Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 42 min 37 sec ago

Role of Catalase in Oxidative Stress- and Age-Associated Degenerative Diseases.

42 min 37 sec ago
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Role of Catalase in Oxidative Stress- and Age-Associated Degenerative Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:9613090

Authors: Nandi A, Yan LJ, Jana CK, Das N

Abstract
Reactive species produced in the cell during normal cellular metabolism can chemically react with cellular biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, thereby causing their oxidative modifications leading to alterations in their compositions and potential damage to their cellular activities. Fortunately, cells have evolved several antioxidant defense mechanisms (as metabolites, vitamins, and enzymes) to neutralize or mitigate the harmful effect of reactive species and/or their byproducts. Any perturbation in the balance in the level of antioxidants and the reactive species results in a physiological condition called "oxidative stress." A catalase is one of the crucial antioxidant enzymes that mitigates oxidative stress to a considerable extent by destroying cellular hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen. Deficiency or malfunction of catalase is postulated to be related to the pathogenesis of many age-associated degenerative diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anemia, vitiligo, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, cancer, and schizophrenia. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken in many laboratories to explore its use as a potential drug for the treatment of such diseases. This paper describes the direct and indirect involvement of deficiency and/or modification of catalase in the pathogenesis of some important diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, vitiligo, and acatalasemia. Details on the efforts exploring the potential treatment of these diseases using a catalase as a protein therapeutic agent have also been described.

PMID: 31827713 [PubMed - in process]

Motivational Interviewing to Encourage Quit Attempts among Smokers not ready to Quit: A Trial-Based Economic Analysis.

Wed, 12/11/2019 - 05:59
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Motivational Interviewing to Encourage Quit Attempts among Smokers not ready to Quit: A Trial-Based Economic Analysis.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2019 Dec 10;:

Authors: Rasu R, Thelen J, Agbor Bawa W, Goggin K, Bradley-Ewing A, Catley D

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study used data from a randomized-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) relative to health education (HE) and brief advice(BA) to encourage quit attempts and cessation in order to determine their relative cost-effectiveness.
METHODS: Urban community residents (N=255) with low desire to quit smoking were randomized to MI, HE, or BA which differed in communication style and/or number of treatment sessions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were used to compare the intensive interventions (MI and HE) to BA for facilitating quit attempts and smoking cessation. Costs were calculated from the perspective of an agency that might engage in program delivery. Sensitivity-analysis examined different assumptions for MI training and pharmacotherapy costs.
RESULTS: Total intervention delivery time costs per participant for MI, HE and BA were $46.63, $42.87 and $2.4, respectively.  Cost-effectiveness ratios per quit attempt at 24-weeks were $380 for MI, $272 for HE, and $209 for BA. The cost per additional quit attempt for MI and HE relative to BA was $508 and $301, respectively. The cost per additional quit for MI and HE and relative to BA was $2,030 and $752, respectively. Four separate sensitivity-analyses conducted in our study did not change the conclusion the HE had a lower Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for both quit attempts and cessation.
CONCLUSIONS: HE was the most cost-effective of the three types of smoking-cessation induction therapies and therefore may be preferable for smokers who are less motivated to quit. Providing valuable cost information in choosing different clinical methods for motivating smokers to quit.
IMPLICATIONS: All direct costs and activity-based time costs associated with delivering the intervention were analyzed from the perspective of an agency that may wish to replicate these strategies. A randomized-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) relative to health education (HE) and brief advice (BA) to encourage quit attempts and cessation determined their relative cost-effectiveness. Health education was the most cost-effective of the three types of smoking-cessation induction therapies and therefore may be preferable. Despite guideline recommendations, motivational interviewing may not be the best approach to encourage quit attempts in diverse populations. Rather, a structured, intensive health education intervention might be the most cost-effective alternative.

PMID: 31820002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Forensic genetic investigation of human skeletal remains recovered from the La Belle shipwreck.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Forensic genetic investigation of human skeletal remains recovered from the La Belle shipwreck.

Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Nov 12;306:110050

Authors: Ambers A, Bus MM, King JL, Jones B, Durst J, Bruseth JE, Gill-King H, Budowle B

Abstract
In 1995, the historical shipwreck of La Belle was discovered off the coast of Texas. One partial human skeleton was recovered from alongside cargo in the rear portion of the ship; a second (complete) skeleton was found atop coiled anchor rope in the bow. In late 2015, comprehensive forensic genetic testing began on multiple samplings from each set of remains. For the partial skeleton recovered from the ship's rear cargo area, results were obtained for 26/27 Y-STRs using traditional CE; with MPS technology, results were obtained for 18/24 Y-STRs, 56/56 ancestry-informative SNPs (aiSNPs), 22/22 phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs), 22/27 autosomal STRs, 4/7 X-STRs, and 94/94 identity-informative SNPs (iiSNPs). For the complete skeleton of the second individual, results were obtained for 7/17 Y-STRs using traditional CE; with MPS technology, results were obtained for 5/24 Y-STRs, 49/56 aiSNPs, 18/22 piSNPs, 15/27 autosomal STRs, 1/7 X-STRs, and 66/94 iiSNPs. Biogeographic ancestry for each set of skeletal remains was predicted using the ancestry feature and metapopulation tool of the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), Haplogroup Predictor, and the Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics knowledge base (FROG-kb). Phenotype prediction was performed using piSNP data and the HIrisplex eye color and hair color DNA phenotyping webtool. mtDNA whole genome sequencing also was performed successfully. This study highlights the sensitivity of current forensic laboratory methods in recovering DNA from historical and archaeological human remains. Using advanced sequencing technology provided by MiSeq™ FGx (Verogen) and Ion S5™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) instrumentation, degraded skeletal remains can be characterized using a panel of diverse and highly informative markers, producing data which can be useful in both forensic and genealogical investigations.

PMID: 31790892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sterilization of Drug-Loaded Composite Coatings for Implantable Glucose Biosensors.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Sterilization of Drug-Loaded Composite Coatings for Implantable Glucose Biosensors.

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2019 Dec 01;:1932296819890620

Authors: Tipnis N, Kastellorizios M, Legassey A, Papadimitrakopoulos F, Jain F, Burgess DJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: An anti-inflammatory drug-loaded composite coating (dexamethasone-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microspheres/polyvinyl alcohol [PVA] hydrogel) was previously developed to counter the foreign body reaction to a fully implantable continuous glucose monitoring biosensor. The long-term sensor functionality was ensured in the presence of the drug-loaded composite coating thus facilitating better diabetes control and management. In order to advance such a drug-device combination product toward clinical testing, addressing sterilization remains a key step due to the heterogeneity of the product components. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two terminal sterilization techniques: gamma radiation and ethylene oxide (EO) on the stability of the anti-inflammatory coatings as well as retention of the glucose sensing ability of the implantable sensor.
METHOD: The composite coatings, their individual components, and the glucose-sensing elements of the biosensor were subjected to low-temperature gamma radiation and EO cycles. Detailed characterization was conducted on all components before and after sterilization.
RESULTS: Exposure to gamma radiation affected dexamethasone crystallinity and glucose response linearity of the sensing element, whereas physical aging of microspheres in composite coatings was observed poststerilization with EO. Despite these effects, dexamethasone drug release from coatings was not significantly affected by either technique.
CONCLUSION: The research findings indicate that both sterilization techniques are feasible for the sterilization of the dexamethasone-loaded PLGA microspheres/PVA hydrogel composite coatings, while EO was preferred for the sterilization of the glucose-sensing element of the biosensor.

PMID: 31786953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Glenohumeral joint capsular tissue tension loading correlates moderately with shear wave elastography: a cadaveric investigation.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Glenohumeral joint capsular tissue tension loading correlates moderately with shear wave elastography: a cadaveric investigation.

Ultrasonography. 2019 Aug 01;:

Authors: Nichols CW, Brismée JM, Hooper TL, Bertrand-Grenier A, Gilbert KK, St-Pierre MO, Kapila J, Sobczak S

Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the mechanical properties of capsular tissue using shear wave elastography (SWE) and a durometer under various tensile loads, and to explore the reliability and correlation of SWE and durometer measurements to evaluate whether SWE technology could be used to assess tissue changes during capsule tensile loading.
Methods: The inferior glenohumeral joint capsule was harvested from 10 fresh human cadaveric specimens. Tensile loading was applied to the capsular tissue using 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-kg weights. Blinded investigators measured tissue stiffness and hardness during loading using SWE and a durometer, respectively. Intraobserver reliability was established for SWE and durometer measurements using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The Pearson product-moment correlation was used to assess the associations between SWE and durometer measurements.
Results: The ICC3,5 for durometer measurements was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.96; P<0.001) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88 to 0.98; P<0.001) for SWE measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient values for 1-, 3-, and 5-kg weights were 0.56 (P=0.095), 0.36 (P=0.313), and -0.56 (P=0.089), respectively. When the 1- and 3-kg weights were combined, the ICC3,5 was 0.72 (P<0.001), and it was 0.62 (P<0.001) when the 1-, 3-, and 5-kg weights were combined. The 8-kg measurements were severely limited due to SWE measurement saturation of the tissue samples.
Conclusion: This study suggests that SWE is reliable for measuring capsular tissue stiffness changes in vitro at lower loads (1 and 3 kg) and provides a baseline for the non-invasive evaluation of effects of joint loading and mobilization on capsular tissues in vivo.

PMID: 31786904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neuronal deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog results in cerebellar motor learning dysfunction and alterations in intracellular signaling.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Neuronal deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog results in cerebellar motor learning dysfunction and alterations in intracellular signaling.

Neuroreport. 2019 05 22;30(8):556-561

Authors: Nolan SO, Jefferson TS, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Holley AJ, Hodges SL, Lugo JN

Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to examine cerebellar levels of several molecular signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and markers of neuronal migration, following loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene in a subset of neurons, as well as the accompanying behavior phenotype in mice. Motor coordination and learning were measured by the sticker removal task and the accelerating rotarod. Western blots were conducted on cerebellar tissue samples. We demonstrated that neuron subset-specific deletion of PTEN in mice led to deficits in motor coordination. These changes were accompanied by alterations in many different proteins, including the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, FMRP, glutamate receptors, and neuronal migration markers. These data firstly support a role for hyperactivation of mTOR in the cerebellum following the loss of PTEN, accompanied by behavioral deficits. Moreover, the results of the current study support a broader role for PTEN signaling in early neuronal migration and organization of the cerebellum, and point to a putative role for PTEN in many neuropsychiatric conditions.

PMID: 30920436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Circulating mitochondrial DNA: New indices of type 2 diabetes-related cognitive impairment in Mexican Americans.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Circulating mitochondrial DNA: New indices of type 2 diabetes-related cognitive impairment in Mexican Americans.

PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213527

Authors: Silzer T, Barber R, Sun J, Pathak G, Johnson L, O'Bryant S, Phillips N

Abstract
Mitochondrial function has been implicated and studied in numerous complex age-related diseases. Understanding the potential role of mitochondria in disease pathophysiology is of importance due to the rise in prevalence of complex age-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These two diseases specifically share common pathophysiological characteristics which potentially point to a common root cause or factors for disease exacerbation. Studying the shared phenomena in Mexican Americans is of particular importance due to the disproportionate prevalence of both T2D and AD in this population. Here, we assessed the potential role of mitochondria in T2D and cognitive impairment (CI) in a Mexican American cohort by analyzing blood-based indices of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNACN) and cell-free mitochondrial DNA (CFmtDNA). These mitochondrial metrics were also analyzed for correlation with relevant neuropsychological variables and physiological data collected as indicators of disease and/or disease progression. We found mtDNACN to be significantly decreased in individuals with CI, while CFmtDNA was significantly elevated in T2D; further, CFmtDNA elevation was significantly exacerbated in individuals with both diseases. MtDNACN was found to negatively correlate with age and fatty acid binding protein concentration, while positively correlating with CFmtDNA as well as CERAD total recall score. Candidate gene SNP-set analysis was performed on genes previously implicated in maintenance and control of mitochondrial dynamics to determine if nuclear variants may account for variability in mtDNACN. The results point to a single significant locus, in the LRRK2/MUC19 region, encoding leucine rich repeat kinase 2 and mucin 19. This locus has been previously implicated in Parkinson's disease, among others; rs7302859 was the driver SNP. These combined findings further indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction (as assessed by proxy via mtDNACN) is intimately linked to both T2D and CI phenotypes as well as aging.

PMID: 30861027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Assessing the Performance of the Nonbonded Mg2+ Models in a Two-Metal-Dependent Ribonuclease.

Wed, 12/04/2019 - 06:40
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Assessing the Performance of the Nonbonded Mg2+ Models in a Two-Metal-Dependent Ribonuclease.

J Chem Inf Model. 2019 01 28;59(1):399-408

Authors: Zuo Z, Liu J

Abstract
Magnesium ions (Mg2+), abundant in living cells, are essential for biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function. The biological importance of Mg2+ has motivated continuous development and improvement of various Mg2+ models for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations during the last decades. There are four types of nonbonded Mg2+ models: the point charge models based on a 12-6 or 12-6-4 type Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, and the multisite models based on a 12-6 or 12-6-4 LJ potential. Here, we systematically assessed the performance of these four types of nonbonded Mg2+ models (21 models in total) in terms of maintaining a challenging intermediate state configuration captured in the structure of a prototypical two-metal-ion RNase H complex with an RNA/DNA hybrid. Our data demonstrate that the 12-6-4 multisite models, which account for charge-induced dipole interactions, perform the best in reproducing all the unique coordination modes in this intermediate state and maintaining the correct carboxylate denticity. Our benchmark work provides a useful guideline for MD simulations and structural refinement of Mg2+-containing biomolecular systems.

PMID: 30521334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reverse Complement PCR: A novel one-step PCR system for typing highly degraded DNA for human identification.

Mon, 12/02/2019 - 05:58

Reverse Complement PCR: A novel one-step PCR system for typing highly degraded DNA for human identification.

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2019 Nov 06;44:102201

Authors: Kieser RE, Buś MM, King JL, van der Vliet W, Theelen J, Budowle B

Abstract
Reverse Complement PCR (RC-PCR) is an innovative, one-step PCR target enrichment technology adapted for the amplification of highly degraded (fragmented) DNA. It provides simultaneous amplification and tagging of a targeted sequence construct in a single, closed-tube assay. A human identification (HID) RC-PCR panel was designed targeting 27 identity single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generating targets only 50 base pairs in length. In a single reaction, the complete sequencing construct is produced which is essential for massively parallel sequencing (MPS) library preparation, thus reducing time and labor as well as minimizing the risk of sample carry-over or other forms of contamination. The RC-PCR system was evaluated and found to produce reliable and concordant variant calls. Also, the RC-PCR system demonstrated to have substantial sensitivity of detection with a majority of alleles detected at 60 pg of input DNA and robustness in tolerating known PCR inhibitors. The RC-PCR system may be an effective alternative to current forensic genetic methods in the analysis of highly degraded DNA.

PMID: 31786458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor on cerebral angiogenesis in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

Sun, 12/01/2019 - 05:44

Effects of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor on cerebral angiogenesis in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

Neurosci Lett. 2019 Nov 27;:134657

Authors: Gao B, Deng J, Zhang X, Sun H, Jia G, Li J, Zhang K, Wan C, Wang L, Yan LJ, Cai Z, Ma J

Abstract
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein that exhibits neuroprotective effects. Recent studies have shown that MANF promotes poststroke functional recovery in rats. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. Here, we examined the effects of MANF on cerebral angiogenesis in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Recombinant human MANF was administered intracerebroventricularly 24 h after stroke. We performed neurobehavioral tests and assessed microvessel density, functional microvessels, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as well as detected angiogenic factors in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex. Results showed that MANF ameliorated neurobehavioral scores, promoted rCBF, upregulated the expression of CD34, as well as the total vessel surface area and the number of microvessel branch points, and activated the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of MANF in promoting functional recovery from ischemic stroke. Our results suggest that MANF improves neurobehavioral recovery from cerebral ischemic injury, and that this effect is mediated partly by its proangiogenic effects and augmentation of rCBF, which are possibly associated with VEGF.

PMID: 31785307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Endoscopic Stents in the Management of Bariatric Complications: Our Algorithm and Outcomes.

Sun, 12/01/2019 - 05:44
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Endoscopic Stents in the Management of Bariatric Complications: Our Algorithm and Outcomes.

Obes Surg. 2019 Nov 30;:

Authors: Vedantam S, Roberts J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic techniques can provide an alternative to surgery in the management of post-bariatric surgery complications such as leaks, strictures, fistulas, and erosion of transgastric and adjustable gastric bands. Endoscopically placed stents can also be used to manage gastric perforations secondary to NSAIDS or perforated marginal ulcers following gastric bypass surgery. Additionally, stents can be used in conjunction with operative intervention to decrease the risk of more deleterious complications that could require additional operations.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe our private practice experience in managing bariatric procedure complications with fully covered endoscopic stents. We present the algorithm we use in the application of endoscopic stents in the management of complications following bariatric surgery.
SETTING: Private practice, Single provider, Tertiary Referral Center, USA METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent endoscopic stent placement for complications after various bariatric surgeries (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric sleeve, lap band, and vertical banded gastroplasty) performed by several different surgeons between July 2015 and December 2018 at a single private practice were retrospectively reviewed. Patient's medical history, perioperative information, stent placement details, outcomes, and subsequent interventions were reviewed and analyzed.
RESULTS: Thirty-five patients who were treated with endoscopic stents after bariatric surgery were identified. Complications after bariatric surgery treated with stenting included staple line leaks, anastomotic leaks, strictures, marginal ulcer perforations, gastrogastric fistula, and lap band erosion repairs. Mean duration of each stent round also varied. Resolution occurred in 33 patients (94.3%). Stent migration occurred in seven patients (20%) and in eight of 51 stents placed (15.7%). Two patients ultimately required revision surgery, though only one was related to stent (2.9%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that foregut stents deployed according to our algorithm can facilitate healing of anastomotic leaks, staple line leaks, and marginal ulcer perforations. Furthermore, stent placement can also bolster tenuous repairs of band erosion sites, repairs staple line failure, and manages leaks at band erosion repair sites. Endoscopic stents can also be utilized to augment both balloon and savory dilation of gastric anastomoses and gastric sleeve strictures. Stents should be clipped proximally and distally to minimize the risk of migration.

PMID: 31784894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

49,000 Avocado Cutting Injuries.

Sun, 12/01/2019 - 05:44
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49,000 Avocado Cutting Injuries.

Am J Health Behav. 2020 Jan 01;44(1):13-17

Authors: Rossheim ME, Ninh EQ, Livingston MD, Thombs DL

Abstract
Objectives: In the United States (US), avocado consumption has increased dramatically since the year 2000. Despite media attention concerning injuries resulting from cutting or pitting avocados, such injuries have not been monitored systematically. The current study is the first to estimate the number of people with avocado cutting injuries presenting to US hospital emergency departments. Methods: We utilized cross-sectional data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). We used keyword searches of case narrative text to identify avocado cutting and pitting injuries from 2000 to 2017. Sampling weights were applied to generate national estimates of avocado cutting injuries. Results: From 2000 to 2017, there were an estimated 49,331 avocado cutting injuries presenting to US emergency departments (95% CI 34,178-64,483). The increase in these injuries appears to coincide with increases in per capita avocado consumption. Avocado cutting injuries now constitute nearly 2% of knife-related injuries presenting to US hospital emergency departments. Conclusions: Due to the increase in avocado cutting injuries and the severity of these injuries, more systematic surveillance is needed as well as improved safety measures.

PMID: 31783928 [PubMed - in process]

HIV-1 Impairment via UBE3A and HIV-1 Nef Interactions Utilizing the Ubiquitin Proteasome System.

Sun, 12/01/2019 - 05:44
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HIV-1 Impairment via UBE3A and HIV-1 Nef Interactions Utilizing the Ubiquitin Proteasome System.

Viruses. 2019 Nov 27;11(12):

Authors: Pyeon D, Rojas VK, Price L, Kim S, Meharvan S, Park IW

Abstract
Molecular basis of HIV-1 life cycle regulation has thus far focused on viral gene stage-specificity, despite the quintessence of post-function protein elimination processes in the virus life cycle and consequent pathogenesis. Our studies demonstrated that a key pathogenic HIV-1 viral protein, Nef, interacted with ubiquitin (Ub)-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A/E6AP), suggesting that interaction between Nef and UBE3A is integral to regulation of viral and cellular protein decay and thereby the competing HIV-1 and host cell survivals. In fact, Nef and UBE3A degraded reciprocally, and UBE3A-mediated degradation of Nef was significantly more potent than Nef-triggered degradation of UBE3A. Further, UBE3A degraded not only Nef but also HIV-1 structural proteins, Gag, thus significantly inhibiting HIV-1 replication in Jurkat T cells only in the presence of Nef, indicating that interaction between Nef and UBE3Awas pivotal for UBE3A-mediated degradation of the viral proteins. Mechanistic study showed that Nef and UBE3A were specific and antagonistic to each other in regulating proteasome activity and ubiquitination of cellular proteins in general, wherein specific domains of Nef overlapping with the long terminal repeat (LTR) were essential for the observed actions. Further, Nef itself reduced the level of intracellular Gag by degrading a cardinal transcription regulator, Tat, demonstrating a broad role for Nef in the regulation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the Nef and UBE3A complex plays a crucial role in coordinating viral protein degradation and hence HIV-1 replication, providing insights as to the nature of pathobiologic and defense strategies of HIV-1 and HIV-infected host cells.

PMID: 31783587 [PubMed - in process]

Mechanisms to Attenuate Load in the Intact Limb of Transtibial Amputees When Performing a Unilateral Drop Landing.

Thu, 11/28/2019 - 05:01

Mechanisms to Attenuate Load in the Intact Limb of Transtibial Amputees When Performing a Unilateral Drop Landing.

J Appl Biomech. 2019 Nov 27;:1-9

Authors: Moudy SC, Tillin NA, Sibley AR, Strike S

Abstract
Individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations experience greater work demand and loading on the intact limb compared with the prosthetic limb, placing this limb at a greater risk of knee joint degenerative conditions. It is possible that increased loading on the intact side may occur due to strength deficits and joint absorption mechanics. This study investigated the intact limb mechanics utilized to attenuate load, independent of prosthetic limb contributions and requirements for forward progression, which could provide an indication of deficiencies in the intact limb. Amputee and healthy control participants completed 3 unilateral drop landings from a 30-cm drop height. Joint angles at touchdown; range of motion; coupling angles; peak powers; and negative work of the ankle, knee, and hip were extracted together with isometric quadriceps strength measures. No significant differences were found in the load or movement mechanics (P ≥ .31, g ≤ 0.42), despite deficits in isometric maximum (20%) and explosive (25%) strength (P ≤ .13, g ≥ 0.61) in the intact limb. These results demonstrate that, when the influence from the prosthetic limb and task demand are absent, and despite deficits in strength, the intact limb adopts joint mechanics similar to able-bodied controls to attenuate limb loading.

PMID: 31775122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effects of long-term muscle disuse on neuromuscular function in unilateral transtibial amputees.

Thu, 11/28/2019 - 05:01
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The effects of long-term muscle disuse on neuromuscular function in unilateral transtibial amputees.

Exp Physiol. 2019 Nov 27;:

Authors: Sibley AR, Strike S, Moudy SC, Tillin NA

Abstract
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The effects of long-term muscle disuse on neuromuscular function are unclear because disuse studies are typically short-term. This study used a novel model (unilateral transtibial amputees) to investigate the effects of long-term disuse on quadriceps neuromuscular function. What is the main finding and its importance? Kinetic analysis (knee extension moments during gait) indicated habitual disuse of the amputated limb quadriceps, accompanied by lower quadriceps muscle strength (60-76%) and neural activation (32-44%), slower contractile properties, and altered muscle architecture in the amputated limb, which could not be predicted from short-term disuse studies.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations (ITTAs), who habitually disuse the quadriceps muscles of their amputated limb, provide an effective model for assessing the effects of long-term muscle disuse; and (2) the effects of such disuse on quadriceps muscle strength and neuromuscular function in this population. Nine ITTAs and nine controls performed isometric voluntary knee extensions in both limbs to assess maximal voluntary torque (MVT) and rate of torque development (RTD). The interpolated twitch technique and EMG normalised to maximal M-wave assessed neural activation, involuntary (twitch and octet) contractions assessed intrinsic contractile properties, and ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis assessed muscle architecture. Clinical gait analysis was used to measure knee kinetic data during walking at an habitual speed. ITTAs displayed 54-60% lower peak knee extensor moments during walking in the amputated than intact/control limbs, but the intact and control limbs were comparable for loading during walking and muscle strength variables, suggesting the intact limb provides a suitable internal control for comparison to the disused amputated limb. MVT and RTD were ∼60% and ∼75% lower, respectively, in the amputated than intact/control limbs. The differences in MVT appeared associated with ∼40% and ∼43% lower muscle thickness and neural activation, respectively, whilst the differences in RTD appeared associated with the decline in MVT coupled with slowing of the intrinsic contractile properties. These results indicate considerable changes in strength and neuromuscular function with long-term disuse, that could not be predicted from short-term disuse studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31773821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Physical Fatigue and Morphofunctional State of the Myocardium in Experimental Chronic Stress.

Thu, 11/28/2019 - 05:01
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Physical Fatigue and Morphofunctional State of the Myocardium in Experimental Chronic Stress.

Dokl Biol Sci. 2019 Mar;485(1):30-32

Authors: Kondashevskaya MV, Tseylikman VE, Komelkova MV, Lapshin MS, Sarapultsev AP, Lazuko SS, Kuzhel OP, Manukhina EB, Downey HF, Chereshneva MV, Chereshnev VA

Abstract
The relationship between the development of skeletal muscle fatigue of a specific type in male Wistar rats and morphofunctional alterations in the myocardium in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) model has been investigated for the first time. The aggravation of oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes and the related transformation of the cell structural components and the depletion of energy reserves in PTSD has been identified as one of the main factors that accelerate the onset of musculoskeletal fatigue.

PMID: 31197589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trends in Magnesium Intake among Hispanic Adults, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014.

Wed, 11/27/2019 - 07:54

Trends in Magnesium Intake among Hispanic Adults, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014.

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 22;11(12):

Authors: Liu J, Huang Y, Dai Q, Fulda KG, Chen S, Tao MH

Abstract
This study aimed at examining trends in magnesium intake among U.S. Hispanic adults stratified by gender, Hispanic origins, age, and poverty income ratio (PIR) level. Data on 9304 Hispanic adults aged ≥20 years from eight National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles (1999-2014) were included in this study. For each cycle, survey-weighted mean dietary and total magnesium intakes were estimated. The prevalence of dietary and total magnesium intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was further estimated stratified by gender and age groups. Linear regression was used to test trend. Over the survey cycles, both dietary and total magnesium intakes were significantly increased among Hispanic adults. In the study period, magnesium intake tended to be lower in females, adults in other Hispanic-origin group, those aged ≥65 years old, and those with a PIR <1.0. The prevalence of magnesium intake inadequacy decreased among Hispanic adults; however, more than 70% of Hispanic males and females continued to have magnesium intake below the RDA in 2013-2014. From 1999/2000 to 2013/2014, despite several improvements in magnesium intake having been identified, additional findings showed insufficient intake in Hispanic males and females, suggesting the need to improve magnesium intake through diet and dietary supplementation for U.S. Hispanics.

PMID: 31766698 [PubMed - in process]

Promoting guideline-based cancer genetic risk assessment for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in ethnically and geographically diverse cancer survivors: Rationale and design of a 3-arm randomized controlled trial.

Wed, 11/27/2019 - 07:54

Promoting guideline-based cancer genetic risk assessment for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in ethnically and geographically diverse cancer survivors: Rationale and design of a 3-arm randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 10;73:123-135

Authors: Kinney AY, Howell R, Ruckman R, McDougall JA, Boyce TW, Vicuña B, Lee JH, Guest DD, Rycroft R, Valverde PA, Gallegos KM, Meisner A, Wiggins CL, Stroup A, Paddock LE, Walters ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although national guidelines for cancer genetic risk assessment (CGRA) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) have been available for over two decades, less than half of high-risk women have accessed these services, especially underserved minority and rural populations. Identification of high-risk individuals is crucial for cancer survivors and their families to benefit from biomedical advances in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment.
METHODS: This paper describes community-engaged formative research and the protocol of the ongoing randomized 3-arm controlled Genetic Risk Assessment for Cancer Education and Empowerment (GRACE) trial. Ethnically and geographically diverse breast and ovarian cancer survivors at increased risk for hereditary cancer predisposition who have not had a CGRA are recruited through the three statewide cancer registries. The specific aims are to: 1) compare the effectiveness of a targeted intervention (TP) vs. a tailored counseling and navigation(TCN) intervention vs. usual care (UC) on CGRA utilization at 6 months post-diagnosis (primary outcome); compare the effectiveness of the interventions on genetic counseling uptake at 12 months after removal of cost barriers (secondary outcome); 2) examine potential underlying theoretical mediating and moderating mechanisms; and 3) conduct a cost evaluation to guide dissemination strategies.
DISCUSSION: The ongoing GRACE trial addresses an important translational gap by developing and implementing evidence-based strategies to promote guideline-based care and reduce disparities in CGRA utilization among ethnically and geographically diverse women. If effective, these interventions have the potential to reach a large number of high-risk families and reduce disparities through broad dissemination.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03326713; clinicaltrials.gov.

PMID: 30236776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exploring the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and oral health-related quality of life.

Wed, 11/27/2019 - 07:54

Exploring the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and oral health-related quality of life.

J Public Health Dent. 2018 09;78(4):313-320

Authors: Kabani F, Lykens K, Tak HJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have destructive impacts on quality of life, health outcomes, and health-care expenditures. Studies further demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the number of ACEs and risk for experiencing chronic illness, such as oral diseases later in life. Research is scarce on the prioritization of contextualized public health interventions addressing this important threat.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provided a nationally representative sample of children in the United States, ages 1-17 for dentate status (n = 61,530). The dependent variables identified untreated oral health-care needs and preventive dental utilization. The key independent variables included exposure to parental death, parental divorce, parental incarceration, mental health illnesses, domestic violence, neighborhood violence, and racial discrimination. Exogenous variables included age, sex, race/ethnicity, number of children in household, socioeconomic status proxies, health insurance status, and special health needs. The data, when adjusted for complex survey design, proportionately represent children in the United States.
RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions revealed varying magnitudes of significance across diverse racial and ethnic profiles. Exposures to parental divorce and parental death particularly exhibited critical magnitudes of influence, compared to all other ACEs.
CONCLUSIONS: In keeping with the Pareto Principle, exposure to certain ACEs, namely parental divorce and parental death, potentially introduces more profound social and health-related consequences later in life. Therefore, contextualized interventions should prioritize public health efforts to address households burdened with exposure to parental divorce and/or parental death.

PMID: 29752809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Core Entrustable Professional Activities in Clinical Pharmacology for Entering Residency: Value of Interprofessional Health-Care Teams in Medication Prescribing and Medication Error Prevention.

Wed, 11/27/2019 - 07:54

Core Entrustable Professional Activities in Clinical Pharmacology for Entering Residency: Value of Interprofessional Health-Care Teams in Medication Prescribing and Medication Error Prevention.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 07;58(7):843-848

Authors: Cohen LJ, Donnenberg VS, Wiernik PH, Newman WC, Amankulor N

Abstract
In recent years, health care has been increasingly delivered by interprofessional teams in the inpatient, outpatient, and transition-of-care arenas. For many reasons, effective communication between patient-centered care teams and patients is critically important in order to optimize care, ensure patient safety, and prevent medical and medication misadventures. In rapid-paced, high-stress medical environments, it is especially important to carefully evaluate the causes of all misadventures in a manner that avoids assigning blame and identifies the root causes and, through team activity, leads to development of remedies that reduce the likelihood of future misadventures. Using a series of illustrative cases, this paper seeks to bring attention to these issues and provide insights regarding some tools developed to assist in improving patient safety and effective team communication.

PMID: 29723424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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