trileaflet Mitral Valve with Three Papillary Muscles Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Novel Case.

Tue, 06/14/2016 - 06:30
Related Articles

Trileaflet Mitral Valve with Three Papillary Muscles Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Novel Case.

Echocardiography. 2015 Sep;32(9):1435-7

Authors: Rosanio S, Simonsen CJ, Starwalt J, Keylani AM, Vitarelli A

Abstract
Congenital mitral valve (MV) malformations are uncommon, except for MV prolapse. Despite their infrequency, most of them are well-known and defined entities, such as congenital MV stenosis with two papillary muscles, parachute MV, supravalvular mitral ring, hypoplastic MV, isolated cleft in the anterior and/or posterior leaflets, and double-orifice MV. A trileaflet MV with three separate papillary muscles with concordant atrioventricular and ventricle-arterial connections is exceptionally rare. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it has been reported only once in association with subaortic valvular stenosis. We hereby describe a novel case associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

PMID: 25809503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36

Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Jun 8;:ajpregu.00085.2016

Authors: Huber DA, Schreihofer AM

Abstract
Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex, and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared to lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic SNA (79% and 45% larger in OZR respectively, P<0.05) and MAP in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed adult OZR compared to LZR. After elimination of baroreflex feedback by pharmacological prevention of changes in MAP and heart rate, these two sympathoexcitatory reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger respectively, P<0.05). In adult OZR microinjections of glutamate, AMPA, or NMDA into the RVLM produced larger rises in SNA (~61% larger in OZR, P<0.05 for each drug) and MAP, but stimulation of axonal fibers in the upper thoracic spinal cord yielded equivalent responses in OZR and LZR. In juvenile OZR and LZR, sympathoexcitatory reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes.

PMID: 27280427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Role of Presenilin-1 in the Excitatory Stress of Ethanol Withdrawal.

Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36

The Role of Presenilin-1 in the Excitatory Stress of Ethanol Withdrawal.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016 Jun 8;

Authors: Jung ME, Metzger DB, Das HK

Abstract
Presenilin-1 (PS1) is a core component of γ-secretase that is involved in neurodegeneration. We have previously shown that PS1 interacts with a MAPK (JNK), and another MAPK (p38) is activated by ethanol withdrawal (EW), abrupt termination from chronic ethanol-exposure. EW is excitotoxic in nature, induces glutamate upregulation, and provokes neuronal damage. Here, we explored a potential mechanistic pathway involving glutamate, p38 (p38α isozyme), and PS1 that may mediate EW-induced excitotoxic stress. We used the prefrontal cortex of male rats withdrawn from a chronic ethanol diet. Additionally, we used ethanol withdrawn HT22 cells (mouse hippocampal) treated with the inhibitor of glutamate receptors (MK-801), p38α (SB203580), or γ-secretase (DAPT) during EW. Separately, ethanol-free HT22 cells were exposed to glutamate with or without SB203580 or DAPT. Protein levels, mRNA levels, and cell viability were assessed using immunoblotting, q-PCR, and Calcein assay, respectively. The prefrontal cortex of ethanol withdrawn rats or HT22 cells showed an increase in PS1 and p38α, which was attenuated by MK-801 and SB203580, but mimicked by glutamate treatment to ethanol-free HT22 cells. DAPT attenuated the toxic effect of EW or glutamate on HT22 cells. These results suggest that PS1 expression is triggered by glutamate through p38α, contributing to the excitotoxic stimulus of EW.

PMID: 27278235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

HIV-1 and alcohol abuse promote astrocyte inflammation: A mechanistic synergy via the cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathway.

Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
Related Articles

HIV-1 and alcohol abuse promote astrocyte inflammation: A mechanistic synergy via the cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathway.

Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e2017

Authors: Pandey R, Ghorpade A

PMID: 26658191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interaction of astrocytes and T cells in physiological and pathological conditions.

Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
Related Articles

Interaction of astrocytes and T cells in physiological and pathological conditions.

Brain Res. 2015 Oct 14;1623:63-73

Authors: Xie L, Yang SH

Abstract
The central nervous system (CNS) has long been recognized as a site of 'immune privilege' because of the existence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which presumably isolates CNS from the peripheral immunosurveillance. Different from the peripheral organs, CNS is unique in response to all forms of CNS injury and disease which is mainly mediated by resident microglia and astrocyte. There is increasing evidence that immune cells are not only involved in neuroinflammation process but also the maintenance of CNS homeostasis. T cells, an important immune cell population, are involved in the pathogenesis of some neurological diseases by inducing either innate or adaptive immune responses. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cell type in the CNS, maintain the integrity of BBB and actively participate in the initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Surprisingly, how astrocytes and T cells interact and the consequences of their interaction are not clear. In this review we briefly summarized T cells diversity and astrocyte function. Then, we examined the evidence for the astrocytes and T cells interaction under physiological and pathological conditions including ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, viral infection, and Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke.

PMID: 25813828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Coupling of neurogenesis and angiogenesis after ischemic stroke.

Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
Related Articles

Coupling of neurogenesis and angiogenesis after ischemic stroke.

Brain Res. 2015 Oct 14;1623:166-73

Authors: Ruan L, Wang B, ZhuGe Q, Jin K

Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and severe long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatment or new therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke patients is therefore crucial. Ischemic stroke promotes neurogenesis by several growth factors including FGF-2, IGF-1, BDNF, VEGF and chemokines including SDF-1, MCP-1. Stroke-induced angiogenesis is similarly regulated by many factors most notably, eNOS and CSE, VEGF/VEGFR2, and Ang-1/Tie2. Important findings in the last decade have revealed that neurogenesis is not the stand-alone consideration in the fight for full functional recovery from stroke. Angiogenesis has been also shown to be critical in improving post-stroke neurological functional recovery. More than that, recent evidence has shown a highly possible interplay or dependence between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Moving forward, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of this coupling between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis will be of great importance, which will provide the basis for neurorestorative therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke.

PMID: 25736182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pages