Feed aggregator

Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Versus AFB Smear and Culture to Identify Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis From Low and Higher Prevalence Settings.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 02/24/2017 - 07:33
Related Articles

Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Versus AFB Smear and Culture to Identify Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis From Low and Higher Prevalence Settings.

Clin Infect Dis. 2016 May 01;62(9):1081-8

Authors: Luetkemeyer AF, Firnhaber C, Kendall MA, Wu X, Mazurek GH, Benator DA, Arduino R, Fernandez M, Guy E, Johnson P, Metchock B, Sattler F, Telzak E, Wang YF, Weiner M, Swindells S, Sanne IM, Havlir DV, Grinsztejn B, Alland D, AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5295 and Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 34 Teams

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is a rapid nucleic acid amplification test widely used in settings of high tuberculosis prevalence to detect tuberculosis as well asrpoBmutations associated with rifampin resistance. Data are needed on the diagnostic performance of Xpert in lower-prevalence settings to inform appropriate use for both tuberculosis detection and the need for respiratory isolation.
METHODS: Xpert was compared to 2 sputum samples, each evaluated with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and mycobacterial culture using liquid and solid culture media, from participants with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis from the United States, Brazil, and South Africa.
RESULTS: Of 992 participants enrolled with evaluable results, 22% had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. In 638 (64%) US participants, 1 Xpert result demonstrated sensitivity of 85.2% (96.7% in participants with AFB smear-positive [AFB(+)] sputum, 59.3% with AFB smear-negative [AFB(-)] sputum), specificity of 99.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.6%, and positive predictive value of 94.9%. Results did not differ between higher- and low-prevalence settings. A second Xpert assay increased overall sensitivity to 91.1% (100% if AFB(+), 71.4% if AFB(-)), with specificity of 98.9%. In US participants, a single negative Xpert result predicted the absence of AFB(+)/culture-positive tuberculosis with an NPV of 99.7%; NPV of 2 Xpert assays was 100%, suggesting a role in removing patients from airborne infection isolation. Xpert detected tuberculosis DNA and mutations associated with rifampin resistance in 5 of 7 participants with rifampin-resistant, culture-positive tuberculosis. Specificity for rifampin resistance was 99.5% and NPV was 98.9%.
CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, Xpert testing performed comparably to 2 higher-tuberculosis-prevalence settings. These data support the use of Xpert in the initial evaluation of tuberculosis suspects and in algorithms assessing need for respiratory isolation.

PMID: 26839383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Plasma Cystatin C and High-Density Lipoprotein Are Important Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/23/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Plasma Cystatin C and High-Density Lipoprotein Are Important Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:26

Authors: Wang R, Chen Z, Fu Y, Wei X, Liao J, Liu X, He B, Xu Y, Zou J, Yang X, Weng R, Tan S, McElroy C, Jin K, Wang Q

Abstract
Objectives: Cystatin C (Cys C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) play critical roles in neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). However, whether they can be used as reliable biomarkers to distinguish patients with dementia from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity remain largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C and HDL levels of 88 patients with dementia (43 AD patients, 45 VaD patients) and 45 healthy age-matched controls. The severity of dementia was determined based on the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Lawton Instrumental ADL (IADL) Scale, and the Hachinski Ischemia Scale (Hachinski). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Cys C and HDL levels in distinguishing patients with dementia from healthy subjects. Results: We found that plasma Cys C levels were higher, but HDL levels were lower in AD and VaD patients respectively, compared to healthy control subjects. Yet, Cys C levels were highest among patients with VaD. Interestingly, plasma Cys C levels were significantly correlated with IADL Scale scores. In addition, the ROC curves for Cys C (area under the curve, AUC 0.816 for AD, AUC 0.841 for VaD) and HDL (AUC 0.800 for AD, AUC 0.731 for VaD) exhibited potential diagnostic value in distinguishing AD/VaD patients from healthy subjects. While the ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and HDL (AUC 0.873 for AD, AUC 0.897 for VaD) showed higher diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing AD/VaD patients from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the inflammatory mediators Cys C and HDL may play important roles in the pathogenesis of dementia, and plasma Cys C and HDL levels may be useful screening tools for differentiating AD/VaD patients from healthy subjects.
HIGHLIGHTS: Plasma Cys C levels were higher in patients with AD/VaD than in healthy subjects.Plasma HDL levels were lower in patients with AD/VaD than in healthy subjects.Plasma Cys C levels were significantly correlated with dementia.The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and HDL showed potential diagnostic value in distinguishing AD/VaD from healthy subjects.

PMID: 28223934 [PubMed - in process]

Analysis of Short Tandem Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Loci From Single-Source Samples Using a Custom HaloPlex Target Enrichment System Panel.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/23/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Analysis of Short Tandem Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Loci From Single-Source Samples Using a Custom HaloPlex Target Enrichment System Panel.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2016 Jun;37(2):99-107

Authors: Wendt FR, Zeng X, Churchill JD, King JL, Budowle B

Abstract
Short tandem repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to individualize biological evidence samples. Short tandem repeat alleles are characterized by size separation during capillary electrophoresis (CE). Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an alternative that can overcome limitations of the CE. With MPS, libraries are prepared for each sample, entailing target enrichment and bar coding, purification, and normalization. The HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent Technologies) uses a capture-based enrichment system with restriction enzyme digestion to generate fragments containing custom-selected markers. It offers another possible workflow for typing reference samples. Its efficacy was assessed using a panel of 275 human identity SNPs, 88 short tandem repeats, and amelogenin. The data analyzed included locus typing success, depth of sequence coverage, heterozygote balance, and concordance. The results indicate that the HaloPlex Target Enrichment System provides genetic data similar to that obtained by conventional polymerase chain reaction-CE methods with the advantage of analyzing substantially more markers in 1 sequencing run. The genetic typing performance of HaloPlex is comparable to other MPS-based sample preparation systems that utilize primer-based target enrichment.

PMID: 27075592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

For the pursuit of oxygen and carbon dioxide channels in mitochondria.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 02/22/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

For the pursuit of oxygen and carbon dioxide channels in mitochondria.

Med Gas Res. 2016 Oct-Dec;6(4):237-238

Authors: Yang SH, Liu R

PMID: 28217298 [PubMed - in process]

What's the agreement between self-reported and biochemical verification of drug use? A look at permanent supportive housing residents.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 07:33
Related Articles

What's the agreement between self-reported and biochemical verification of drug use? A look at permanent supportive housing residents.

Addict Behav. 2017 Feb 10;70:90-96

Authors: Rendon A, Livingston M, Suzuki S, Hill W, Walters S

Abstract
Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview). A multivariable logistic regression was used to predict discordance between self-report and the drug test for users. Self-reported drug use and oral fluid drug tests were compared to determine the positive predictive value for amphetamines/methamphetamines/PCP (47.1% agreement), cocaine (43.8% agreement), and marijuana (69.7% agreement) drug tests. Participants who misreported their drug use were more likely to be older, non-White, have no medical insurance, and not report any alcohol use. In general, amphetamine/methamphetamine/PCP and cocaine use was adequately captured by the biological test, while marijuana use was best captured by a combination of self-report and biological data. Using the full past 90day comparison window resulted in higher concordance with the oral fluid drug test, indicating that self-reported drug use in the past 90days may be a proxy for drug use within the biological testing window. Self-report has some disadvantages when used as the sole measure of drug use in this population.

PMID: 28214742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Locomotor activity and discriminative stimulus effects of a novel series of synthetic cathinone analogs in mice and rats.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 02/18/2017 - 07:33
Related Articles

Locomotor activity and discriminative stimulus effects of a novel series of synthetic cathinone analogs in mice and rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Feb 16;:

Authors: Gatch MB, Dolan SB, Forster MJ

Abstract
RATIONALE: Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds.
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone.
METHODS: Locomotor activity was assessed in an open-field assay using Swiss-Webster mice. Discriminative stimulus effects were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine from vehicle.
RESULTS: Each of the compounds produced an inverted-U dose-effect on locomotor activity. Maximal effects were similar among the test compounds, but potencies varied with relative potencies of MDPBP > α-PPP = α-PHP > ethylone > α-PVT. Each of the test compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. α-PPP, α-PHP, and ethylone fully substituted for cocaine. α-PVT produced a maximum of 50% cocaine-appropriate responding, and MDPBP produced an inverted-U-shaped dose-effect curve with maximum effects of 67%.
CONCLUSIONS: These data provide initial evidence that these structurally similar, emerging novel psychoactive substances demonstrate potential for abuse and may be utilized for their stimulant-like effects, given their ability to stimulate locomotor activity and their substitution for the discriminative stimulus effects of the classical psychostimulants cocaine and/or methamphetamine.

PMID: 28210779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metformin Impairs Spatial Memory and Visual Acuity in Old Male Mice.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 02/17/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Metformin Impairs Spatial Memory and Visual Acuity in Old Male Mice.

Aging Dis. 2017 Feb;8(1):17-30

Authors: Thangthaeng N, Rutledge M, Wong JM, Vann PH, Forster MJ, Sumien N

Abstract
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice. C57BL/6 mice aged 4, 11, or 22 months were randomly assigned to either a metformin group (2 mg/ml in drinking water) or a control group. The mice were monitored weekly for body weight, as well as food and water intake and a battery of behavioral tests for motor, cognitive and visual function was initiated after the first month of treatment. Liver, hippocampus and cortex were collected at the end of the study to assess redox homeostasis. Overall, metformin supplementation in male mice failed to affect blood glucose, body weights and redox homeostasis at any age. It also had no beneficial effect on age-related declines in psychomotor, cognitive or sensory functions. However, metformin treatment had a deleterious effect on spatial memory and visual acuity, and reduced SOD activity in brain regions. These data confirm that metformin treatment may be associated with deleterious effect resulting from the action of metformin on the central nervous system.

PMID: 28203479 [PubMed]

Potential Biochemical Mechanisms of Lung Injury in Diabetes.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 02/17/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Potential Biochemical Mechanisms of Lung Injury in Diabetes.

Aging Dis. 2017 Feb;8(1):7-16

Authors: Zheng H, Wu J, Jin Z, Yan LJ

Abstract
Accumulating evidence has shown that the lung is one of the target organs for microangiopathy in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes is associated with physiological and structural abnormalities in the diabetic lung concurrent with attenuated lung function. Despite intensive investigations in recent years, the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic lung injury remain largely elusive. In this review, we summarize currently postulated mechanisms of diabetic lung injury. We mainly focus on the pathogenesis of diabetic lung injury that implicates key pathways, including oxidative stress, non-enzymatic protein glycosylation, polyol pathway, NF-κB pathway, and protein kinase c pathway. We also highlight that while numerous studies have mainly focused on tissue or cell damage in the lung, studies focusing on mitochondrial dysfunction in the diabetic lung have remained sketchy. Hence, further understanding of mitochondrial mechanisms of diabetic lung injury should provide invaluable insights into future therapeutic approaches for diabetic lung injury.

PMID: 28203478 [PubMed]

Oscillation patterns are enhanced and firing threshold is lowered in medullary respiratory neuron discharges by threshold doses of a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 02/17/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Oscillation patterns are enhanced and firing threshold is lowered in medullary respiratory neuron discharges by threshold doses of a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017 Feb 15;:ajpregu.00120.2016

Authors: Lalley PM, Mifflin SW

Abstract
μ-Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brainstem respiratory network, and opioids with selectivity for μ-type receptors slow in-vivo respiratory rhythm in lowest effective doses. Several studies have reported μ-opioid receptor effects on the three-phase rhythm of respiratory neurons, but there are until now no reports of opioid effects on oscillatory activity within respiratory discharges. In this study, effects of the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl on spike train discharge properties of several different types of rhythm-modulating medullary respiratory neuron discharges were analyzed. Doses of fentanyl that were just sufficient for prolongation of discharges and slowing of the three-phase respiratory rhythm also produced pronounced enhancement of spike train properties. Oscillation and burst patterns detected by autocorrelation measurements were greatly enhanced, and inter-spike intervals were prolonged. Spike train properties under control conditions and after fentanyl were uniform within each experiment, but varied considerably between experiments, which might be related to variability in acid-base balance in the brainstem extracellular fluid. Discharge threshold was shifted to more negative levels of membrane potential. The effects on threshold are postulated to result from opioid mediated disinhibition and postsynaptic enhancement of NMDA receptor current. Lowering of firing threshold, enhancement of spike train oscillations and bursts and prolongation of discharges by lowest effective doses of fentanyl could represent compensatory adjustments in the brainstem respiratory network to override opioid blunting of CO2/pH chemosensitivity.

PMID: 28202437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Managing Spaghetti Syndrome in Critical Care With a Novel Device: A Nursing Perspective.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/16/2017 - 10:37
Related Articles

Managing Spaghetti Syndrome in Critical Care With a Novel Device: A Nursing Perspective.

Crit Care Nurse. 2015 Dec;35(6):38-45

Authors: Haynes J, Bowers K, Young R, Sanders T, Schultz KE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Managing "spaghetti syndrome," the tangle of therapeutic cables, tubes, and cords at patients' bedsides, can be challenging.
OBJECTIVES: To assess nurses' perceptions of the effectiveness of a novel banding device in management of spaghetti syndrome.
METHODS: A simple color-coded elastomeric banding strap with ribbed flaps was attached to bed rails of adult critical care patients to help organize therapeutic cables, tubes, wires, and cords. Nurses were surveyed before and after use of the bands and after the nursing shift to assess the burden of spaghetti syndrome and the effectiveness of using the bands.
RESULTS: Use of the bands decreased the time spent untangling cords, reduced the frequency of contact of tubing with the floor, and diminished disruptions in care.
CONCLUSIONS: Use of a simple flexible latex-free elastomeric band may help organize therapeutic tubing at patients' bedsides and may promote improvements in nursing care.

PMID: 26628544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FRET study in oligopeptide-linked donor-acceptor system in PVA matrix.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 07:32

FRET study in oligopeptide-linked donor-acceptor system in PVA matrix.

Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2016 Dec 13;4(4):047002

Authors: Shah S, Mandecki W, Li J, Gryczynski Z, Borejdo J, Gryczynski I, Fudala R

Abstract
An oligopeptide: Lys-Gly-Pro-Arg-Ser-Leu-Ser-Gly-Lys-NH2, cleaved specifically by a matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) at the Ser-Leu bond, was labeled on the ε-NH2 groups of lysine with donor (5, 6 TAMRA) and acceptor (HiLyte647) dye. The donor control was a peptide labeled with 5, 6 TAMRA only on the C-terminal lysine, and the acceptor control was free HiLyte647. Following three products were studied by dissolving in 10% (w/w) poly(vinyl alcohol) and dried on glass slides forming 200 micron films. Absorption spectra of the films show full additivity of donor and acceptor absorptions. A strong Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) with an efficiency of about 85% was observed in the fluorescence emission and excitation spectra. The lifetime of the donor was shorter and heterogeneous compared with the donor control.

PMID: 28192309 [PubMed - in process]

Fluorescence lifetime imaging with time-gated detection of hyaluronidase using a long lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 07:32

Fluorescence lifetime imaging with time-gated detection of hyaluronidase using a long lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore.

Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2016 Nov 17;4(4):047001

Authors: Chib R, Requena S, Mummert M, Strzhemechny YM, Gryczynski I, Borejdo J, Gryczynski Z, Fudala R

Abstract
A fluorescence lifetime imaging probe with a long lifetime was used in combination with time-gating for the detection of hyaluronidase using hyaluronic acid as the probe template. This probe was developed by heavily labeling hyaluronic acid with long lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophores (ADOTA). We used this probe to image hyaluronidase produced by DU-145 prostate cancer cells.

PMID: 28192308 [PubMed - in process]

Skeletal Muscle Function Deficits in the Elderly: Current Perspectives on Resistance Training.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Skeletal Muscle Function Deficits in the Elderly: Current Perspectives on Resistance Training.

J Nat Sci. 2017 Jan;3(1):

Authors: Papa EV, Dong X, Hassan M

Abstract
A variety of changes in skeletal muscle occur with aging. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Traditional definitions of sarcopenia focused on the size of human skeletal muscle. However, increasing evidence in older adults suggests that low muscle mass is associated with weakness, and weakness is strongly associated with function and disability. In recent years a global trend has shifted toward more encompassing definitions for the loss of muscle mass which include decreases in physical function. This review focuses on skeletal muscle function deficits in the elderly and how these age-associated deficits can be ameliorated by resistance training. We set forth evidence that skeletal muscle deficits arise from changes within the muscle, including reduced fiber size, decreased satellite cell and fiber numbers, and decreased expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform IIa. Finally, we provide recommendations for clinical geriatric practice regarding how resistance training can attenuate the increase in age-associated skeletal muscle function deficits. Practitioners should consider encouraging patients who are reluctant to exercise to move along a continuum of activity between "no acticity" on one end and "recommended daily amounts" on the other.

PMID: 28191501 [PubMed - in process]

Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 02/14/2017 - 07:32
Related Articles

Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 26;16(1):314

Authors: Zhang H, Liu H, Lin Q, Zhang G, Mason DC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca(2+) is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca(2+)-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca(2+) mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation (IPIRM) of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the injured HSKMCs.
METHODS: The normal HSKMCs was used as control normal group (CNG), while the injured HSKMCs were further divided into five different groups: control injured group (CIG), Rolling manipulation group (RMG), Rolling manipulation-Verapamil group (RMVG), static pressure group (SPG) and static pressure-Verapamil group (SPVG). RMG and RMVG cells were cyclically exposed to 9.5-12.5 N/cm(2) of IPIRM at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 10 min. SPG and SPVG were loaded to a continuous pressure of 12.5 N/cm(2) for 10 min. Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, was added into the culture mediums of both RMVG and SPVG groups to block the influx of calcium ion.
RESULT: Compared with the CNG (normal cells), SOD activity was remarkably decreased while both MDA content and CK activity were significantly increased in the CIG (injured cells). When the injured cells were treated with the intermittent rolling manipulation pressure (RMG), the SOD activity was significantly increased and MDA content and CK activity were remarkably decreased. These effects were suppressed by adding the calcium antagonist Verapamil into the culture medium in RMVG. On the other hand, exposure to static pressure in SPG and SPVG affected neither the SOD activity nor the MDA content and CK activity in the injured muscle cells regardless of the presence of verapamil or not in the culture medium.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the intermittent rolling pressure with the manipulation could ameliorate HSKMCs injury through a Ca(2+) dependent pathway. Static pressure did not lead to the same results.

PMID: 27561948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Activation of the sigma-1 receptor by haloperidol metabolites facilitates brain-derived neurotrophic factor secretion from human astroglia.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sun, 02/12/2017 - 07:47

Activation of the sigma-1 receptor by haloperidol metabolites facilitates brain-derived neurotrophic factor secretion from human astroglia.

Neurochem Int. 2017 Feb 08;:

Authors: Dalwadi DA, Kim S, Schetz JA

Abstract
Glial cells play a critical role in neuronal support which includes the production and release of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Activation of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been shown to attenuate inflammatory stress-mediated brain injuries, and there is emerging evidence that this may involve a BDNF-dependent mechanism. In this report we studied S1R-mediated BDNF release from human astrocytic glial cells. Astrocytes express the S1R, which mediates BDNF release when stimulated with the prototypical S1R agonists 4-PPBP and (+)-SKF10047. This effect could be antagonized by a selective concentration of the S1R antagonist BD1063. Haloperidol is known to have high affinity interactions with the S1R, yet it was unable to facilitate BDNF release. Remarkably, however, two metabolites of haloperidol, haloperidol I and haloperidol II (reduced haloperidol), were discovered to facilitate BDNF secretion and this effect was antagonized by BD1063. Neither 4-PPBP, nor either of the haloperidol metabolites affected the level of BDNF mRNA as assessed by qPCR. These results demonstrate for the first time that haloperidol metabolites I and II facilitate the secretion of BDNF from astrocytes by acting as functionally selective S1R agonists.

PMID: 28188803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Transethnic genome-wide scan identifies novel Alzheimer's disease loci.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sun, 02/12/2017 - 07:47
Related Articles

Transethnic genome-wide scan identifies novel Alzheimer's disease loci.

Alzheimers Dement. 2017 Feb 06;:

Authors: Jun GR, Chung J, Mez J, Barber R, Beecham GW, Bennett DA, Buxbaum JD, Byrd GS, Carrasquillo MM, Crane PK, Cruchaga C, De Jager P, Ertekin-Taner N, Evans D, Fallin MD, Foroud TM, Friedland RP, Goate AM, Graff-Radford NR, Hendrie H, Hall KS, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Inzelberg R, Kamboh MI, Kauwe JS, Kukull WA, Kunkle BW, Kuwano R, Larson EB, Logue MW, Manly JJ, Martin ER, Montine TJ, Mukherjee S, Naj A, Reiman EM, Reitz C, Sherva R, St George-Hyslop PH, Thornton T, Younkin SG, Vardarajan BN, Wang LS, Wendlund JR, Winslow AR, Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium, Haines J, Mayeux R, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg G, Lunetta KL, Farrer LA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood.
METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset.
RESULTS: Genome-wide significant (GWS) associations in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based tests (P < 5 × 10(-8)) were identified for SNPs in PFDN1/HBEGF, USP6NL/ECHDC3, and BZRAP1-AS1 and for the interaction of the APOE ɛ4 allele with NFIC SNP. We also obtained GWS evidence (P < 2.7 × 10(-6)) for gene-based association in the total sample with a novel locus, TPBG (P = 1.8 × 10(-6)).
DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the value of transethnic studies for identifying novel AD susceptibility loci.

PMID: 28183528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-like effects of novel synthetic cannabinoids in mice and rats.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sun, 02/12/2017 - 07:47
Related Articles

Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-like effects of novel synthetic cannabinoids in mice and rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 05;233(10):1901-10

Authors: Gatch MB, Forster MJ

Abstract
RATIONALE: Novel cannabinoid compounds continue to be marketed as "legal" marijuana substitutes, even though little is known about their molecular and behavioral effects.
OBJECTIVES: Six of these compounds (ADBICA, ADB-PINACA, THJ-2201, RCS-4, JWH-122, JWH-210) were tested for in vitro and in vivo cannabinoid-like effects to determine their abuse liability.
METHODS: Binding to and functional activity at CB1 cannabinoid receptors was tested. Locomotor activity in mice was tested to screen for behavioral activity and to identify behaviorally active dose ranges and times of peak effect. Discriminative stimulus effects of the six compounds were tested in rats trained to discriminate Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC).
RESULTS: ADBICA, ADB-PINACA, THJ-2201, RCS-4, JWH-122, and JWH-210 showed high affinity binding at the CB1 receptor at nanomolar affinities (0.59 to 22.5 nM), and all acted as full agonists with nanomolar potencies (0.024 to 111 nM) when compared to the CB1 receptor full agonist CP 55940. All compounds depressed locomotor activity below 50 % of vehicle responding, with depressant effects lasting 1.5 to nearly 4 h. All compounds fully substituted (<80 % Δ(9)-THC-appropriate responding) for the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ(9)-THC. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) was tested as a negative control and did not substitute for Δ(9)-THC (11 % Δ(9)-THC-appropriate responding).
CONCLUSIONS: All six of the compounds acted at the CB1 receptor and produced behavioral effects common to abused cannabinoid compounds, which suggest that these compounds have substantial abuse liability common to controlled synthetic cannabinoid compounds.

PMID: 26875756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can ceftazidime/avibactam and aztreonam overcome β-lactam resistance conferred by metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae?

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/09/2017 - 07:34
Related Articles

Can ceftazidime/avibactam and aztreonam overcome β-lactam resistance conferred by metallo-β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae?

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Feb 06;:

Authors: Marshall S, Hujer AM, Rojas LJ, Papp-Wallace KM, Humphries RM, Spellberg B, Hujer KM, Marshall EK, Rudin SD, Perez F, Wilson BM, Wasserman RB, Chikowski L, Paterson DL, Vila AJ, van Duin D, Kreiswirth BN, Chambers HF, Fowler VG, Jacobs MR, Pulse ME, Weiss WJ, Bonomo RA

Abstract
Based upon knowledge of the hydrolytic profile of major β-lactamases found in Gram negative bacteria, we tested the effectiveness of the combination of ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI) with aztreonam (ATM) against carbapenem-resistant enteric bacteria possessing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Disk-diffusion and agar based antimicrobial susceptibility testing were initially performed to determine the in vitro efficacy of a unique combination of CAZ/AVI and ATM against 21 representative Enterobacteriaceae isolates with a complex molecular background that included blaIMP, blaNDM, blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M, blaAmpC, and combinations thereof. Time-kill assays were conducted, and the in vivo efficacy of this combination was assessed in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model. By disk diffusion assay, all 21 isolates were resistant to CAZ/AVI alone, and 19/21 were resistant to ATM. The in vitro activity of CAZ/AVI in combination with ATM against diverse Enterobacteriaceae possessing MBLs was demonstrated in 17/21 isolates, where the zone of inhibition was ≥ 21 mm. All isolates demonstrated a reduction in CAZ/AVI agar dilution MICs with the addition of ATM. At 2 h, time-kill assays demonstrated a ≥ 4 log10 CFU decrease for all groups that had CAZ/AVI plus ATM (8 μg/ml) added, compared to the CAZ/AVI alone group. In the murine neutropenic thigh infection model, an almost 4 log10 reduction in CFUs was noted at 24 h for CAZ/AVI (32 mg/kg q8h) plus ATM (32 mg/kg q8h) vs. CAZ/AVI (32 mg/kg q8h) alone. The data presented herein, requires us to carefully consider this new therapeutic combination to treat infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

PMID: 28167541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dexamethasone-Induced Ocular Hypertension in Mice: Effects of Myocilin and Route of Administration.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/09/2017 - 07:34
Related Articles

Dexamethasone-Induced Ocular Hypertension in Mice: Effects of Myocilin and Route of Administration.

Am J Pathol. 2017 Feb 03;:

Authors: Patel GC, Phan TN, Maddineni P, Kasetti RB, Millar JC, Clark AF, Zode GS

Abstract
Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) is a serious adverse effect of prolonged GC therapy that can lead to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. An appropriate mouse model can help us understand precise molecular mechanisms and etiology of GC-induced OHT. We therefore developed a novel, simple, and reproducible mouse model of GC-induced OHT. GC-induced myocilin expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM) has been suggested to play an important role in GC-induced OHT. We further determined whether myocilin contributes to GC-OHT. C57BL/6J mice received weekly periocular conjunctival fornix injections of a dexamethasone-21-acetate (DEX-Ac) formulation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was relatively rapid and significant, and correlated with reduced conventional outflow facility. Nighttime IOPs were higher in ocular hypertensive eyes compared to daytime IOPs. DEX-Ac treatment led to increased expression of fibronectin, collagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin in the TM in mouse eyes. No changes in body weight indicated no systemic toxicity associated with DEX-Ac treatment. Wild-type mice showed increased myocilin expression in the TM on DEX-Ac treatment. Both wild-type and Myoc(-/-) mice had equivalent and significantly elevated IOP with DEX-Ac treatment every week. In conclusion, our mouse model mimics many aspects of GC-induced OHT in humans, and we further demonstrate that myocilin does not play a major role in DEX-induced OHT in mice.

PMID: 28167045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correlation of Lipid Profile and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in 10-14 Year Old Children.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 02/09/2017 - 07:34
Related Articles

Correlation of Lipid Profile and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in 10-14 Year Old Children.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39(5):1695-1704

Authors: Habiba NM, Fulda KG, Basha R, Shah D, Fernando S, Nguyen B, Xiong Y, Franks SF, Matches SJ, Magie RD, Bowman WP

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of lipid profile in predicting the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children is not clearly established. Our aim is to screen non-diabetic children aged 10-14 years for risk of developing T2DM and evaluate the association of abnormal lipids and socioeconomic status (SES).
METHODS: Data on race/ethnicity, family history, body mass index percentile, blood pressure and presence of neck pigmentation (acanthosis nigricans) were collected from 149 non-diabetic children. Using these factors, children were classified into low risk (<3 risk factors) and high risk (>3 risk factors) groups. Logistic regression model and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the association of blood lipid profile and demographic variables. Independent t-test was used to compare the ratio of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipids (HDL) with T2DM risk.
RESULTS: 60% of children were at high risk for developing T2DM. HDL (p<0.001), triglycerides (p=0.02) and TC/HDL ratio (p<.001) were significantly abnormal in high risk group. Low SES showed a marginal association with high risk group. There were no gender or age differences between high and low risk groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The significant determinants associated with high risk group were modifiable factors providing an opportunity for early intervention and prevention.

PMID: 27642750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pages