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A Review of 21st Century Utility of a Biopsychosocial Model in United States Medical School Education.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 01/16/2016 - 06:34
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A Review of 21st Century Utility of a Biopsychosocial Model in United States Medical School Education.

J Lifestyle Med. 2015 Sep;5(2):49-59

Authors: Jaini PA, Lee JS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Current medical practice is grounded in a biomedical model that fails to effectively address multifaceted lifestyle and morbidogenic environmental components that are the root causes of contemporary chronic diseases. Utilizing the biopsychosocial (BPS) model in medical school training may produce competent healthcare providers to meet the challenge of rising chronic illnesses that are a result of these factors. This study explored the current trend of research on the utility of the BPS model in medical education and examined medical school curricula that have explicitly adopted the BPS model.
METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted on the BPS model and medical education since the 1970s using multiple databases. Descriptive analysis was used to illustrate findings regarding the trends of the BPS model in medical education and its utility in specific medical schools in the United States.
RESULTS: Major findings illustrated a growing trend in research on the BPS model in medical education since the 1970s with literature in this area most visible since 2000. The same trend was established for the incorporation of psychosocial or behavioral and social science components in medical education. From our peer-reviewed literature search, only 5 medical schools featured utility of the BPS model in their curricula utilizing variable educational processes.
CONCLUSION: Although literature regarding the BPS model in medical education is growing, the explicit utility of the BPS model in medical school is limited. Our findings can stimulate educational processes and research endeavors to advance medical education and medical practice to ensure that future doctors can meet the challenge of rising lifestyle and environmental associated illnesses.

PMID: 26770891 [PubMed]

Perception of Exercise Lifestyle as a Valid Tool for Prevention and Treatment of Depression in Rural Communities.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 01/16/2016 - 06:34
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Perception of Exercise Lifestyle as a Valid Tool for Prevention and Treatment of Depression in Rural Communities.

J Lifestyle Med. 2015 Sep;5(2):39-48

Authors: Duong K, Lee JS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: This study examines perception of exercise lifestyle prescription as a valid treatment for depression among rural patients at a primary care clinic in Texas.
METHODS: The researchers created a depression and exercise survey completed by 104 patients ages 18 and up living in central, economically disadvantaged rural Texas. Logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) in perception of exercise as a valid treatment for depression as a function of demographic variables, however not as a function of exercise duration (p = 0.12) in the rural primary care clinic's patients. Even though it was not a statistically significant finding, there was a positive correlation found between the amount of exercise engaged in per day and the likelihood to have a positive perception of exercise prescription as a tool in depression prevention and treatment.
CONCLUSION: Participants between ages 40 to 59 years old, female, and of Hispanic ethnicity independently are most likely to perceive exercise lifestyle as a valid treatment for depression. This is the first study to look specifically at patient perception of exercise as a valid treatment tool for depression not only in rural areas, but also in the nation. Findings from this pilot study may help healthcare service providers learn how to best incorporate exercise prescription into depression prevention and treatment in rural areas, leading to reducing depression epidemics.

PMID: 26770890 [PubMed]

Clinical and laboratory profiles of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 01/16/2016 - 06:34
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Clinical and laboratory profiles of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children.

Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;29:18-23

Authors: Wang M, Wang Y, Yan Y, Zhu C, Huang L, Shao X, Xu J, Zhu H, Sun X, Ji W, Chen Z

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP).
METHODS: Seventy-six children with RMPP and 26 children with non-refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia (NRMPP), confirmed by both serology and fluorescent quantitation PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), were evaluated retrospectively.
RESULTS: Compared to those with NRMPP, children with RMPP were older (66.6±39.0 vs. 48.4±35.4 months, p=0.038) and had a longer duration of fever (12.7±2.6 vs. 7.5±1.8 days) and hospital stay (12.1±3.2 vs. 7.4±2.9 days). Children with RMPP presented neutrophil infiltration both in serum and BALF, as well as severe pulmonary lesions with pleural effusion. Children with RMPP had a significantly higher M. pneumoniae DNA load in BALF compared to NRMPP patients, and the M. pneumoniae load in BALF was significantly correlated with neutrophils and inversely correlated with macrophages for both the NRMPP and RMPP groups. The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (median 114.5 pg/ml, range 49.1-897.9 pg/ml) and interferon gamma (median 376.9 pg/ml, range 221.4-1997.6 pg/ml) were significantly higher in children with RMPP compared to children with NRMPP.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that a direct microbe effect and the subsequent induced excessive host immune response contribute in part to the progression of RMPP.

PMID: 25449230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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