Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 12 min 57 sec ago

Carisoprodol pharmacokinetics and distribution in the nucleus accumbens correlates with behavioral effects in rats independent from its metabolism to meprobamate.

Tue, 06/02/2020 - 05:33

Carisoprodol pharmacokinetics and distribution in the nucleus accumbens correlates with behavioral effects in rats independent from its metabolism to meprobamate.

Neuropharmacology. 2020 May 29;:108152

Authors: Carbonaro TM, Nguyen V, Forster MJ, Gatch MB, Prokai L

Abstract
Carisoprodol (Soma®) is a centrally-acting skeletal-muscle relaxant frequently prescribed for treatment of acute musculoskeletal conditions. Carisoprodol's mechanism of action is unclear and is often ascribed to that of its active metabolite, meprobamate. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether carisoprodol directly produces behavioral effects, or whether metabolism into meprobamate via cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymatic reaction is necessary. Rats were trained to discriminate carisoprodol (100 mg/kg) to assess time course and whether a CYP450 inhibitor (cimetidine) administered for 4 days would alter the discriminative effects of carisoprodol. Additionally, pharmacokinetics of carisoprodol and meprobamate with and without co-administration of cimetidine were assessed via in-vivo microdialysis combined with liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The time course of the discriminative-stimulus effects of carisoprodol closely matched the time course of the levels of carisoprodol in blood and NAc, but did not match the time course of meprobamate. Administration of cimetidine increased levels of carisoprodol and decreased levels of meprobamate consistent with its interfering with metabolism of carisoprodol into meprobamate. However, cimetidine failed to alter the discriminative-stimulus effects of carisoprodol. Carisoprodol penetrated into brain tissue and directly produced behavioral effects without being metabolized into meprobamate. These findings indicate that understanding the mechanism of action of carisoprodol independently of meprobamate will be necessary to determine the validity of its clinical uses.

PMID: 32479814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Epigenetics-Based, Lifestyle Medicine-Driven Approach to Stress Management for Primary Patient Care: Implications for Medical Education.

Tue, 06/02/2020 - 05:33
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An Epigenetics-Based, Lifestyle Medicine-Driven Approach to Stress Management for Primary Patient Care: Implications for Medical Education.

Am J Lifestyle Med. 2020 May-Jun;14(3):294-303

Authors: Lee J, Papa F, Jaini PA, Alpini S, Kenny T

Abstract
Over 75% of patients in the primary care setting present with stress-related complaints. Curiously, patients and health care providers all too often see stress as a relatively benign sequela of many common illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, lung disease, dementia, diabetes, and mental illness. Unfortunately, various day-to-day lifestyle choices and environmental factors, unrelated to the presence of any disease, can cause stress sufficient to contribute to the development of various diseases/disorders and suboptimal health. There is evidence suggesting that counseling in stress management-oriented therapeutic interventions (as offered by lifestyle medicine-oriented practitioners) may prevent or reduce the onset, severity, duration, and/or overall burden of stress-related illnesses. Such counseling often involves considerations such as the patient's nutrition, physical activity, interest in/capacity to meditate, drug abuse/cessation, and so on. Unfortunately, lifestyle medicine-oriented approaches to stress management are rarely offered in primary care-the patient care arena wherein such counseling would likely be best received by patients. Would health care outcomes improve if primary care providers offered counseling in both stress management and positive lifestyle choices? The purpose of this article is to provide both primary care practitioners and educators in health care training programs with an introductory overview of epigenetics. An emerging field of science offering insights into how factors such as stress and lifestyle choices interact with our genes in ways that can both positively and negatively impact the various micro (eg, cellular) through macro (eg, physiologic, pathophysiologic) processes that determine our tendencies toward illness or wellness. A deeper understanding of epigenetics, as provided herein, should enable primary care providers and medical educators to more confidently advocate for the primary benefits associated with counseling in both stress reduction and the pursuit of healthy lifestyle choices.

PMID: 32477032 [PubMed]

Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Tue, 06/02/2020 - 05:33
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Novel Investigation of the Deep Band of the Lateral Plantar Aponeurosis and Its Relationship With the Lateral Plantar Nerve.

Foot Ankle Int. 2019 Nov;40(11):1325-1330

Authors: Beck CM, Dickerson AR, Kadado KJ, Cohen ZA, Blair SE, Motley TA, Holcomb JC, Fisher CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We describe a thick fascial band arising from the medial aspect of the lateral plantar aponeurosis diving deep into the forefoot crossing over a branch of the lateral plantar nerve. Because a review of current literature resulted in limited and outdated sources, we sought to first determine the frequency of this fascial band and the location where it crosses the lateral plantar nerve and, second, discuss the clinical applications these anatomical findings could have.
METHODS: 50 pairs of cadaveric feet (n = 100) were dissected to investigate for presence of the fascial band and its interaction with the lateral plantar nerve. Images were taken of each foot with the fascial band. ImageJ was used to take 2 measurements assessing the relationship of the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal to where the nerve crossed deep to the fascial band.
RESULTS: Overall, 38% of the feet possessed the fascial band. It was found unilaterally in 10 pairs and bilaterally in 14 pairs. On average, the point at which the lateral plantar nerve passed deep to the fascial band was 2.0 cm medial and 1.7 cm anterior to the tuberosity of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
CONCLUSION: When present, the deep band of the lateral plantar aponeurosis (PA) was consistently found to be crossing the lateral plantar nerve. The discovery of the location where this most commonly occurs has not been previously reported and adds an interesting dimension that elevates an anatomical study to one that has clinical potential.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The established target zone gives a precise location for where the relationship between the deep band of the lateral PA and the lateral plantar nerve exists when evaluating the foot. The target zone provides a potential springboard for future investigations concerning said relationship clinically.

PMID: 31387386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine Residents' Training and Knowledge on Emergency Contraception.

Tue, 06/02/2020 - 05:33
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Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine Residents' Training and Knowledge on Emergency Contraception.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 06;28(6):794-801

Authors: Rapkin RB, Griner SB, Godcharles CL, Vamos CA, Neelamegam M, Thompson EL, Daley EM

Abstract
Background: Emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to play a vital role in preventing unintended pregnancies after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Residency training can influence practice behaviors, however, the extent to which EC-related information is taught in training programs remains unknown. This study examined where residents obtain information about EC and whether knowledge differs by resident program characteristics. Materials and Methods: Program coordinators of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) and Family Medicine residency programs (n = 689) were emailed and requested to forward the survey link to residents. The survey included measures of EC education (hours, sources, including lectures, grand rounds), and EC-related knowledge. EC knowledge items assessed the three methods of EC (copper intrauterine device, ulipristal acetate, and oral levonorgestrel), effectiveness, mechanism of action, contraindications, and side effects. t-Tests and analysis of variances were used to compare mean knowledge scores (maximum = 20; higher scores indicating higher knowledge). Results: Among participants (n = 676), 61% were Family Medicine residents, 66% were white, and 72% were female. Overall, 34% received <1 hour of EC education, with OB/GYN residents receiving significantly more hours than Family Medicine residents. OB/GYN residents (mean = 14.40, standard deviation [SD] = 2.69) had a significantly higher mean knowledge score than Family Medicine residents (12.12, SD = 2.63; p < 0.000). Mean knowledge score differences were found by region of residency program, with residents in the Northeast reporting higher knowledge. Conclusions: Overall, residents received very little EC education, with OB/GYN residents receiving more training and having higher knowledge than their Family Medicine counterparts. Additional training is needed to ensure that residents are knowledgeable about this effective method to decrease unintended pregnancies.

PMID: 30939069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Social media engagement association with human papillomavirus and vaccine awareness and perceptions: Results from the 2017 US Health Information National Trends Survey.

Sun, 05/31/2020 - 05:02

Social media engagement association with human papillomavirus and vaccine awareness and perceptions: Results from the 2017 US Health Information National Trends Survey.

Prev Med. 2020 May 27;:106151

Authors: Rosen BL, Wheldon C, Thompson EL, Maness S, Massey PM

Abstract
Due to social media's ability to publicize misinformation about vaccines, there is a need to study associations between social media engagement (SME) with human papillomavirus (HPV) and vaccine-related awareness and beliefs. Therefore, the study objectives were to (1) describe the SME of a nationally representative sample of US adults, and (2) determine the associations between SME and HPV-related awareness, HPV-related knowledge, HPV vaccine-related awareness, and perceived HPV vaccine efficacy. In 2019, we completed a secondary analysis of the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey (Cycle 5.1). We created the SME index from 5 social media items. For each outcome variable, 3 models using binary and multinomial logistic regression were estimated. SME in the sample (n = 3171) was low (M = 0.9; range: 0-2). Respondents with higher SME had higher odds of HPV awareness (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.23, 1.99). Higher SME was associated with awareness of the HPV vaccine (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.16, 1.85). Respondents with higher SME had higher odds of perceiving HPV vaccine to be "not at all successful" (AOR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.16, 4.24), "a little successful" (AOR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.35, 2.94), "pretty successful" (AOR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.89), and "very successful" (AOR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.92) compared to those who selected "don't know" after adjusting for demographics and internet use. Our study highlights novel findings using a comprehensive SME index with a national sample providing insight to leverage existing consumer behaviors to better connect and disseminate accurate HPV information in a more strategic manner.

PMID: 32473273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The lot-to-lot variability in the mitochondrial genome of controls.

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 07:20
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The lot-to-lot variability in the mitochondrial genome of controls.

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2020 Apr 30;47:102298

Authors: Cihlar JC, Peters D, Strobl C, Parson W, Budowle B

Abstract
Current research in the biomedical field has illustrated how cell lines used as reference standards can change over time and, more importantly, can affect research and diagnostic results obtained from these cell lines. With the use of increasingly sensitive and highly resolving technologies (e.g., massively parallel sequencing), forensic scientists must be aware of and account for potential variability in the cell lines used as controls in their validation studies and day-to-day casework. In this study, multiple lot numbers from four commonly-used control cell line DNAs were sequenced with massively parallel sequencing on the Ion S5. The variability among these different lots was evaluated, and the effect on forensic laboratory work discussed.

PMID: 32464353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mechanisms underlying selective coupling of endothelial Ca2+ signals with eNOS versus IK/SK channels in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 07:20
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Mechanisms underlying selective coupling of endothelial Ca2+ signals with eNOS versus IK/SK channels in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

J Physiol. 2020 May 28;:

Authors: Ottolini M, Daneva Z, Chen YL, Cope EL, Kasetti RB, Zode GS, Sonkusare SK

Abstract
KEY POINTS: Endothelial cell TRPV4 (TRPV4EC ) channels exert a dilatory effect on the resting diameter of resistance mesenteric and pulmonary arteries. Functional IK/SK channels and eNOS are present in the endothelium of mesenteric and pulmonary arteries. TRPV4EC sparklets preferentially couple with IK/SK channels in mesenteric arteries and with eNOS in pulmonary arteries. TRPV4EC channels co-localize with IK/SK channels in mesenteric arteries, but not in pulmonary arteries, which may explain TRPV4EC -IK/SK channel coupling in mesenteric arteries and its absence in pulmonary arteries. The presence of the nitric oxide-scavenging protein, hemoglobin α, limits TRPV4EC -eNOS signalling in mesenteric arteries. Spatial proximity of TRPV4EC channels with eNOS and the absence of hemoglobin α favor TRPV4EC -eNOS signalling in pulmonary arteries.
ABSTRACT: Spatially localized Ca2+ signals activate Ca2+ -sensitive intermediate- and small-conductance K+ (IK and SK) channels in some vascular beds and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in others. The goal of this study was to uncover the signalling organization that determines selective Ca2+ signal to vasodilatory target coupling in the endothelium. Resistance-sized mesenteric arteries (MAs) and pulmonary arteries (PAs) were used as prototypes for arteries with predominantly IK/SK channel- and eNOS-dependent vasodilation, respectively. Ca2+ influx signals through endothelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4EC ) channels played an important role in controlling the baseline diameter of both MAs and PAs. TRPV4EC channel activity was similar in MAs and PAs. However, the TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A (10 nM) selectively activated IK/SK channels in MAs and eNOS in PAs, revealing preferential TRPV4EC -IK/SK channel coupling in MAs and TRPV4EC -eNOS coupling in PAs. IK/SK channels co-localized with TRPV4EC channels at myoendothelial projections (MEPs) in MAs, but lacked the spatial proximity necessary for their activation by TRPV4EC channels in PAs. Additionally, the presence of the NO scavenging protein hemoglobin α (Hbα) within nanometer proximity to eNOS limits TRPV4EC -eNOS signalling in MAs. In contrast, co-localization of TRPV4EC channels and eNOS at MEPs, and the absence of Hbα, favor TRPV4EC -eNOS coupling in PAs. Thus, our results reveal that differential spatial organization of signalling elements determines TRPV4EC -IK/SK versus TRPV4EC -eNOS coupling in resistance arteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 32463112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes-6.

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 07:20
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Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes-6.

Molecules. 2019 Dec 28;25(1):

Authors: Vanden Eynde JJ, Mangoni AA, Rautio J, Leprince J, Azuma YT, García-Sosa AT, Hulme C, Jampilek J, Karaman R, Li W, Gomes PAC, Hadjipavlou-Litina D, Capasso R, Geronikaki A, Cerchia L, Sabatier JM, Ragno R, Tuccinardi T, Trabocchi A, Winum JY, Luque FJ, Prokai-Tatrai K, Spetea M, Gütschow M, Kosalec I, Guillou C, Vasconcelos MH, Kokotos G, Rastelli G, de Sousa ME, Manera C, Gemma S, Mangani S, Siciliano C, Galdiero S, Liu H, Scott PJH, de Los Ríos C, Agrofoglio LA, Collina S, Guedes RC, Muñoz-Torrero D

Abstract
Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes is a series of Editorials that is published on a biannual basis by the Editorial Board of the Medicinal Chemistry section of the journal Molecules [...].

PMID: 31905602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Chronification via Monoaminooxidase and Cortisol Metabolism.

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 07:20
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Chronification via Monoaminooxidase and Cortisol Metabolism.

Horm Metab Res. 2019 Sep;51(9):618-622

Authors: Tseilikman V, Dremencov E, Maslennikova E, Ishmatova A, Manukhina E, Downey HF, Klebanov I, Tseilikman O, Komelkova M, Lapshin MS, Vasilyeva MV, Bornstein SR, Perry SW, Wong ML, Licinio J, Yehuda R, Ullmann E

PMID: 31505706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Medical virtual reality.

Wed, 05/27/2020 - 06:58
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Medical virtual reality.

J Hand Ther. 2020 May 22;:

Authors: Dennis OP, Patterson RM

PMID: 32451173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hemorrhage simulated by lower body negative pressure provokes an oxidative stress response in healthy young adults.

Wed, 05/27/2020 - 06:58
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Hemorrhage simulated by lower body negative pressure provokes an oxidative stress response in healthy young adults.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2019 03;244(3):272-278

Authors: Park FS, Kay VL, Sprick JD, Rosenberg AJ, Anderson GK, Mallet RT, Rickards CA

Abstract
IMPACT STATEMENT: We characterize the systemic oxidative stress response in young, healthy human subjects with exposure to simulated hemorrhage via application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Prior work has demonstrated that LBNP and actual blood loss evoke similar hemodynamic and immune responses (i.e. white blood cell count), but it is unknown whether LBNP elicits oxidative stress resembling that produced by blood loss. We show that LBNP induces a 29% increase in F2-isoprostanes, a systemic marker of oxidative stress. The findings of this investigation may have important implications for the study of hemorrhage using LBNP, including future assessments of targeted interventions that may reduce oxidative stress, such as novel fluid resuscitation approaches.

PMID: 30727766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Severe hypercholesterolemia in a 2-year-old.

Tue, 05/26/2020 - 06:30
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Severe hypercholesterolemia in a 2-year-old.

J Clin Lipidol. 2019 May - Jun;13(3):393-396

Authors: Horner S, Hamilton L, Hamby T, Wilson DP

Abstract
Routine and selective cholesterol screening of children is an effective tool to help identify those with familial hypercholesterolemia. In children found to have elevated levels of cholesterol, secondary causes should be excluded, including hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone has multiple effects on the regulation of lipid synthesis, absorption, and metabolism. In this case report, we described a 2-year-old with a history of congenital hypothyroidism who was found to have severe hypercholesterolemia. A detailed medical history and appropriate screening tests are important in determining the underlying cause of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to help inform clinical decision-making.

PMID: 31088731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

On the possibility of direct triplet state excitation of indole.

Mon, 05/25/2020 - 06:17

On the possibility of direct triplet state excitation of indole.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2020 May 16;208:111897

Authors: Chavez J, Ceresa L, Kitchner E, Kimball J, Shtoyko T, Fudala R, Borejdo J, Gryczynski Z, Gryczynski I

Abstract
We studied the luminescence properties of indole in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The indole molecules are effectively immobilized in this polymer film and display both fluorescence and phosphorescence emission at room temperature. We noticed that the phosphorescence of indole in PVA film can be effectively excited at a longer wavelength than its typical singlet to triplet population route involving intersystem crossing. The maximum of the phosphorescence excitation is about 410 nm which corresponds to the energy of indole's triplet state. Interestingly, the phosphorescence anisotropy excited with the longer wavelength (405 nm) is positive and reaches a value of about 0.25 in contrast to the phosphorescence anisotropy excited within the indole singlet absorption spectrum (290 nm), which is negative. Very different temperature dependences have been observed for fluorescence and phosphorescence of indole in PVA film. While fluorescence depends minimally, the phosphorescence decreases with temperature dramatically. The fluorescence lifetime was measured to be a single component 4.78 ns while the intensity weighted average phosphorescence lifetime with 290 nm and 405 nm excitations were 6.57 and 5.62 ms, respectively. We believe that the possibility of the excitation of indole phosphorescence in the blue region of visible light and its high anisotropy opens a new avenue for future protein studies.

PMID: 32447191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

QTc monitoring in adults with medical and psychiatric comorbidities: Expert consensus from the Association of Medicine and Psychiatry.

Sat, 05/23/2020 - 05:52
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QTc monitoring in adults with medical and psychiatric comorbidities: Expert consensus from the Association of Medicine and Psychiatry.

J Psychosom Res. 2020 May 11;135:110138

Authors: Xiong GL, Pinkhasov A, Mangal JP, Huang H, Rado J, Gagliardi J, Demoss D, Karol D, Suo S, Lang M, Stern M, Spearman EV, Onate J, Annamalai A, Saliba Z, Heinrich T, Fiedorowicz JG

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Several psychiatric medications have the potential to prolong the QTc interval and subsequently increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes (TdP). There is limited guidance for clinicians to balance the risks and benefits of treatments.
METHODS: After a review of the existing literature, clinical-educators from the Association of Medicine and Psychiatry developed expert consensus guidelines for ECG monitoring of the QTc interval for patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities who are prescribed medications with the potential to prolong the QTc interval. A risk score was developed based on risk factors for QTc prolongation to guide clinical decision-making.
RESULTS: A baseline ECG may not be necessary for individuals at low risk for arrythmia. Those individuals with a risk score of two or more should have an ECG prior to the start of a potentially QTc-prolonging medication or be started on a lower risk agent. Antipsychotics are not equivalent in causing QTc prolongation. A consensus-based algorithm is presented for the management of those identified at high (QTc >500 msec), intermediate (males with QTc 450-499 msec or females with QTc > 470-499 msec), or low risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed algorithm can help clinicians in determining whether ECG monitoring should be considered for a given patient. These guidelines preserve a role for clinical judgment in selection of treatments that balance the risks and benefits, which may be particularly relevant for complex patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Additional studies are needed to determine whether baseline and serial ECG monitoring reduces mortality.

PMID: 32442893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Medical Malpractice Trends in Thyroidectomies among General Surgeons and Otolaryngologists.

Fri, 05/22/2020 - 05:42

Medical Malpractice Trends in Thyroidectomies among General Surgeons and Otolaryngologists.

OTO Open. 2020 Apr-Jun;4(2):2473974X20921141

Authors: Swonke ML, Shakibai N, Chaaban MR

Abstract
Objectives: This study aims to examine litigation trends with thyroidectomies in the United States from 1984 to 2018.
Methods: We used the Westlaw legal database to collect data on the defendant, plaintiff, case demographics, alleged reasons for malpractice, additional complications, and case outcomes.
Results: The most common reason for litigation was vocal cord paralysis (51%, n = 28), with the majority ruling in favor of the defendant (64%, P = .042). Of those, 43% of cases (n = 12) were due to unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, and 39% (n = 11) were due to bilateral RLN injury. Of the claims due to vocal cord paralysis that resulted in indemnity payment (36%), the majority included additional damages, such as lack of informed consent (30%) or subsequent damages from permanent tracheostomy (40%), which is usually a result of bilateral nerve paralysis.
Conclusion: RLN injury was the most common complication leading to trial, with most cases ruling in favor of the defense. However, most verdicts that favored the plaintiff or those that settled were due to subsequent damages from bilateral nerve paralysis, such as permanent tracheostomy. We encourage surgeons to consider a staged procedure in high-risk cases or cases with signal loss. There needs to be a bigger emphasis on informed consent in the training of surgeons. Surgeons should educate patients at high risk on potential surgical complications that may drastically affect their quality of life.

PMID: 32435722 [PubMed]

Discovery of a bone-like blood particle in the peripheral circulation of humans and rodents.

Fri, 05/22/2020 - 05:42
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Discovery of a bone-like blood particle in the peripheral circulation of humans and rodents.

Microcirculation. 2019 11;26(8):e12579

Authors: Prisby R, Ross J, Opdenaker L, McLane MA, Lee S, Sun X, Guderian S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To characterize ossified bone marrow blood vessels and confirm the presence of ossified particles (OSP) in humans and rodents.
METHODS: Human bone marrow blood vessels were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Whole blood samples were collected from younger (26-39 years; n = 6) and older (55-63 years; n = 6) volunteers and male Fischer-344 rats (1 month, n = 7; 6 months, n = 7; 12 months, n = 7; 18-months, n = 6; 24 months, n = 8). OSP in the whole blood samples were sorted and imaged with microscopy to determine diameter, circularity, and solidity. Additionally, the chemical composition of OSP was determined via elemental analysis.
RESULTS: SEM revealed two types of ossified bone marrow blood vessels: that is, "transitioning" and "ossified." OSP were adhered to the surface of transitioning vessels and theoretically gain access to and circulate within the blood. The majority of OSP were ≤15 μm in diameter, but many were of sufficient size to serve as emboli (ie, >15 μm).OSP were predominately oblong in shape and several had jagged tips and edges.
CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a novel, bone-like blood particle that may be diagnostic of bone marrow blood vessel ossification. Further, OSP may associate with several disease states (eg, atherosclerosis).

PMID: 31246334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Assess Competency Acquired During an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience.

Thu, 05/21/2020 - 05:26

An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Assess Competency Acquired During an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2020 Apr;84(4):7625

Authors: Martin RD, Ngo N, Silva H, Coyle WR

Abstract
Objective. To evaluate the use of an objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to assess clinical competency acquired during an off-campus introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Methods. Third-year pharmacy students completed an IPPE in transitions of care and completed 24 experiential contact hours at one of 17 practice sites. Students were assessed using two OSCEs, the first occurring prior to beginning an off-site IPPE (pre-experience OSCE) and the second occurring after completion of the off-site IPPE (post-experience OSCE). Each OSCE consisted of 10 stations and covered five graded competency domains. The primary outcome was the degree of change in student performance from the pre-experience OSCE to the post-experience OSCE. Secondary outcomes included changes in each graded domain, OSCE pass rate, and failure conversion rate. Results. Of 111 students, 109 completed both the pre- and post-experience OSCE. Significant improvements were observed in overall score and cohort pass rate. Overall scores improved from 80 for the pre-experience OSCE to 87 for the post-experience OSCE. The OSCE pass rate also improved from 47% to 84%. Conclusion. Although preceptor evaluations have traditionally served as the primary summative assessment for IPPE and APPE, this study indicates that OSCEs may be a reliable alternative to assess clinical competency acquired from off-site practice experiences.

PMID: 32431310 [PubMed - in process]

Rhode Island Human Papillomavirus Vaccine School Entry Requirement Using Provider-Verified Report.

Thu, 05/21/2020 - 05:26

Rhode Island Human Papillomavirus Vaccine School Entry Requirement Using Provider-Verified Report.

Am J Prev Med. 2020 May 16;:

Authors: Thompson EL, Livingston MD, Daley EM, Saslow D, Zimet GD

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus vaccine school entry requirements may be an opportunity to improve the low rates of human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents. This study evaluates changes in provider-verified human papillomavirus vaccine uptake by age 13 years for adolescents in Rhode Island compared with all other states from 2011 to 2017.
METHODS: The National Immunization Survey-Teen 2011-2017, a population-based cross-sectional survey, was analyzed in 2019. The survey included telephone interviews and provider-verified reports of vaccination among U.S. adolescents aged 13-17 years. The sample was subset to participants with provider-verified human papillomavirus vaccination reports (n=145,153). A difference-in-differences approach evaluated the Rhode Island human papillomavirus vaccination school entry requirement enacted in 2015. The main outcome was provider-verified human papillomavirus vaccine uptake by age 13 years.
RESULTS: Compared with boys in other states, boys in Rhode Island had an increase of 14 percentage points in the probability of uptake of human papillomavirus vaccination by age 13 years (β=0.139, 95% CI=0.073, 0.205). No such differences were observed on comparing girls in Rhode Island with girls in other states (β=0.009, 95% CI= -0.068, 0.086).
CONCLUSIONS: The Rhode Island school entry requirement for human papillomavirus vaccination improved rates of vaccine uptake among boys and may be a useful option for improving human papillomavirus vaccination nationally.

PMID: 32430223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

What does hand rehabilitation look like in 50 years?

Thu, 05/21/2020 - 05:26

What does hand rehabilitation look like in 50 years?

J Hand Ther. 2020 May 16;:

Authors: Patterson RM, Priganc V

PMID: 32430166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mitochondrial tRNA methylation in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Thu, 05/21/2020 - 05:26

Mitochondrial tRNA methylation in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

BMC Med Genomics. 2020 May 19;13(1):71

Authors: Silzer TK, Pathak GA, Phillips NR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Methylation of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNA) at the 9th position ("p9 site") is known to impact translational efficiency and downstream mitochondrial function; however, direct assessment of mt-RNA methylation is challenging. Recent RNA sequence-based methods have been developed to reliably identify post-transcriptional methylation. Though p9 methylation has been studied in healthy human populations and in the context of cancer, it has not yet been analyzed in neurodegenerative disease, where mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early hallmark of disease progression.
METHODS: Mitochondrial p9 methylation was inferred from multi-allelic calls in RNA-seq data. Gene-based association studies were performed in FUMA. Correlations between nuclear gene expression and p9 methylation were tested using Spearman's rho. Fisher's Exact test was used in PANTHER and IPA to test for overrepresentation and enrichment of biological processes and pathways in the top nuclear genes correlated with p9 methylation.
RESULTS: Variable methylation was observed at 11 p9 sites in post-mortem cerebellar tissue of elderly subjects who were either healthy or diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or pathological aging (PA). Similarities in degree of methylation were observed between AD and PSP. Certain nuclear encoded genes were identified as significantly associated with p9 methylation. Expression of 5300 nuclear encoded genes was significantly correlated with p9 methylation, with AD and PSP subjects exhibiting similar expression profiles. Overrepresentation and enrichment testing using the top transcripts revealed enrichment for a number of molecular processes, terms and pathways including many of which that were mitochondrial-related.
CONCLUSION: With mitochondrial dysfunction being an established hallmark of neurodegenerative disease pathophysiology, this work sheds light on the potential molecular underpinnings of this dysfunction. Here we show overlap in cerebellar pathophysiology between common tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Whether p9 hypermethylation is a cause or consequence of pathology remains an area of focus.

PMID: 32429992 [PubMed - in process]

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