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Neighborhood Disadvantage, Physical Activity Barriers, and Physical Activity among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 11/14/2015 - 07:32
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Neighborhood Disadvantage, Physical Activity Barriers, and Physical Activity among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:622-627

Authors: Jones A, Paxton RJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-section study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population.
METHODS: A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring of 2012. Neighborhood disadvantage variables were extracted from national databases. Regression models were computed to assess relationships.
RESULTS: Traditional correlates of smoking status and the presence of health complications were associated with physical activity. In addition, the relative number of renters versus homeowners in one's neighborhood was associated with lower levels of physical activity in the context of individual level barriers (i.e., interest and space), which were also associated with lower levels of physical activity.
DISCUSSION: Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership) and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

PMID: 26566472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cross-sectional and longitudinal risk of physical impairment in a cohort of postmenopausal women who experience physical and verbal abuse.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 07:29
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Cross-sectional and longitudinal risk of physical impairment in a cohort of postmenopausal women who experience physical and verbal abuse.

BMC Womens Health. 2015;15(1):98

Authors: Cannell MB, Weitlauf JC, Garcia L, Andresen EM, Margolis KL, Manini TM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exposure to interpersonal violence, namely verbal and physical abuse, is a highly prevalent threat to women's health and well-being. Among older, post-menopausal women, several researchers have characterized a possible bi-directional relationship of abuse exposure and diminished physical functioning. However, studies that prospectively examine the relationship between interpersonal abuse exposure and physical functioning across multiple years of observation are lacking. To address this literature gap, we prospectively evaluate the association between abuse exposure and physical functioning in a large, national cohort of post-menopausal women across 12 years of follow-up observation.
METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the adjusted association between experiencing abuse and physical function score at baseline in 154,902 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. Multilevel modeling, where the trajectories of decline in physical function were modeled as a function of time-varying abuse exposure, was used to evaluate the contribution of abuse to trajectories of physical function scores over time.
RESULT: Abuse was prevalent among WHI participants, with 11 % of our study population reporting baseline exposure. Verbal abuse was the most commonly reported abuse type (10 %), followed by combined physical and verbal abuse (1 %), followed by physical abuse in the absence of verbal abuse (0.2 %). Abuse exposure (all types) was associated with diminished physical functioning, with women exposed to combined physical and verbal abuse presenting baseline physical functioning scores consistent with non-abused women 20 years senior. Results did not reveal a differential rate of decline over time in physical functioning based on abuse exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest a need for increased awareness of the prevalence of abuse exposure among postmenopausal women; they also underscore the importance of clinician's vigilance in their efforts toward the prevention, early detection and effective intervention with abuse exposure, including verbal abuse exposure, in post-menopausal women. Given our findings related to abuse exposure and women's diminished physical functioning at WHI baseline, our work illuminates a need for further study, particularly the investigation of this association in younger, pre-menopausal women so that the temporal ordering if this relationship may be better understood.

PMID: 26554450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent, of Ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern United States over a 15 year period (1997-2012).

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 11/10/2015 - 07:30
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Comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent, of Ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern United States over a 15 year period (1997-2012).

Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:553

Authors: Stromdahl E, Hamer S, Jenkins S, Sloan L, Williamson P, Foster E, Nadolny R, Elkins C, Vince M, Pritt B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program (HTTKP) of the US Army Public Health Command have been tested for pathogens by PCR. We noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis submitted from soldiers at two sites in the upper Midwest (Camp Ripley, MN, and Ft. McCoy, WI) and one site in the northeastern US (Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA).
METHODS: From 1997 through 2012, the HTTKP received 1,981 I. scapularis from the three installations and tested them for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi and the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent using PCR; pathogen presence was confirmed via sequencing or amplification of a second gene target. Pathogen and co-infection prevalence, tick engorgement status, and phenology were compared among installations.
RESULTS: Greater rates of A. phagocytophilum and Ba. microti infections were detected in ticks submitted from installations in Minnesota than in Wisconsin or Pennsylvania, and the EML agent was only detected in ticks from Minnesota and Wisconsin. Midwestern ticks were also more likely to be co-infected than those from Pennsylvania. Both adult and nymphal ticks showed evidence of feeding on people, although nymphs were more often submitted engorged. Adult I. scapularis were received more frequently in June from Minnesota than from either of the other sites. Minnesota adult and nymphal peaks overlapped in June, and submissions of adults exceeded nymphs in that month.
CONCLUSIONS: There were clear differences in I. scapularis phenology, pathogen prevalence and rates of co-infection among the three military installations. Seasonal and temperature differences between the three sites and length of time a population had been established in each region may contribute to the observed differences. The synchrony of adults and nymphs observed in the upper Midwest has implications for pathogen infection prevalence. The EML agent was only detected in Minnesota and Wisconsin, supporting the previous assertion that this pathogen is currently limited to the upper Midwest.

PMID: 25465046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adherence, Healthcare Resource Use (Hru) And Costs: A Comparison Of Single-Tablet Regimen (Str) Versus Multi-Tablet Regimen (Mtr) Containing Fixed Dose Combination (Fdc) Regimens.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 11/05/2015 - 07:29
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Adherence, Healthcare Resource Use (Hru) And Costs: A Comparison Of Single-Tablet Regimen (Str) Versus Multi-Tablet Regimen (Mtr) Containing Fixed Dose Combination (Fdc) Regimens.

Value Health. 2015 Nov;18(7):A577

Authors: Narayanan S, Clay PG

PMID: 26533241 [PubMed - in process]

Tetracycline-Containing MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Escherichia coli.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 11/04/2015 - 11:29
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Tetracycline-Containing MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Escherichia coli.

Molecules. 2015;20(11):19690-19698

Authors: Koneru B, Shi Y, Wang YC, Chavala SH, Miller ML, Holbert B, Conson M, Ni A, Di Pasqua AJ

Abstract
Tetracycline (TC) is a well-known broad spectrum antibiotic, which is effective against many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Controlled release nanoparticle formulations of TC have been reported, and could be beneficial for application in the treatment of periodontitis and dental bone infections. Furthermore, TC-controlled transcriptional regulation systems (Tet-on and Tet-off) are useful for controlling transgene expression in vitro and in vivo for biomedical research purposes; controlled TC release systems could be useful here, as well. Mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) are widely studied for drug delivery applications; Mobile crystalline material 41 (MCM-41), a type of MSN, has a mesoporous structure with pores forming channels in a hexagonal fashion. We prepared 41 ± 4 and 406 ± 55 nm MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles and loaded TC for controlled dug release; TC content in the TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was 18.7% and 17.7% w/w, respectively. Release of TC from TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was then measured in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, at 37 °C over a period of 5 h. Most antibiotic was released from both over this observation period; however, the majority of TC was released over the first hour. Efficacy of the TC-MCM-41 nanoparticles was then shown to be superior to free TC against Escherichia coli (E. coli) in culture over a 24 h period, while blank nanoparticles had no effect.

PMID: 26528964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Outcome of children with hypodiploid ALL treated with risk-directed therapy based on MRD levels.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 11/04/2015 - 11:29
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Outcome of children with hypodiploid ALL treated with risk-directed therapy based on MRD levels.

Blood. 2015 Nov 2;

Authors: Mullighan CG, Jeha S, Pei D, Payne-Turner D, Coustan-Smith E, Roberts KG, Waanders E, Choi JK, Ma X, Raimondi SC, Fan Y, Yang W, Song G, Yang JJ, Inaba H, Downing JR, Leung WH, Bowman WP, Relling MV, Evans WE, Zhang J, Campana D, Pui CH

PMID: 26527677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

M2b Monocytes Provoke Bacterial Pneumonia and Gut Bacteria-Associated Sepsis in Alcoholics.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 11/04/2015 - 11:29
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M2b Monocytes Provoke Bacterial Pneumonia and Gut Bacteria-Associated Sepsis in Alcoholics.

J Immunol. 2015 Nov 2;

Authors: Tsuchimoto Y, Asai A, Tsuda Y, Ito I, Nishiguchi T, Garcia MC, Suzuki S, Kobayashi M, Higuchi K, Suzuki F

Abstract
Chronic alcohol consumption markedly impairs host antibacterial defense against opportunistic infections. γ-irradiated NOD-SCID IL-2Rγ(null) mice inoculated with nonalcoholic PBMCs (control PBMC chimeras) resisted Klebsiella pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, whereas the chimeras created with alcoholic PBMCs (alcoholic PBMC chimeras) were very susceptible to these infections. M1 monocytes (IL-12(+)IL-10(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells), major effector cells in antibacterial innate immunity, were not induced by a bacterial Ag in alcoholic PBMC cultures, and M2b monocytes (CCL1(+)CD163(+)CD14(+) cells), which predominated in alcoholic PBMCs, were shown to be inhibitor cells on the Ag-stimulated monocyte conversion from quiescent monocytes to M1 monocytes. CCL1, which functions to maintain M2b macrophage properties, was produced by M2b monocytes isolated from alcoholic PBMCs. These M2b monocytes reverted to quiescent monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(-)CCL1(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells) in cultures supplemented with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, and the subsequent quiescent monocytes easily converted to M1 monocytes under bacterial Ag stimulation. Alcoholic PBMC chimeras treated with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide were resistant against pulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae and sepsis stemming from enterococcal translocation. These results indicate that a majority of monocytes polarize to an M2b phenotype in association with alcohol abuse, and this polarization contributes to the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to gut and lung infections. Bacterial pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, frequently seen in alcoholics, can be controlled through the polarization of macrophage phenotypes.

PMID: 26525287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Chemotherapeutic effect of tamoxifen on temozolomide-resistant gliomas.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 11/04/2015 - 11:29
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Chemotherapeutic effect of tamoxifen on temozolomide-resistant gliomas.

Anticancer Drugs. 2015 Mar;26(3):293-300

Authors: He W, Liu R, Yang SH, Yuan F

Abstract
Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is widely used in the chemotherapy of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Recent studies have indicated that tamoxifen might have a potential chemotherapeutic effect on glioma. In the present study, we determined the chemotherapeutic action of tamoxifen on human glioma cell lines. Methylation of 06-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was identified in A172, U251, and BT325 glioma cell lines, but not in the U87 cell line. Consistently, A172, U251, and BT325 cell lines are resistant to temozolomide. Tamoxifen induced significant cytotoxic action in A172, U251, BT325, and U87 cell lines. Further, Hoechst 33342 staining and apoptosis flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tamoxifen induced apoptosis in the BT325 cell line. Mitochondrial complex analysis indicated that tamoxifen, but not other estrogen receptor modulators, dose-dependently inhibits complex I activity. In summary, our study suggests that tamoxifen might have a chemotherapeutic effect on temozolomide-resistant glioma through its direct action on mitochondrial complex I inhibition and could provide further evidence to support future clinical trials of tamoxifen for the treatment of glioblastoma.

PMID: 25535979 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 10/31/2015 - 11:29
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High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies.

Am J Public Health. 2015 Sep;105(9):1886-92

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Wagenaar AC, Xuan Z, Aryal S

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC).
METHODS: In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States.
RESULTS: More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability.
CONCLUSIONS: Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed.

PMID: 26180984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differences in the Limits of Stability Between Older Rolling Walker Users and Older Single-Tip-Cane Users - A Preliminary Study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 10/27/2015 - 07:29
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Differences in the Limits of Stability Between Older Rolling Walker Users and Older Single-Tip-Cane Users - A Preliminary Study.

Rehabil Nurs. 2015 Oct 25;

Authors: Liu HH, Quiben M, Holmes C, Connors M, Salem Y

Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify the differences in the limits of stability (LOS) between older rolling walker and single-tip-cane users.
DESIGN: This was a matched paired t-test design with respected measure.
METHODS: Eighteen older subjects were matched based on age, gender, and functional level. The subjects were assessed using the multidirectional reach test initially and 5-month later in four directions: forward, backward, leftward, and rightward.
FINDINGS: Initially, there were no differences between cane users and rolling walker users in the LOS in all directions. However, 5-month later, the cane users who held their canes in their right hand had significantly better stability in forward and rightward reach than the walker users (p < .05). Further, the walker users demonstrated significantly decreased functional reach in forward reach (p < .05).
CONCLUSION: Cane users might have better stability than walker users in the forward direction and in the direction toward the side holding the cane. This study may provide guide for clinicians including nurses for selecting appropriate rehabilitative interventions for older adults using walkers and canes.

PMID: 26497836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Contra-directional Coupling of Nur77 and Nurr1 in Neurodegeneration: A Novel Mechanism for Memantine-Induced Anti-inflammation and Anti-mitochondrial Impairment.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 10/27/2015 - 07:29
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Contra-directional Coupling of Nur77 and Nurr1 in Neurodegeneration: A Novel Mechanism for Memantine-Induced Anti-inflammation and Anti-mitochondrial Impairment.

Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Oct 26;

Authors: Wei X, Gao H, Zou J, Liu X, Chen D, Liao J, Xu Y, Ma L, Tang B, Zhang Z, Cai X, Jin K, Xia Y, Wang Q

Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that nerve growth factor IB (Nur77) and nuclear receptor related1 (Nurr1) are differentially involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Since memantine has shown clinically relevant efficacy in Parkinson's disease (PD) and displayed a potent protective effect on dopaminergic neurons in experimental PD models, we asked if it exerts its neuroprotection by regulating Nur77 and Nurr1 signaling. We adopted a well-established in vitro PD model, 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned PC12 cells, to test our hypothesis. Different concentrations of memantine were incubated with 6-OHDA-lesioned PC12 cells, and Nur77/Nurr1 and their related signaling molecules were examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Nur77-deficient PC12 cells were used to verify the influences of Nur77 on neurodegeneration and memantine-mediated neuroprotection. We found that memantine reversed Nur77 upregulation and restored Nurr1 downregulation in 6-OHDA-lesioned PC12 cells. 6-OHDA incubation caused Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to cytosol and induced co-localization of Cyt c/HSP60/Nur77 in the cytosol. Memantine strongly reduced the sub-cellular translocations of Nur77/Cyt c/HSP60 under 6-OHDA-induced oxidative condition. Knockdown of Nur77 enhanced the viability of PC12 cells exposed to 6-OHDA, while memantine-induced neuroprotection was much less in the cells with Nur77 knockdown than in those without it. We conclude that Nur77 plays a crucial role in modulating mitochondrial impairment and contributes to neurodegeneration under the experimental PD condition. Memantine effectively suppresses such Nur77-mediated neurodegeneration and promotes survival signaling through post-translational modification of Nurr1. Nur77 and Nurr1 present a contra-directionally coupling interaction in memantine-mediated neuroprotection.

PMID: 26497037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Bilorrhea secondary to bronchobiliary fistula.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 10/27/2015 - 07:29
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Bilorrhea secondary to bronchobiliary fistula.

Int Surg. 2014 Jul-Aug;99(4):438-41

Authors: Olivencia-Yurvati AH, Rollins C

Abstract
Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition which occurs most commonly as a complication of hydatid cyst liver disease. The following report describes a patient who presented with biliptysis 6 months following decortication of an empyema that had occurred following partial hepatectomy of a colon cancer metastasis. This is the only case to our knowledge that describes the presentation of a BBF in this context. The patient was diagnosed with BBF and successfully underwent open thoracotomy for fistulectomy and repair.

PMID: 25058780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: the impact of total cholesterol level and gender.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 10/27/2015 - 07:29
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Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: the impact of total cholesterol level and gender.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2014;38(5-6):300-9

Authors: Hall JR, Wiechmann AR, Johnson LA, Edwards M, Barber RC, Cunningham R, Singh M, O'Bryant SE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD.
METHODS: Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed.
RESULTS: Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC.
CONCLUSION: The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.

PMID: 25011444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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