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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 08/18/2016 - 06:29

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain.

JAMA. 2016 Aug 9;316(6):663

Authors: Gatchel RJ, Licciardone JC

PMID: 27532923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Development of novel HDL-mimicking α-tocopherol-coated nanoparticles to encapsulate nerve growth factor and evaluation of biodistribution.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 08/18/2016 - 06:29

Development of novel HDL-mimicking α-tocopherol-coated nanoparticles to encapsulate nerve growth factor and evaluation of biodistribution.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016 Aug 12;

Authors: Prathipati P, Zhu J, Dong X

Abstract
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is one of the members of the neurotrophin family with multifaceted functions. However, clinic application of NGF is hurdled by the challenge on formulation development. The objective of this study was to develop novel high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticles (NPs) coated with α-tocopherol to incorporate NGF by a self-assembly approach. The NPs were prepared by an optimized self-assembly method that is simple and scalable. The composition of HDL-mimicking NPs was optimized. The prototype of the HDL-mimicking α-tocopherol-coated NPs contained phosphatidylserine (a negative charged phospholipid) and D- α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (a source of vitamin E) to enhance the entrapment efficiency of apolipoprotein A-I in the NPs. The entrapment efficiency of apolipoprotein A-I was about 30%. The NPs had particle size about 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. Finally, cationic ion-pair agents were optimized to form ion-pairs with NGF to facilitate the incorporation of NGF into the NPs. Protamine sodium salt USP formed an optimal ion-pair complex with NGF. The results showed that the novel HDL-mimicking α-tocopherol-coated NPs successfully encapsulated NGF with over 65% entrapment efficiency by using this ion-pair strategy. In vitro release studies demonstrated a slow release of NGF from NGF NPs in PBS containing 5% BSA at 37°C for 72 hours. Further biodistribution studies showed that intravenously injected NGF NPs significantly increased NGF concentration in plasma and decreased the uptake in liver, spleen and kidney, compared to free NGF in mice.

PMID: 27531623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Immune senescence: Significance of the stromal microenvironment.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 08/17/2016 - 14:30

Immune senescence: Significance of the stromal microenvironment.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2016 Aug 16;

Authors: Masters AR, Haynes L, Su DM, Palmer DB

Abstract
The immune system undergoes age-associated changes known as immunosenescence, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections, cancers and autoimmunity in the aged. The basis of our understanding of immunosenescence has been primarily derived from studies examining intrinsic defects within many of the cells of the immune system. While these studies have provided insight into the mechanisms of immunosenescence, a picture is now emerging that the stromal microenvironment within lymphoid organs also contributes significantly to the age-associated decline of immune function. These extrinsic defects appear to impact the functional activity of immune cells and may offer a potential target to recover immune activity. Indeed, rejuvenation studies which have targeted the stromal niche have successfully restored immune function in the aged, highlighting the impact of the microenvironment towards the aetiology of immunosenescence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27529161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Blimp-1/PRDM1 regulates the transcription of human CS1 (SLAMF7) gene in NK and B cells.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 08/17/2016 - 14:30
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Blimp-1/PRDM1 regulates the transcription of human CS1 (SLAMF7) gene in NK and B cells.

Immunobiology. 2016 Jan;221(1):31-9

Authors: Kim JR, Mathew SO, Mathew PA

Abstract
CS1 (CRACC/CD319/SLAMF7) is a member of SLAM (Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule) family receptors and is expressed on NK cells, a subset of CD8(+) T lymphocytes, activated monocytes, mature dendritic cells and activated B cells. In NK cells, CS1 signaling induces cytolytic function of NK cells against targets whereas in B cells CS1 induces proliferation and autocrine cytokine production. CS1 is upregulated in multiple myeloma cells and contributes to clonogenic growth and tumorigenicity. However, the mechanism of CS1 upregulation is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of human CS1 gene in NK and B cells. The promoter region of CS1 contains a Blimp-1/PRDM1 binding site and relative luciferase activities of successive deletion mutants of CS1 promoter were different between Blimp-1/PRDM1-positive and Blimp-1/PRDM1-negative cells. Proximal region of CS1 promoter contains a CAAT box and atypical TATA-box that might result in common transcription initiation at -29 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed Blimp-1/PRDM1 binds to the CS1 promoter region. Mutating the Blimp-1/PRDM1 site at -750 to -746 decreased the transcriptional activity of CS1 promoter implicating a trans-activating function of Blimp-1/PRDM1 in human CS1 gene regulation. The finding that Blimp-1/PRDM1 enhances transcription of CS1 gene in multiple myeloma cells may help in developing novel strategies for therapeutic intervention in multiple myeloma.

PMID: 26310579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Impact of Race and Neighborhood Racial Composition on Preventable Readmissions for Diabetic Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 08/16/2016 - 10:32
Related Articles

The Impact of Race and Neighborhood Racial Composition on Preventable Readmissions for Diabetic Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Aug 11;

Authors: Chen HF, Homan S, Carlson E, Popoola T, Radhakrishnan K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The recommended home health financial penalty program for preventable readmission does not factor race/ethnicity and neighborhood racial compositions into the determination of preventable readmission rates. Home health agencies may avoid beneficiaries from certain racial/ethnic groups and neighborhoods if these two factors have an effect on preventable readmissions. We examined the association between preventable readmissions with race/ethnicity and neighborhood racial composition.
METHODS: Several 2009 national data were used, such as the Master Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis and Review File, and Outcome Assessment Information Set. Our sample consisted of diabetic Medicare home health beneficiaries (African-Americans and Whites only). We analyzed predictors of time-to-first 30-day preventable readmission, including short/long-term diabetic complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, bacterial pneumonia, dehydration, urinary tract infection, hypertension, heart failure, angina without procedure, uncontrolled diabetes, and lower-extremity amputation.
RESULTS: There were 86,567, 17,262, and 11,392 observations in neighborhoods with low (6 % African-Americans), moderate (35 % African-Americans), and high (76 % African-Americans) density of African-Americans, respectively. Using Cox regression models, we found that in neighborhoods with moderate and high density of African-Americans, African-Americans had 21 % (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.39) and 24 % (HR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.01-1.52) significantly higher hazards of 30-day preventable readmissions than Whites, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Race and neighborhood racial compositions are beyond home health providers' control. These two factors should be considered as covariates for the preventable readmissions in the recommended home health financial penalty program.

PMID: 27514389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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