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PTEN degradation after ischemic stroke: A double-edged sword

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:31pm
Author(s):Li, W. | Huang, R. | Chen, Z. | Yan, L.-J. | Simpkins, J.W. | Yang, S.-H.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Neuroscience

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Characterization of [3H]LS-3-134, a novel arylamide phenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective radioligand

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:31pm
Author(s):Rangel-Barajas, C. | Malik, M. | Taylor, M. | Neve, K.A. | Mach, R.H. | Luedtke, R.R.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Journal of Neurochemistry

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Two-week normobaric intermittent-hypoxic exposures stabilize cerebral perfusion during hypocapnia and hypercapnia.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am

Two-week normobaric intermittent-hypoxic exposures stabilize cerebral perfusion during hypocapnia and hypercapnia.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014 Dec 11;

Authors: Zhang P, Shi X, Downey HF

Abstract
The effect of moderately extended, intermittent-hypoxia (IH) on cerebral perfusion during changes in CO2 was unknown. Thus, we assessed the changes in cerebral vascular conductance (CVC) and cerebral tissue oxygenation (ScO2) during experimental hypocapnia and hypercapnia following 14-day normobaric exposures to IH (10% O2). CVC was estimated from the ratio of mean middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler sonography) to mean arterial pressure (tonometry), and ScO2 in the prefrontal cortex was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in CVC and ScO2 during changes in partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2, mass spectrometry) induced by 30-s paced-hyperventilation (hypocapnia) and during 6-min CO2 rebreathing (hypercapnia) were compared before and after 14-day IH exposures in eight young nonsmokers. Repetitive IH exposures reduced the ratio of %ΔCVC/ΔPETCO2 during hypocapnia (1.00 ± 0.13 vs 1.94 ± 0.35 vs %/mmHg, P = 0.026) and the slope of ΔCVC/ΔPETCO2 during hypercapnia (1.79 ± 0.37 vs 2.97 ± 0.64 %/mmHg, P = 0.021), but had no significant effect on ΔScO2/ΔPETCO2. The ventilatory response to hypercapnia during CO2 rebreathing was significantly diminished following 14-day IH exposures (0.83 ± 0.07 vs 1.14 ± 0.09 L/min/mmHg, P = 0.009). We conclude that repetitive normobaric IH exposures significantly diminish variations of cerebral perfusion in response to hypercapnia and hypocapnia without compromising cerebral tissue oxygenation. This IH-induced blunting of cerebral vasoreactivity during CO2 variations helps buffer excessive oscillations of cerebral underperfusion and overperfusion while sustaining cerebral O2 homeostasis.

PMID: 25504012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A News Media Analysis of the Economic and Reputational Penalties of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am

A News Media Analysis of the Economic and Reputational Penalties of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

Inquiry. 2014;51

Authors: Winborn MS, Alencherril J, Pagán JA

Abstract
Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 established the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), an initiative designed to penalize hospitals with excess 30-day readmissions. This study investigates whether readmission penalties under HRRP impose significant reputational effects on hospitals. Data extracted from 2012 to 2013 news stories suggest that the higher the actual penalty, the higher the perceived cost of the penalty, the more likely it is that hospitals will state they have no control over the low-income patients they serve or that they will describe themselves as safety net providers. The downside of being singled out as a low-quality hospital deserving a relatively high penalty seems to be larger than the upside of being singled out as a high-quality hospital facing a relatively low penalty. Although the financial burden of the penalties seems to be low, hospitals may be reacting to the fact that information about excess readmissions and readmission penalties is being released widely and is scrutinized by the news media and the general public.

PMID: 25500753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Arsenic exposure, hyperuricemia, and gout in US adults.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am

Arsenic exposure, hyperuricemia, and gout in US adults.

Environ Int. 2014 Dec 11;76C:32-40

Authors: Kuo CC, Weaver V, Fadrowski JJ, Lin YS, Guallar E, Navas-Acien A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is very limited information on the association between arsenic and serum uric acid levels or gout. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of arsenic with hyperuricemia and gout in US adults.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5632 adults aged 20years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 with determinations of serum uric acid and urine total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid higher than 7.0mg/dL for men and 6.0mg/dL for women. Gout was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis and medication use.
RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and arsenobetaine levels, the increase in the geometric means of serum uric acid associated with one interquartile range increase in total arsenic and DMA levels was 3% (95% CI 2-5) and 3% (2-5), respectively, in men and 1% (0-3) and 2% (0-4), respectively, in women. In men, the adjusted odds ratio for hyperuricemia comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of total arsenic was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.26-2.68) and for DMA it was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.01-1.96). The corresponding odds ratios in women were 1.26 (0.77, 2.07) and 1.49 (0.96, 2.31), respectively. The odds ratio for gout comparing the highest to lowest tertiles was 5.46 (95% CI, 1.70-17.6) for total arsenic and 1.98 (0.64-6.15) for DMA among women older than 40years old. Urine arsenic was not associated with gout in men.
CONCLUSION: Low level arsenic exposures may be associated with the risk of hyperuricemia in men and with the prevalence of gout in women. Prospective research focusing on establishing the direction of the relationship among arsenic, hyperuricemia, and gout is needed.

PMID: 25499256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Different Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and the Associations With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortalities in Patients With Hypertension.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am

Different Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and the Associations With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortalities in Patients With Hypertension.

Am J Hypertens. 2014 Dec 10;

Authors: Chang CH, Lin JW, Caffrey JL, Wu LC, Lai MS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been widely used in the treatment of hypertension, but the comparative effectiveness in reducing mortality among different drugs is seldom reported.
METHODS: We identified hypertensive patients who started captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, fosinopril, perindopril, ramipril, or imidapril therapy from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009. Overall and cause-specific mortalities were ascertained through a linkage to Taiwan's National Death Registry. Patients were followed from the initiation of ACE inhibitors to death, disenrollment, or study termination (31 December 2010). A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), using ramipril as the reference group.
RESULTS: A total of 989,489 hypertensive patients were included, with a mean follow-up ranging from 3.5 years for imidapril to 4.5 years for enalapril. Captopril initiators had the highest overall mortality rate (117.8 per 1,000,000 person-days) as compared to other ACE inhibitors (54.3-79.4 per 1,000,000 person-days). Patients who started captopril therapy had a significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.24-1.31) when compared with ramipril. Enalapril (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.11) and fosinopril (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.12) were also associated with a modestly increased risk. No difference in mortality was found for lisinopril, perindopril, and imidapril, as compared with ramipril.
CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the mortality risk associated with different ACE inhibitors. However, potential residual confounding effects might still exist.

PMID: 25498540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Kinetic comparison of older men and women during walk-to-stair descent transition.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am
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Kinetic comparison of older men and women during walk-to-stair descent transition.

Gait Posture. 2014 Sep;40(4):600-4

Authors: Singhal K, Kim J, Casebolt J, Lee S, Han KH, Kwon YH

Abstract
Stair walking is one of the most challenging tasks for older adults, with women reporting higher incidence of falls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in kinetics during stair descent transition. Twenty-eight participants (12 male and 16 female; 68.5 and 69.0 years of mean age, respectively) performed stair descent from level walking in a step-over-step manner at a self-selected speed over a custom-made three-step staircase with embedded force plates. Kinematic and force data were combined using inverse dynamics to generate kinetic data for gender comparison. The top and the first step on the staircase were chosen for analysis. Women showed a higher trail leg peak hip abductor moment (-1.0 Nm/kg), lower trail leg peak knee extensor moment and eccentric power (0.74 Nm/kg and 3.15 W/kg), and lower peak concentric power at trail leg ankle joint (1.29 W/kg) as compared to men (p<0.05; -0.82 Nm/kg, 0.89 Nm/kg, 3.83 W/kg, and 1.78 W/kg, respectively). The lead leg knee eccentric power was also lower in women (p<0.05). This decreased ability to exert knee control during stair descent transition may predispose women to a higher risk of fall.

PMID: 25082325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) R132H mutation and d-2-hydroxyglutarate stimulate glutamine metabolism under hypoxia.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am
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Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) R132H mutation and d-2-hydroxyglutarate stimulate glutamine metabolism under hypoxia.

J Biol Chem. 2014 Aug 22;289(34):23318-28

Authors: Reitman ZJ, Duncan CG, Poteet E, Winters A, Yan LJ, Gooden DM, Spasojevic I, Boros LG, Yang SH, Yan H

Abstract
Mutations in the cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) occur in several types of cancer, and altered cellular metabolism associated with IDH1 mutations presents unique therapeutic opportunities. By altering IDH1, these mutations target a critical step in reductive glutamine metabolism, the metabolic pathway that converts glutamine ultimately to acetyl-CoA for biosynthetic processes. While IDH1-mutated cells are sensitive to therapies that target glutamine metabolism, the effect of IDH1 mutations on reductive glutamine metabolism remains poorly understood. To explore this issue, we investigated the effect of a knock-in, single-codon IDH1-R132H mutation on the metabolism of the HCT116 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Here we report the R132H-isobolome by using targeted (13)C isotopomer tracer fate analysis to trace the metabolic fate of glucose and glutamine in this system. We show that introduction of the R132H mutation into IDH1 up-regulates the contribution of glutamine to lipogenesis in hypoxia, but not in normoxia. Treatment of cells with a d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG) ester recapitulated these changes, indicating that the alterations observed in the knocked-in cells were mediated by d-2HG produced by the IDH1 mutant. These studies provide a dynamic mechanistic basis for metabolic alterations observed in IDH1-mutated tumors and uncover potential therapeutic targets in IDH1-mutated cancers.

PMID: 24986863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Between-centre variability in transfer function analysis, a widely used method for linear quantification of the dynamic pressure-flow relation: the CARNet study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am
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Between-centre variability in transfer function analysis, a widely used method for linear quantification of the dynamic pressure-flow relation: the CARNet study.

Med Eng Phys. 2014 May;36(5):620-7

Authors: Meel-van den Abeelen AS, Simpson DM, Wang LJ, Slump CH, Zhang R, Tarumi T, Rickards CA, Payne S, Mitsis GD, Kostoglou K, Marmarelis V, Shin D, Tzeng YC, Ainslie PN, Gommer E, Müller M, Dorado AC, Smielewski P, Yelicich B, Puppo C, Liu X, Czosnyka M, Wang CY, Novak V, Panerai RB, Claassen JA

Abstract
Transfer function analysis (TFA) is a frequently used method to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). However, controversies and variations exist in how research groups utilise TFA, causing high variability in interpretation. The objective of this study was to evaluate between-centre variability in TFA outcome metrics. 15 centres analysed the same 70 BP and CBFV datasets from healthy subjects (n=50 rest; n=20 during hypercapnia); 10 additional datasets were computer-generated. Each centre used their in-house TFA methods; however, certain parameters were specified to reduce a priori between-centre variability. Hypercapnia was used to assess discriminatory performance and synthetic data to evaluate effects of parameter settings. Results were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression. A large non-homogeneous variation was found in TFA outcome metrics between the centres. Logistic regression demonstrated that 11 centres were able to distinguish between normal and impaired CA with an AUC>0.85. Further analysis identified TFA settings that are associated with large variation in outcome measures. These results indicate the need for standardisation of TFA settings in order to reduce between-centre variability and to allow accurate comparison between studies. Suggestions on optimal signal processing methods are proposed.

PMID: 24725709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Age estimation via quantification of signal-joint T cell receptor excision circles in Koreans.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 12/18/2014 - 3:29am
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Age estimation via quantification of signal-joint T cell receptor excision circles in Koreans.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2014 May;16(3):135-8

Authors: Cho S, Ge J, Seo SB, Kim K, Lee HY, Lee SD

Abstract
The estimation of age from biological samples (i.e., remains) at crime scenes could provide useful information about both victims and other persons related to criminal activities. Signal-joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) levels in peripheral blood decline with age, and negative correlations between sjTREC levels and age have been demonstrated in several ethnic groups. To validate the utility of sjTREC for age estimation in Koreans, Taqman qPCR was used to quantify the sjTREC level in samples obtained from 172 individuals ranging from 16 to 65 years old. We modified the previously reported method by using a shorter amplicon and confirmed the efficiency and utility of this method in this report. Our results showed that the linear negative regression curve between sjTREC levels and age was characterized by r=-0.807 and a standard error of 8.49 years. These results indicate that sjTREC level is an effective age estimation method in Koreans. The value of the standard error of quantification was not different from previous reports for other population groups.

PMID: 24524944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

STRait Razor v2.0: The improved STR Allele Identification Tool-Razor

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Warshauer, D.H. | King, J.L. | Budowle, B.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International: Genetics

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Urine osmolality in the US population: Implications for environmental biomonitoring

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Yeh, H.-C. | Lin, Y.-S. | Kuo, C.-C. | Weidemann, D. | Weaver, V. | Fadrowski, J. | Neu, A. | Navas-Acien, A.
Publication year: 2015
Journal / Book title: Environmental Research

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Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Liu, Z. | Zhang, X. | Yu, Q. | He, J.J.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

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Cost-consequence analysis of cause of death investigation in Finland and in Denmark

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Ylijoki-Sørensen, S. | Boldsen, J.L. | Lalu, K. | Sajantila, A. | Baandrup, U. | Boel, L.W.T. | Ehlers, L.H. | Bøggild, H.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International

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Epidemiological profiles of hand, foot, and mouth disease, including meteorological factors, in Suzhou, China

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Chen, Z. | Sun, H. | Yan, Y. | Wang, Y. | Zhu, C. | Zhou, W. | Huang, L. | Wang, M. | Mize, M. | Tian, J. | Ji, W.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Archives of Virology

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Massively parallel sequencing of forensically relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms using TruSeq™ forensic amplicon

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Warshauer, D.H. | Davis, C.P. | Holt, C. | Han, Y. | Walichiewicz, P. | Richardson, T. | Stephens, K. | Jager, A. | King, J. | Budowle, B.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: International Journal of Legal Medicine

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Role of insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Cai, Z. | Xiao, M. | Chang, L. | Yan, L.-J.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Metabolic Brain Disease

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Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Ylijoki-Sørensen, S. | Sajantila, A. | Lalu, K. | Bøggild, H. | Boldsen, J.L. | Boel, L.W.T.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International

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Sigma-1 receptor stimulation protects retinal ganglion cells from ischemia-like insult through the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Mueller, B.H. | Park, Y. | Ma, H.-Y. | Dibas, A. | Ellis, D.Z. | Clark, A.F. | Yorio, T.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Experimental Eye Research

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Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

Latest UNTHSC Articles in Scopus - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 11:31am
Author(s):Ylijoki-Sørensen, S. | Boldsen, J.L. | Boel, L.W.T. | Bøggild, H. | Lalu, K. | Sajantila, A.
Publication year: 2014
Journal / Book title: Forensic Science International

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