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HIV-1 and alcohol abuse promote astrocyte inflammation: A mechanistic synergy via the cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathway.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
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HIV-1 and alcohol abuse promote astrocyte inflammation: A mechanistic synergy via the cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathway.

Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e2017

Authors: Pandey R, Ghorpade A

PMID: 26658191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interaction of astrocytes and T cells in physiological and pathological conditions.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
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Interaction of astrocytes and T cells in physiological and pathological conditions.

Brain Res. 2015 Oct 14;1623:63-73

Authors: Xie L, Yang SH

Abstract
The central nervous system (CNS) has long been recognized as a site of 'immune privilege' because of the existence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which presumably isolates CNS from the peripheral immunosurveillance. Different from the peripheral organs, CNS is unique in response to all forms of CNS injury and disease which is mainly mediated by resident microglia and astrocyte. There is increasing evidence that immune cells are not only involved in neuroinflammation process but also the maintenance of CNS homeostasis. T cells, an important immune cell population, are involved in the pathogenesis of some neurological diseases by inducing either innate or adaptive immune responses. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cell type in the CNS, maintain the integrity of BBB and actively participate in the initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Surprisingly, how astrocytes and T cells interact and the consequences of their interaction are not clear. In this review we briefly summarized T cells diversity and astrocyte function. Then, we examined the evidence for the astrocytes and T cells interaction under physiological and pathological conditions including ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, viral infection, and Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke.

PMID: 25813828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Coupling of neurogenesis and angiogenesis after ischemic stroke.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
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Coupling of neurogenesis and angiogenesis after ischemic stroke.

Brain Res. 2015 Oct 14;1623:166-73

Authors: Ruan L, Wang B, ZhuGe Q, Jin K

Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and severe long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatment or new therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke patients is therefore crucial. Ischemic stroke promotes neurogenesis by several growth factors including FGF-2, IGF-1, BDNF, VEGF and chemokines including SDF-1, MCP-1. Stroke-induced angiogenesis is similarly regulated by many factors most notably, eNOS and CSE, VEGF/VEGFR2, and Ang-1/Tie2. Important findings in the last decade have revealed that neurogenesis is not the stand-alone consideration in the fight for full functional recovery from stroke. Angiogenesis has been also shown to be critical in improving post-stroke neurological functional recovery. More than that, recent evidence has shown a highly possible interplay or dependence between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Moving forward, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of this coupling between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis will be of great importance, which will provide the basis for neurorestorative therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke.

PMID: 25736182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Postmortem medicolegal genetic diagnostics also require reporting guidance.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 06/10/2016 - 06:36
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Postmortem medicolegal genetic diagnostics also require reporting guidance.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2016 Mar;24(3):329-30

Authors: Sajantila A, Budowle B

PMID: 25469540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exfoliative Excrement.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33

Exfoliative Excrement.

JAMA Dermatol. 2016 Jun 1;152(6):701

Authors: Roman J, Reynolds SD

PMID: 27276354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sources and implications of NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33

Sources and implications of NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2016;9:145-153

Authors: Wu J, Jin Z, Zheng H, Yan LJ

Abstract
NAD(+) is a fundamental molecule in metabolism and redox signaling. In diabetes and its complications, the balance between NADH and NAD(+) can be severely perturbed. On one hand, NADH is overproduced due to influx of hyperglycemia to the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways and activation of the polyol pathway. On the other hand, NAD(+) can be diminished or depleted by overactivation of poly ADP ribose polymerase that uses NAD(+) as its substrate. Moreover, sirtuins, another class of enzymes that also use NAD(+) as their substrate for catalyzing protein deacetylation reactions, can also affect cellular content of NAD(+). Impairment of NAD(+) regeneration enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and complex I in mitochondria can also contribute to NADH accumulation and NAD(+) deficiency. The consequence of NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance is initially reductive stress that eventually leads to oxidative stress and oxidative damage to macromolecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. Accordingly, redox imbalance-triggered oxidative damage has been thought to be a major factor contributing to the development of diabetes and its complications. Future studies on restoring NADH/NAD(+) redox balance could provide further insights into design of novel antidiabetic strategies.

PMID: 27274295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33
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Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health.

BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1045

Authors: Andreeva E, Magnusson Hanson LL, Westerlund H, Theorell T, Brenner MH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined depression as both a cause and effect of unemployment, but no prior work investigated these relationships in the context of organisational downsizing. We explored whether the exposure to downsizing is associated with subsequent depression (social causation), and whether pre-existing depression increases the risk of being laid off when organisations downsize (health selection).
METHODS: Two successive waves of the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health represented the baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010) of this study. Analyses included 196 workers who lost their jobs through downsizing, 1462 layoff survivors remaining in downsized organisations and 1845 employees of non-downsized workplaces. The main outcomes were: (1) Depressive symptoms at follow-up, assessed with a brief subscale from the Symptom Checklist 90, categorised by severity levels ("major depression", "less severe symptoms" and "no depression") and analysed in relation to earlier downsizing exposure; (2) Job loss in persons with downsizing in relation to earlier depressive symptoms. The associations were assessed by means of multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: Job loss consistently predicted subsequent major depression among men and women, with a somewhat greater effect size in men. Surviving a layoff was significantly associated with subsequent major depression in women but not in men. Women with major depression have increased risks of exclusion from employment when organisations downsize, whereas job loss in men was not significantly influenced by their health.
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from this study suggests that the relative importance of social causation and health selection varies by gender in the context of organisational downsizing. Strategies for handling depression among employees should be sensitive to gender-specific risks during layoffs. Policies preventing social exclusion can be important for female workers at higher risk of depression.

PMID: 26458894 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Universal cholesterol screening of children in community-based ambulatory pediatric clinics.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33
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Universal cholesterol screening of children in community-based ambulatory pediatric clinics.

J Clin Lipidol. 2015 Sep-Oct;9(5 Suppl):S88-92

Authors: Wilson DP, Davis S, Matches S, Shah D, Leung-Pineda V, Mou M, Hamilton L, McNeal CJ, Bowman WP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Early identification and treatment of individuals with elevated levels of atherogenic cholesterol have been shown to be effective and safe in reducing morbidity and mortality, especially in familial hypercholesterolemia. To better inform providers and identify children and adolescents at risk of premature cardiovascular disease, in November 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) published guidelines recommending cholesterol screening of all children aged between 9 to 11 and 17 to 21 years regardless of the child's general health or the presence or the absence of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of 9- to 11-year-old children screened for hypercholesterolemia in 5 community-based ambulatory pediatric clinics before and after publication of the NHLBI's guidelines.
METHODS: Practice demographics, screening frequency, and test results for each clinic were collected before and after publication of the NHLBI's recommendation. Provider education was provided between measures.
RESULTS: Of all eligible 9- to 11-year-old children, 489 (17.1%) were screened before and 686 (20.1%) after the NHLBI's guidelines and provider education.
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline rates of lipid screening for the 5 community-based ambulatory pediatric clinics were higher than those previously reported and increased significantly after publication of the NHLBI's recommendations and provider education. However, overall screening rates remained low. Given the high prevalence of premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherogenic cholesterol, especially familial hypercholesterolemia, additional strategies are needed to improve screening rates.

PMID: 26343216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fetal Growth, Obesity, and Atopic Disorders in Adolescence: a Retrospective Birth Cohort Study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33
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Fetal Growth, Obesity, and Atopic Disorders in Adolescence: a Retrospective Birth Cohort Study.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2015 Sep;29(5):472-9

Authors: Lin MH, Hsieh CJ, Caffrey JL, Lin YS, Wang IJ, Ho WC, Chen PC, Wu TN, Lin RS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Developmental status at birth and subsequent obesity have been implicated in the development of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR).
METHODS: The current study analysed the cohort data of 74 688 junior high school students from a national retrospective birth cohort study in Taiwan. A random 10% sample was selected from singleton livebirths with complete data on the analytical variables of interest. Atopic disorders, including AD and AR, were assessed by questionnaires (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Logistic regression analyses were applied with adjustments for related risk factors.
RESULTS: Among subjects mainly 13-15 years of age, the estimated prevalence was 7.6% for AD and 22.4% for AR. While the role of fetal growth in allergic disorders was less evident, the risk of developing AD and AR were both influenced by a combination of fetal growth status and adolescent body mass index (BMI). Compared with those with normal fetal growth and school-aged BMI, the risk of developing AD increased 64% among adolescents with both restricted fetal growth and high BMI (odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.37, 1.97). The risk for this combination was higher than that for either restricted fetal growth or high BMI alone. Nevertheless, the overall interaction between BMI and fetal growth status on atopic disorders did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: Excessive weight gain could be an important risk factor related to developing atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis during adolescence, especially among infants born small for gestational age.

PMID: 26218618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Efficacy of a Telehealth Intervention on Colonoscopy Uptake When Cost Is a Barrier: The Family CARE Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 06/09/2016 - 14:33
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Efficacy of a Telehealth Intervention on Colonoscopy Uptake When Cost Is a Barrier: The Family CARE Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Sep;24(9):1311-8

Authors: Steffen LE, Boucher KM, Damron BH, Pappas LM, Walters ST, Flores KG, Boonyasiriwat W, Vernon SW, Stroup AM, Schwartz MD, Edwards SL, Kohlmann WK, Lowery JT, Wiggins CL, Hill DA, Higginbotham JC, Burt R, Simmons RG, Kinney AY

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We tested the efficacy of a remote tailored intervention Tele-Cancer Risk Assessment and Evaluation (TeleCARE) compared with a mailed educational brochure for improving colonoscopy uptake among at-risk relatives of colorectal cancer patients and examined subgroup differences based on participant reported cost barriers.
METHODS: Family members of colorectal cancer patients who were not up-to-date with colonoscopy were randomly assigned as family units to TeleCARE (N = 232) or an educational brochure (N = 249). At the 9-month follow-up, a cost resource letter listing resources for free or reduced-cost colonoscopy was mailed to participants who had reported cost barriers and remained nonadherent. Rates of medically verified colonoscopy at the 15-month follow-up were compared on the basis of group assignment and within group stratification by cost barriers.
RESULTS: In intent-to-treat analysis, 42.7% of participants in TeleCARE and 24.1% of participants in the educational brochure group had a medically verified colonoscopy [OR, 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59-3.52]. Cost was identified as a barrier in both groups (TeleCARE = 62.5%; educational brochure = 57.0%). When cost was not a barrier, the TeleCARE group was almost four times as likely as the comparison to have a colonoscopy (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.85-7.24). The intervention was efficacious among those who reported cost barriers; the TeleCARE group was nearly twice as likely to have a colonoscopy (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.12-3.52).
CONCLUSIONS: TeleCARE increased colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers.
IMPACT: Remote interventions may bolster screening colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers and be more efficacious when cost barriers are absent.

PMID: 26101306 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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