Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 49 min 50 sec ago

Improving diabetic patient transition to home healthcare: leading risk factors for 30-day readmission.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Improving diabetic patient transition to home healthcare: leading risk factors for 30-day readmission.

Am J Manag Care. 2015 Jun;21(6):440-50

Authors: Chen HF, Popoola T, Radhakrishnan K, Suzuki S, Homan S

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of 30-day readmissions due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) for diabetic Medicare home healthcare beneficiaries in order to improve transition from hospital-based care to home healthcare.
STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed diabetic Medicare beneficiaries who received home healthcare within 14 days of hospital discharges in 2009. The unit of analysis is the home health episode for post acute care.
METHODS: The conceptual framework was guided by Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services. Data sources included: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program Supplemental Data File, Provider of Services File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variable was time to first 30-day ACSC-related readmission. Proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: The 30-day ACSC-related readmission rate was approximately 6% in our study sample, costing the Medicare program about $62 million. Predictors of readmissions due to ACSCs within 30 days of hospital discharge were: being aged 75 to 84 years, being an African American, requiring assistance in medication management, and having 1 or more of the following clinical conditions: congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, deficiency anemia, fluid and electrolyte diseases, depression and/or anxiety, and pressure or stasis ulcer. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or renal failure had a 40% higher risk of 30-day ACSC-related readmissions than their counterparts.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the risk factors identified above, hospital providers can improve care planning and transition of care to the home healthcare providers.

PMID: 26168064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

Thu, 12/15/2016 - 07:32
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Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Mar;53(2):1254-65

Authors: Cai B, Li W, Mao X, Winters A, Ryou MG, Liu R, Greenberg DA, Wang N, Jin K, Yang SH

Abstract
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

PMID: 25616953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study.

Wed, 12/14/2016 - 07:31
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Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study.

Anat Res Int. 2016;2016:6312027

Authors: Arguello E, Stoddard C, Liu HH, Richardson M, Hartis A

Abstract
Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician's thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51-91 years, and mean age = 76.9) were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94 ± 3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47 ± 3.0 mm) and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32 ± 2.1 mm) and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81 ± 6.8 mm) and 2 thumb widths (37.47 ± 4.7 mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31 ± 14.8 mm) inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46 ± 4.9 mm) lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

PMID: 27957341 [PubMed - in process]

Control of cerebral ischemia with magnetic nanoparticles.

Tue, 12/13/2016 - 16:35

Control of cerebral ischemia with magnetic nanoparticles.

Nat Methods. 2016 Dec 12;:

Authors: Jia JM, Chowdary PD, Gao X, Ci B, Li W, Mulgaonkar A, Plautz EJ, Hassan G, Kumar A, Stowe AM, Yang SH, Zhou W, Sun X, Cui B, Ge WP

Abstract
The precise manipulation of microcirculation in mice can facilitate mechanistic studies of brain injury and repair after ischemia, but this manipulation remains a technical challenge, particularly in conscious mice. We developed a technology that uses micromagnets to induce aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles to reversibly occlude blood flow in microvessels. This allowed induction of ischemia in a specific cortical region of conscious mice of any postnatal age, including perinatal and neonatal stages, with precise spatiotemporal control but without surgical intervention of the skull or artery. When combined with longitudinal live-imaging approaches, this technology facilitated the discovery of a feature of the ischemic cascade: selective loss of smooth muscle cells in juveniles but not adults shortly after onset of ischemia and during blood reperfusion.

PMID: 27941784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The influence of vitamins E and C and exercise on brain aging.

Tue, 12/13/2016 - 16:35

The influence of vitamins E and C and exercise on brain aging.

Exp Gerontol. 2016 Dec 08;:

Authors: Thomas Mock J, Chaudhari K, Sidhu A, Sumien N

Abstract
Age-related declines in motor and cognitive function have been associated with increases in oxidative stress. Accordingly, interventions capable of reducing the oxidative burden would be capable of preventing or reducing functional declines occurring during aging. Popular interventions such as antioxidant intake and moderate exercise are often recommended to attain healthy aging and have the capacity to alter redox burden. This review is intended to summarize the outcomes of antioxidant supplementation (more specifically of vitamins C and E) and exercise training on motor and cognitive declines during aging, and on measures of oxidative stress. Additionally, we will address whether co-implementation of these two types of interventions can potentially further their individual benefits. Together, these studies highlight the importance of using translationally-relevant parameters for interventions and to study their combined outcomes on healthy brain aging.

PMID: 27939444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Comparison and Integration of MiSeq and MinION Platforms for Sequencing Single Source and Mixed Mitochondrial Genomes.

Sat, 12/10/2016 - 13:38
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A Comparison and Integration of MiSeq and MinION Platforms for Sequencing Single Source and Mixed Mitochondrial Genomes.

PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0167600

Authors: Lindberg MR, Schmedes SE, Hewitt FC, Haas JL, Ternus KL, Kadavy DR, Budowle B

Abstract
Single source and multiple donor (mixed) samples of human mitochondrial DNA were analyzed and compared using the MinION and the MiSeq platforms. A generalized variant detection strategy was employed to provide a cursory framework for evaluating the reliability and accuracy of mitochondrial sequences produced by the MinION. The feasibility of long-read phasing was investigated to establish its efficacy in quantitatively distinguishing and deconvolving individuals in a mixture. Finally, a proof-of-concept was demonstrated by integrating both platforms in a hybrid assembly that leverages solely mixture data to accurately reconstruct full mitochondrial genomes.

PMID: 27936026 [PubMed - in process]

Alcohol Use, Hooking-Up, Condom Use: Is There a Sexual Double Standard?

Sat, 12/10/2016 - 13:38
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Alcohol Use, Hooking-Up, Condom Use: Is There a Sexual Double Standard?

Am J Health Behav. 2017 Jan;41(1):92-103

Authors: Penhollow TM, Young M, Nnaka T

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the study were to: (1) identify judgments college students make of peers based on descriptions of drinking, hooking-up, and condom use behaviors; and (2) determine whether participants' judgments differed based on the sex of the person described.
METHODS: Participants (N = 574 college students) completed an online questionnaire that included one of 8 different vignettes (4 vignette types, female or male model). Participants evaluated statements, comprising 3 scales (likability, positive character, negative behavior) relative to the model depicted in the vignette.
RESULTS: For female participants, significant effects for vignette type for all 3 scales and significant effects for model sex (negative behavior) were revealed. Male participants only showed significant effects for vignette type for positive character traits.
CONCLUSIONS: Results should be of value to college level health educators and considered by those involved in drinking behavior and sexual health programming on college campuses.

PMID: 27935795 [PubMed - in process]

Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Purslane Seed Oil.

Fri, 12/09/2016 - 07:34
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Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Purslane Seed Oil.

J Hypertens (Los Angel). 2016 Jun;5(2):

Authors: Guo G, Yue L, Fan S, Jing S, Yan LJ

Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls. The results indicate that PSO significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Our studies suggest that PSO may be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in food preservation and may be potentially useful as a food and cosmetic ingredient. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress can cause hypertension, so PSO is expected to develop a health care products for the prevention and mitigation hypertensive symptoms.

PMID: 27928516 [PubMed - in process]

Markov Mixed Effects Modeling Using Electronic Adherence Monitoring Records Identifies Influential Covariates to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.

Wed, 12/07/2016 - 07:41
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Markov Mixed Effects Modeling Using Electronic Adherence Monitoring Records Identifies Influential Covariates to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Dec 06;:

Authors: Madrasi K, Chaturvedula A, Haberer JE, Sale M, Fossler MJ, Bangsberg D, Baeten JM, Celum C, Hendrix CW

Abstract
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used. This study included once-daily dosing regimens of placebo, oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF in combination with emtricitabine (FTC), administered to HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples. One-coin and first- to third-order Markov models were fit to the data using NONMEM(®) 7.2. Model selection criteria included objective function value (OFV), Akaike information criterion (AIC), visual predictive checks, and posterior predictive checks. Covariates were included based on forward addition (α = 0.05) and backward elimination (α = 0.001). Markov models better described the data than 1-coin models. A third-order Markov model gave the lowest OFV and AIC, but the simpler first-order model was used for covariate model building because no additional benefit on prediction of target measures was observed for higher-order models. Female sex and older age had a positive impact on adherence, whereas Sundays, sexual abstinence, and sex with a partner other than the study partner had a negative impact on adherence. Our findings suggest adherence interventions should consider the role of these factors.

PMID: 27922719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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