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Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/21/2016 - 06:38

Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

Environ Health Insights. 2016;10:75-82

Authors: Rich AL, Orimoloye HT

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P).
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels.
METHODS: Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line.
RESULTS: Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv.
CONCLUSION: Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P.

PMID: 27199565 [PubMed]

Survival Analysis Following Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Critically Ill Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/21/2016 - 06:38

Survival Analysis Following Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Critically Ill Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Circulation. 2016 May 19;

Authors: Chang CH, Chen HC, Caffrey JL, Hsu J, Lin JW, Lai MS, Chen YS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: -Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides circulatory and respiratory support for patients with severe acute cardiopulmonary failure. The objective of this study was to examine the survival outcomes for patients who received ECMO.
METHODS AND RESULTS: -Adult patients who received ECMO from September 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012 were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database associated with 1) coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), 2) myocardial infarction/cardiogenic shock (MI/CS), 3) injury, and 4) infection/septic shock (Infection). A Cox-regression model was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and compare 30-day and one-year survival rates using the MI/CS group as the reference. The mean age and standard deviation of the 4,227 patient cohort was 57±17 years and 72% were male. The overall mortalities were 59.8% and 76.5% at one month and one year. Survival statistics deteriorated sharply when ECMO was required for more than 3 days. Acute (30-day) survival was more favorable in the Infection (n = 1,076, HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.55-0.67), CABG (n = 1,077, HR: 0.68 [0.61-0.75]), and Injury (n = 369, HR: 0.82 [0.70-0.95]) groups. The extended survival rapidly approached an asymptote near 20% for the Infection, MI/CS (n = 1,705), and CABG groups. The pattern of survival for the injury group was somewhat better, exceeding 30% at yearend.
CONCLUSIONS: -Regardless of initial pathology, patients requiring ECMO were critically ill with similar guarded prognoses. Those in the trauma group had somewhat better outcomes. Determining the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ECMO should be a critical future goal.

PMID: 27199466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

DNA methylation of oxidative stress genes and cancer risk in the Normative Aging Study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/18/2016 - 14:30
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DNA methylation of oxidative stress genes and cancer risk in the Normative Aging Study.

Am J Cancer Res. 2016;6(2):553-61

Authors: Gao T, Joyce BT, Liu L, Zheng Y, Dai Q, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Shrubsole MJ, Tao MH, Schwartz J, Baccarelli A, Hou L

Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) is a primary mechanism of carcinogenesis, and methylation of genes related to it may play a role in cancer development. In this study, we examined the prospective association between blood DNA methylation of four oxidative stress genes and cancer incidence. Our study population included a total of 582 participants in the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had blood drawn during 1-4 visits from 1999-2012 (mean follow up 9.0 years). Promoter DNA methylation of CRAT, iNOS, OGG1 and GCR in blood leukocytes was measured using pyrosequencing. We used Cox regression models to examine prospective associations between cancer incidence and both methylation at the baseline visit and methylation rate of changes over time. Baseline OGG1 methylation was associated with higher risk of all-cancer (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.15-1.78) and prostate cancer (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.03-2.25) incidence. Compared with participants remaining cancer-free, those who eventually developed cancer had significantly accelerated CRAT methylation (p = 0.04) and decelerated iNOS methylation (p<0.01) over time prior to cancer diagnosis. Accelerated CRAT methylation was associated with higher all-cancer incidence (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.06-14.30), whereas accelerated iNOS methylation was associated with lower all-cancer incidence (HR: 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.38). Our results suggest that methylation and its dynamic change over time in OS-related genes, including OGG1, CRAT and iNOS, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. These results can potentially facilitate the development of early detection biomarkers and new treatments for a variety of cancers.

PMID: 27186424 [PubMed]

Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/18/2016 - 14:30
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Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2015 Aug;13(4):250-7

Authors: Warshauer DH, Churchill JD, Novroski N, King JL, Budowle B

Abstract
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics). The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.

PMID: 26391384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T Cells Dampen Inflammatory Disease in Murine Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Promote IL-17 and IFN-γ Responses.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/14/2016 - 06:36

Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T Cells Dampen Inflammatory Disease in Murine Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Promote IL-17 and IFN-γ Responses.

PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0155648

Authors: Odeh AN, Simecka JW

Abstract
Mycoplasmas cause respiratory diseases characterized by persistent infection and chronic airway inflammation. Mycoplasma lung disease is immunopathologic, with CD4+ Th cells determining both disease severity and resistance to infection. Th2 cell responses promote immunopathology, while Th1 cells confer resistance to infection. However, regulatory CD4+ T cells may also have a role in the pathogenesis of mycoplasma respiratory diseases. We hypothesized Treg cells control the severity of the inflammatory lesions and may also promote persistence of infection. To examine this, BALB/c mice were depleted of CD25+ cells, and had increased disease severity due to Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. Increases in mycoplasma antibody responses and lymphocyte infiltration into lungs also occurred after CD25+ cell depletion. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells promoted IFN-γ and IL-17 mycoplasma-specific CD4+ T cell responses in vitro and in vivo, while dampening IL-13+ Th responses. Neither IL-10 nor TGF-ß expression was detected in CD4+CD25+ T cells from lymph nodes. Thus, a regulatory T cell population plays an important role in controlling damaging immune responses in mycoplasma respiratory disease but does not contribute to persistence of infection. It appears that a regulatory T cell population preferentially dampens Th2 cell-mediated inflammatory responses to mycoplasma through a mechanism independent of IL-10 or TGF-ß characteristic of "classic" Treg cells.

PMID: 27175511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosome-associated release, uptake, and neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat protein.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/14/2016 - 06:36

Exosome-associated release, uptake, and neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat protein.

J Neurovirol. 2016 May 12;

Authors: Rahimian P, He JJ

Abstract
HIV-1 Tat is an indispensible transactivator for HIV gene transcription and replication. It has been shown to exit cells as a free protein and enter neighboring cells or interact with surface receptors of neighboring cells to regulate gene expression and cell function. In this study, we report, for the first time, exosome-associated Tat release and uptake. Using a HIV-1 LTR-driven luciferase reporter-based cell assay and Western blotting or in combination with exosome inhibitor, OptiPrep gradient fractionation, and exosome depletion, we demonstrated significant presence of HIV-1 Tat in exosomes derived from Tat-expressing primary astrocytes, Tat-transfected U373.MG and 293T, and HIV-infected MT4. We further showed that exosome-associated Tat from Tat-expressing astrocytes was capable of causing neurite shortening and neuron death, further supporting that this new form of extracellular Tat is biologically active. Lastly, we constructed a Tat mutant deleted of its basic domain and determined the role of the basic domain in Tat trafficking into exosomes. Basic domain-deleted Tat exhibited no apparent effects on Tat trafficking into exosomes, while maintained its dominant-negative function in Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Taken together, these results show a significant fraction of Tat is secreted and present in the form of exosomes and may contribute to the stability of extracellular Tat and broaden the spectrum of its target cells.

PMID: 27173397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Risks to Patient Privacy from Publishing Data from Clinical Anesthesia Studies.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/14/2016 - 06:36

The Risks to Patient Privacy from Publishing Data from Clinical Anesthesia Studies.

Anesth Analg. 2016 May 11;

Authors: O'Neill L, Dexter F, Zhang N

Abstract
In this article, we consider the privacy implications of posting data from small, randomized trials, observational studies, or case series in anesthesia from a few (e.g., 1-3) hospitals. Prior to publishing such data as supplemental digital content, the authors remove attributes that could be used to re-identify individuals, a process known as "anonymization." Posting health information that has been properly "de-identified" is assumed to pose no risks to patient privacy. Yet, computer scientists have demonstrated that this assumption is flawed. We consider various realistic scenarios of how the publication of such data could lead to breaches of patient privacy. Several examples of successful privacy attacks are reviewed, as well as the methods used. We survey the latest models and methods from computer science for protecting health information and their application to posting data from small anesthesia studies. To illustrate the vulnerability of such published data, we calculate the "population uniqueness" for patients undergoing one or more surgical procedures using data from the State of Texas. For a patient selected uniformly at random, the probability that an adversary could match this patient's record to a unique record in the state external database was 42.8% (SE < 0.1%). Despite the 42.8% being an unacceptably high level of risk, it underestimates the risk for patients from smaller states or provinces. We propose an editorial policy that greatly reduces the likelihood of a privacy breach, while supporting the goal of transparency of the research process.

PMID: 27172145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Constrictor prostanoids and uridine adenosine tetraphosphate: vascular mediators and therapeutic targets in hypertension and diabetes.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/14/2016 - 06:36
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Constrictor prostanoids and uridine adenosine tetraphosphate: vascular mediators and therapeutic targets in hypertension and diabetes.

Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Aug;172(16):3980-4001

Authors: Matsumoto T, Goulopoulou S, Taguchi K, Tostes RC, Kobayashi T

Abstract
Vascular dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of systemic complications associated with arterial hypertension and diabetes. The endothelium, or more specifically, various factors derived from endothelial cells tightly regulate vascular function, including vascular tone. In physiological conditions, there is a balance between endothelium-derived factors, that is, relaxing factors (endothelium-derived relaxing factors; EDRFs) and contracting factors (endothelium-derived contracting factors; EDCFs), which mediate vascular homeostasis. However, in disease states, such as diabetes and arterial hypertension, there is an imbalance between EDRF and EDCF, with a reduction of EDRF signalling and an increase of EDCF signalling. Among EDCFs, COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids play an important role in the development of vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes. Moreover, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4 A), identified as an EDCF in 2005, also modulates vascular function. However, the role of Up4 A in hypertension- and diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction is unclear. In the present review, we focused on experimental and clinical evidence that implicate these two EDCFs (vasoconstrictor prostanoids and Up4 A) in vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes.

PMID: 26031319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Identification and localization of lamina cribrosa cells in the human optic nerve head.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 05/12/2016 - 06:30

Identification and localization of lamina cribrosa cells in the human optic nerve head.

Exp Eye Res. 2016 May 7;

Authors: Tovar-Vidales T, Wordinger RJ, Clark AF

Abstract
One of the central features of glaucoma is progressive cupping and excavation of the optic nerve head (ONH). Unmyelinated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons exit the eye through the ONH, which is supported by the lamina cribrosa (LC) consisting of plates of connective tissue with channels for bundles of RGC axons. The LC progressively remodels during glaucoma, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this remodeling are poorly understood. Two major cell types have been isolated and cultured from the human ONH, which differ in their characteristics. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive ONH astrocytes are the major cell type and are reactive in glaucoma. GFAP negative LC cells are the second major cell type isolated from the human ONH, and in contrast to ONH astrocytes, are α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive. Although a number of in vitro studies have been conducted with LC cells, to date there has been no direct evidence for these cells in situ in the human ONH. We used GFAP and α-SMA immunofluorescent staining of human eyes to clearly demonstrate the presence of not only ONH astrocytes within the human ONH, but also LC cells within the cribriform (e.g. laminar) plates/beams of the LC region. Both of these cell types likely play important roles in the homeostatic maintenance of the ONH and pathogenic changes that occur in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

PMID: 27167365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 05/12/2016 - 06:30

Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

Exp Eye Res. 2016 May 7;

Authors: Tovar-Vidales T, Fitzgerald AM, Clark AF

Abstract
Glaucoma patients have elevated aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork (TM) levels of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2). TGF-β2 has been associated with increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (i.e. fibronectin), which is attributed to the increased resistance of aqueous humor outflow through the TM. We have previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 selectively counteracts the profibrotic effect of TGF-β2 with respect to ECM synthesis in the TM, and this action is reversed by the BMP antagonist gremlin. Thus, the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways antagonize each other's antifibrotic and profibrotic roles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured human TM cells: (a) express other BMP antagonists noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, Smurf1 and 2, and (b) whether expression of these proteins is regulated by exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were grown to confluency and treated with TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml) for 24 or 48 h in serum-free medium. Untreated cell served as controls. qPCR and Western immunoblots (WB) determined that human TM cells expressed mRNAs and proteins for the BMP antagonists proteins: noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1/2. Exogenous TGF-β2 decreased chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, TGF-β2 increased secreted noggin and Smurf2 mRNA and protein levels. BMP antagonist members are expressed in the human TM. These molecules may be involved in the normal function of the TM as well as TM pathogenesis. Altered expression of BMP antagonist members may lead to functional changes in the human TM.

PMID: 27167364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Letter to the Editor: comments on biostatistical power of sibling analysis by STR markers.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 05/12/2016 - 06:30

Letter to the Editor: comments on biostatistical power of sibling analysis by STR markers.

Int J Legal Med. 2016 May 11;

Authors: Chakraborty R

PMID: 27166704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Molecular mechanisms of serotonergic action of the HIV-1 antiretroviral efavirenz.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 05/10/2016 - 06:33

Molecular mechanisms of serotonergic action of the HIV-1 antiretroviral efavirenz.

Pharmacol Res. 2016 May 5;

Authors: Dalwadi DA, Kim S, Amdani SM, Chen Z, Huang RQ, Schetz JA

Abstract
Efavirenz is highly effective at suppressing HIV-1, and the WHO guidelines list it as a component of the first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapies for treatment-naïve patients. Though the pharmacological basis is unclear, efavirenz is commonly associated with a risk for neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) when taken at the prescribed dose. In many patients these NPAEs appear to subside after several weeks of treatment, though long-term studies show that in some patients the NPAEs persist. In a recent study focusing on the abuse potential of efavirenz, its receptor psychopharmacology was reported to include interactions with a number of established molecular targets for known drugs of abuse, and it displayed a prevailing behavioral profile in rodents resembling an LSD-like activity. In this report, we discovered interactions with additional serotonergic targets that may be associated with efavirenz-induced NPAEs. The most robust interactions were with 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptors, with more modest interactions noted for the 5-HT2B receptor and monoamine oxidase A. From a molecular mechanistic perspective, efavirenz acts as a 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonist of Gs-signaling, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C antagonist of Gq-signaling, and a blocker of the 5-HT3A receptor currents. Efavirenz also completely or partially blocks agonist stimulation of the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, respectively. Schild analysis suggests that efavirenz competes for the same site on the 5-HT2A receptor as two known hallucinogenic partial agonists (±)-DOI and LSD. Prolonged exposure to efavirenz reduces 5-HT2A receptor density and responsiveness to 5-HT. Other ARVs such as zidovudine, nevirapine and emtricitabine did not share the same complex pharmacological profile as efavirenz, though some of them weakly interact with the 5-HT6 receptor or modestly block GABAA currents.

PMID: 27157251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Target engagement and drug residence time can be observed in living cells with BRET.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 05/10/2016 - 06:33
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Target engagement and drug residence time can be observed in living cells with BRET.

Nat Commun. 2015;6:10091

Authors: Robers MB, Dart ML, Woodroofe CC, Zimprich CA, Kirkland TA, Machleidt T, Kupcho KR, Levin S, Hartnett JR, Zimmerman K, Niles AL, Ohana RF, Daniels DL, Slater M, Wood MG, Cong M, Cheng YQ, Wood KV

Abstract
The therapeutic action of drugs is predicated on their physical engagement with cellular targets. Here we describe a broadly applicable method using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to reveal the binding characteristics of a drug with selected targets within intact cells. Cell-permeable fluorescent tracers are used in a competitive binding format to quantify drug engagement with the target proteins fused to Nanoluc luciferase. The approach enabled us to profile isozyme-specific engagement and binding kinetics for a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Our analysis was directed particularly to the clinically approved prodrug FK228 (Istodax/Romidepsin) because of its unique and largely unexplained mechanism of sustained intracellular action. Analysis of the binding kinetics by BRET revealed remarkably long intracellular residence times for FK228 at HDAC1, explaining the protracted intracellular behaviour of this prodrug. Our results demonstrate a novel application of BRET for assessing target engagement within the complex milieu of the intracellular environment.

PMID: 26631872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bars and nightclubs associated with higher HIV prevalence.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 05/10/2016 - 06:33
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Bars and nightclubs associated with higher HIV prevalence.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Oct 1;155:31-6

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Suzuki S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet density is positively associated with alcohol consumption and a number of related risk behaviors. However, very little is known about the effects of different types of alcohol outlets on HIV prevalence. The current cross-sectional study examines associations between the number of each type of alcohol outlet and HIV prevalence within 350 cities located in 26 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas.
METHODS: State and local health department and U.S. Census Bureau surveillance data were analyzed from 1056 ZIP codes, where an estimated 39 million people reside. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between the number of each type of alcohol outlet in ZIP codes and HIV prevalence.
RESULTS: Number of on-premise alcohol outlets within a ZIP code was associated with greater HIV prevalence. In this sample, the presence of one additional on-premise outlet in a ZIP code was associated with a 1.5% increase in the HIV prevalence rate in that location.
CONCLUSION: This study extends previous research by examining the relationship between alcohol outlets and HIV prevalence in a large sample of U.S. ZIP codes. Research is needed to more closely examine the mechanisms by which on-premise alcohol outlets may affect HIV transmission. Effective policies to reduce HIV transmission may include limiting the density of on-premise alcohol establishments.

PMID: 26347407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparative molecular genetic analysis of simian and human HIV-1 integrase interactor INI1/SMARCB1/SNF5.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/07/2016 - 10:36
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Comparative molecular genetic analysis of simian and human HIV-1 integrase interactor INI1/SMARCB1/SNF5.

Arch Virol. 2015 Dec;160(12):3085-91

Authors: Pyeon D, Price L, Park IW

Abstract
Human integrase interactor 1 (INI1/SMARCB1/SNF5) is a chromatin-remodeling molecule that binds to HIV-1 integrase and enhances proviral DNA integration. INI1 is also known as a tumor suppressor gene and has been found to be mutated in several aggressive tumors such as rhabdoid and lymphoid tumors. To study the function of simian INI1, we screened and cloned simian INI1 cDNA from B lymphoma cells of rhesus monkeys using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed 23 single nucleotide differences compared to the human ortholog, which, however, did not result in amino acid changes, and the amino acid sequence is therefore 100% conserved between human and simian INI1. Two alternatively spliced isoforms, INI1a and INI1b, were also found in simian INI1. These two isoforms did not show any functional difference in HIV-1 proviral DNA integration and nuclear localization, suggesting that the specificity of simian INI1 would not be a factor preventing HIV-1 infection of a simian host. Nevertheless, INI1b is expressed only in established cancer cell lines such as Jurkat and COS-7 cells, and not in primary cells, suggesting that INIlb could be an indicator of cell transformation.

PMID: 26350979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Efficacy of SMS Text Message Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analysis.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/07/2016 - 10:36
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Efficacy of SMS Text Message Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analysis.

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015 Sep;56:1-10

Authors: Spohr SA, Nandy R, Gandhiraj D, Vemulapalli A, Anne S, Walters ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mobile technology provides new opportunities for health promotion communication. The purpose of this study was to conduct a current and extensive meta-analytic review of SMS (short message service) text message-based interventions for individual smoking cessation.
METHODS: Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus were reviewed for articles meeting selection criteria: 1) randomized controlled trials, 2) measured smoking cessation, and 3) intervention primarily delivered through SMS text messaging. Three and 6month follow-up of 7-day point prevalence or continuous abstinence was considered from studies meeting criteria. All analyses were conducted with intention-to-treat. Both fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the global outcome measure and confidence intervals.
RESULTS: Thirteen studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The studies were found to be homogeneous [Q12=12.47, p=0.14]. Odds ratios based on the random effects models suggested that interventions generally increased quit rates compared to controls, 1.36 [95% CI=1.23, 1.51]. Intervention efficacy was higher in studies with a 3month follow-up compared to 6month follow-up. Text plus programs (e.g., text messaging plus Web or in-person intervention modalities) performed only slightly better than text only programs. Pooled results also indicate message frequency schedule can affect quit rates, in which fixed schedules performed better than decreasing or variable schedules. The use of quit status assessment messages was not related to intervention efficacy.
CONCLUSION: Smoking quit rates for the text messaging intervention group were 36% higher compared to the control group quit rates. Results suggest that SMS text messaging may be a promising way to improve smoking cessation outcomes. This is significant given the relatively wide reach and low cost of text message interventions. Identifying the components that make interventions efficacious will help to increase the effectiveness of such interventions.

PMID: 25720333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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