Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 1 hour 46 min ago

Non-Medical Strategies to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A literature review.

Sat, 06/15/2019 - 06:58
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Non-Medical Strategies to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A literature review.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2019 Feb;19(1):e4-e10

Authors: Al Hashmi I, Nandy K, Seshan V

Abstract
This review aimed to examine the literature related to non-medical strategies used to improve pregnancy outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine the risk of bias of the selected studies. Treatment for GDM is changing due to the increased prevalence of GDM-related maternal and neonatal complications. A growing body of evidence suggests that early detection, aggressive monitoring and management of GDM using non-medical strategies can greatly improve outcomes for pregnant women and their babies. PubMed® (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature® (EBSCO Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts, USA), SCOPUS® (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and other electronic databases were searched for relevant literature published between 2005-2015. A total of 15 studies on women with GDM that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review and assessment of risk of bias was performed for each study. The results of the studies were consistent with findings of significant improvement in maternal and neonatal outcomes when diet was combined with moderate exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and individualised health education. Future intervention studies in this area should be focussed on identifying and implementing factors that enhance and encourage adherence to the healthy behaviours mentioned above.

PMID: 31198588 [PubMed - in process]

Physical Fatigue and Morphofunctional State of the Myocardium in Experimental Chronic Stress.

Sat, 06/15/2019 - 06:58
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Physical Fatigue and Morphofunctional State of the Myocardium in Experimental Chronic Stress.

Dokl Biol Sci. 2019 Mar;485(1):30-32

Authors: Kondashevskaya MV, Tseylikman VE, Komelkova MV, Lapshin MS, Sarapultsev AP, Lazuko SS, Kuzhel OP, Manukhina EB, Downey HF, Chereshneva MV, Chereshnev VA

Abstract
The relationship between the development of skeletal muscle fatigue of a specific type in male Wistar rats and morphofunctional alterations in the myocardium in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) model has been investigated for the first time. The aggravation of oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes and the related transformation of the cell structural components and the depletion of energy reserves in PTSD has been identified as one of the main factors that accelerate the onset of musculoskeletal fatigue.

PMID: 31197589 [PubMed - in process]

Affordable Care Act and cancer stage at diagnosis in an underserved population.

Fri, 06/14/2019 - 09:54

Affordable Care Act and cancer stage at diagnosis in an underserved population.

Prev Med. 2019 Jun 10;:

Authors: Lu Y, Jackson BE, Gehr AW, Cross D, Neerukonda L, Tanna B, Ghabach B, Ojha RP

Abstract
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage among underserved individuals, but the effect of ACA on cancer diagnosis is currently debated, particularly in Medicaid non-expansion states. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of ACA implementation on stage at diagnosis among underserved cancer patients in Texas, a Medicaid non-expansion state. We used data from the institutional registry of the JPS Center for Cancer Care, which serves an urban population of underserved cancer patients. Eligible individuals were aged 18 to 64 years and diagnosed with a first primary invasive solid tumor between 2008 and 2015. We used a natural experiment framework and interrupted time-series analysis to assess level (i.e. immediate) and slope (over time) changes in insurance coverage and cancer stage at diagnosis between pre- and post-ACA periods. Our study population comprised 4808 underserved cancer patients, of whom 51% were racial/ethnic minorities. The prevalence of uninsured cancer patients did not immediately change after ACA implementation but modestly decreased over time (PR = 0.94; 95% CL: 0.90, 0.98). The prevalence of early- and advanced-stage diagnosis did not appreciably change overall or when stratified by screen-detectable cancers. Our results suggest that ACA implementation decreased the prevalence of uninsured cancer patients but had little effect on cancer stage at diagnosis in an underserved population. Given that Texas is a Medicaid non-expansion state, Medicaid expansion and alternative approaches may need to be further explored to improve earlier cancer diagnosis among underserved individuals.

PMID: 31195020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Diversification of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java.

Fri, 06/14/2019 - 09:54
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Diversification of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java.

Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2019 05;134:1-11

Authors: O'Connell KA, Smart U, Sidik I, Riyanto A, Kurniawan N, Smith EN

Abstract
Complex geological processes often drive biotic diversification on islands. The islands of Sumatra and Java have experienced dramatic historical changes, including isolation by marine incursions followed by periodic connectivity with the rest of Sundaland across highland connections. To determine how this geological history influenced island invasions, we investigated the colonization history and diversification of bent-toed geckos (genus Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to explore species boundaries, estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times, and to reconstruct ancestral range evolution. We found that Sumatran and Javan Cyrtodactylus were closely related to species from the Thai-Malay Peninsula, rather than from Borneo, and that Cyrtodactylus most likely dispersed to Sumatra three times during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Similarly, Cyrtodactylus invaded west Java from Sumatra once in the early Miocene. Our results suggest that despite isolation by marine incursions during much of the Miocene, Cyrtodactylus dispersed to and from Sumatra and west Java likely via land bridges, and that in situ diversification occurred several times on Sumatra.

PMID: 30703515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Does Current General Mental Health Status Relate to Current Smoking Status in Pregnant Women?

Thu, 06/13/2019 - 06:39
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Does Current General Mental Health Status Relate to Current Smoking Status in Pregnant Women?

J Pregnancy. 2019;2019:7801465

Authors: Liu D, Younger E, Baker S, Touch S, Willmoth T, Hartos JL

Abstract
Purpose: Research shows that smoking during pregnancy is related to mental health diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess whether current general mental health status is related to current smoking status in pregnant women after controlling for other factors related to both mental health and tobacco use during pregnancy.
Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) data for 621 pregnant women aged 18-38 from Florida (N=136), Kansas (N=116), Minnesota (N=105), Nebraska (N=90), New York (N=78), and Utah (N=96). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between current mental health status and current tobacco use, while controlling for state, depression diagnosis, routine checkup, healthcare plan, age, marital status, ethnicity/race, education level, income level, and employment status.
Results: Overall, very few participants reported current smoking (6%) and about one-third reported low or moderate mental health status in the past 30 days. Adjusted results indicated that those who reported high mental health status were about 3 times less likely (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.09, 0.88) to report current smoking status compared to those who reported low mental health status.
Conclusions: Overall, current mental health status was highly related to current smoking status in pregnant women. Clinicians in obstetrics may expect a very low proportion of pregnant women to report smoking and up to one-third to report low or moderate current general mental health status. Given that current mental health issues and current tobacco use may harm both mother and child, be highly related in pregnant women, and change throughout the pregnancy, pregnant women should be screened automatically for both at each visit.

PMID: 31186961 [PubMed - in process]

Tenofovir plasma concentration from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at the time of potential HIV exposure: a population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation study involving serodiscordant couples in East Africa.

Wed, 06/12/2019 - 06:32
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Tenofovir plasma concentration from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at the time of potential HIV exposure: a population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation study involving serodiscordant couples in East Africa.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 10;:

Authors: Mallayasamy S, Chaturvedula A, Fossler MJ, Sale M, Goti V, Bumpus NN, Marzinke MA, Hendrix CW, Haberer JE, Partners Demonstration Project Team

Abstract
The Partners Demonstration Project was a prospective, open-label, implementation science-driven study of PrEP among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Adherence data was collected using medication event monitoring system (MEMS®) and time of sexual activity was collected using mobile phone short messages service (SMS). Two plasma samples were collected at a single study visit. We integrated adherence, pharmacokinetics, and SMS data using a population pharmacokinetic (POPPK) model to simulate tenofovir plasma concentrations from PrEP at the time of sexual activity. In the first stage of this analysis, we used data from the current study to update a prior POPPK model of tenofovir (TFV) developed with data from the Partners PrEP Study (a phase III clinical trial). The second stage involved simulating plasma concentrations at the time of sexual activity using empirical Bayes estimates (EBEs) derived from the final model. In addition, EBEs from a previously published parent-metabolite model of TFV (MTN-001, an open label 3-way crossover study in healthy women) was used to simulate tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations. We estimated percent PrEP "coverage" as the number of reported sexual events during which simulated concentrations were above a priori threshold concentrations associated with a high degree of protection from HIV infection - plasma TFV >40 ng/mL and PBMC TFV-DP concentration >36 fmol/million cells. Percentage coverage was 72% for TFV and 81% for TFV-DP levels. These levels are consistent with a high degree of protection against HIV acquisition in this study of a pragmatic delivery model for antiretroviral-based HIV prevention.

PMID: 31182536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

What happens to agreement over time? A longitudinal study of self-reported substance use compared to saliva toxicological testing among subsidized housing residents.

Sun, 06/09/2019 - 08:55
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What happens to agreement over time? A longitudinal study of self-reported substance use compared to saliva toxicological testing among subsidized housing residents.

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019 Jun;101:12-17

Authors: Rendon A, Mun EY, Spence-Almaguer E, Walters ST

Abstract
The agreement between self-reported and toxicologically verified substance use provides important information about the validity of self-reported use. While some studies report aggregate agreement across follow-up points, only a few have examined the agreement at each time point separately. An overall rate of agreement across time may miss changes that occur as people progress through a research study. In this study, a sample of 644 adults (43.8% male, 32.6% White, 57.0% Black, 90.2% ages 36+) residing in subsidized housing was used to determine the agreement between self-reported use and saliva toxicological testing for marijuana, cocaine, PCP, amphetamine, and methamphetamine at three different time points. Agreement between saliva toxicological testing and self-report ranged between 84.2% and 94.3% for different substances over time. Higher rates of agreement were found for cocaine than had been reported by previous studies. Statistically significant differences in the odds ratios of concordance over time (baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up) were found for marijuana and the combined category for PCP, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Our findings suggest that oral fluid drug tests generally withstand community field assessments and result in relatively high levels of agreement for marijuana, cocaine, PCP, amphetamine, and methamphetamine use, when compared to self-report. Because of the ease of sample collection and low chance of adulteration, we conclude that saliva testing is a viable method for toxicological confirmation of substance use behavior in this setting.

PMID: 31174709 [PubMed - in process]

Uterine Perivascular Adipose Tissue Is A Novel Mediator of Uterine Artery Blood Flow and Reactivity in Rat Pregnancy.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 05:17
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Uterine Perivascular Adipose Tissue Is A Novel Mediator of Uterine Artery Blood Flow and Reactivity in Rat Pregnancy.

J Physiol. 2019 Jun 04;:

Authors: Osikoya O, Ahmed H, Panahi S, Bourque SL, Goulopoulou S

Abstract
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: In vivo, uterine perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) potentiates uterine artery blood flow in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats. In isolated preparations, uterine PVAT has pro-contractile and anti-dilatory effects on uterine arteries. Pregnancy induces changes in uterine arteries that makes them responsive to uterine PVAT signalling.
ABSTRACT: An increase in uterine artery blood flow (UtBF) is a common and necessary feature of a healthy pregnancy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue surrounding uterine arteries (uterine perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) is a novel local mediator of UtBF and uterine artery tone during pregnancy. In vivo experiments in anesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats showed that pregnant animals (gestational day 16, term = 22-23 days) had a 3-fold higher UtBF compared to non-pregnant animals. Surgical removal of uterine PVAT reduced UtBF only in pregnant rats. In a series of ex vivo bioassays, we demonstrated that uterine PVAT had pro-contractile and anti-dilatory effects on rat uterine arteries. In the presence of PVAT-conditioned media, isolated uterine arteries from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats had reduced vasodilatory responses. In non-pregnant rats, these responses were mediated at the level of uterine vascular smooth muscle, whereas in pregnant rats, PVAT-media reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Pregnancy increased adipocyte size in ovarian adipose tissue but had no effect on uterine PVAT adipocyte morphology. In addition, pregnancy downregulated gene expression of metabolic adipokines in uterine but not in aortic PVAT. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that uterine PVAT plays a regulatory role in UtBF, at least in part, due to its actions on uterine artery tone. We propose that the interaction between the uterine vascular wall and its adjacent adipose tissue may provide new insights for interventions in pregnancies with adipose tissue dysfunction and abnormal UtBF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31165480 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 05:17
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Copan microFLOQ® Direct Swab collection of bloodstains, saliva, and semen on cotton cloth.

Int J Legal Med. 2019 Jun 04;:

Authors: Sherier AJ, Kieser RE, Novroski NMM, Wendt FR, King JL, Woerner AE, Ambers A, Garofano P, Budowle B

Abstract
The microFLOQ® Direct Swab was tested by sampling diluted blood, semen, and saliva stains deposited on cotton cloth. DNA typing was performed using the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System by direct PCR or a modified direct PCR. Direct PCR of swabs sampled the center of a stain, compared to their respective edge samplings, and had higher profile completeness and total relative fluorescent units (RFU) for all dilutions of blood and semen stains tested. The modified direct PCR used template DNA eluted from the swab head using the Casework Direct Kit, Custom and washes either contained 1-thioglycerol (TG) additive or no TG. Modified direct PCR had mixed results for blood, saliva, and semen stains, with semen stains showing significant differences in profile completeness (5% and 1%) and total RFU (neat, 5% and 1%) with the addition of TG to the Casework Direct Reagent. No significant difference was seen in any dilution of blood or saliva stains processed with the modified direct PCR, but profile completeness and total RFU were improved overall compared to stains swabbed with cotton swabs or 4N6FLOQSwabs™. This study supports the hypothesis that the microFLOQ® Direct Swab is able to collect minute amounts of DNA from cotton cloth and may be considered as an alternate pre-screening methodology in forensic biology casework.

PMID: 31165261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Microcirculatory Theory of Aging.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 05:17
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A Microcirculatory Theory of Aging.

Aging Dis. 2019 Jun;10(3):676-683

Authors: Jin K

Abstract
Aging is the progressive decline of physiological functions necessary for survival and reproduction. In gaining a better understanding of the inevitable aging process, the hope is to preserve, promote, or delay healthy aging through the treatment of common age-associated diseases. Although there are theories that try to explain the aging process, none of them seem to fully satisfy. Microcirculation describes blood flow through the capillaries in the circulatory system. The main functions of the microcirculation are the delivery of oxgen and nutrients and the removal of CO2, metabolic debris, and toxins. The microcirculatory impairment or dysfunction over time will result in the accumulation of toxic products and CO2 and loss of nutrition supplementation and O2 in corresponding tissue systems or internal organs, which eventually affect normal tissue and organ functions, leading to aging. Therefore, I propose a microcirculatory theory of aging: aging is the process of continuous impairment of microcirculation in the body.

PMID: 31165010 [PubMed]

The Prognostic Value of Serum Cytokines in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 05:17
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The Prognostic Value of Serum Cytokines in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Aging Dis. 2019 Jun;10(3):544-556

Authors: Li X, Lin S, Chen X, Huang W, Li Q, Zhang H, Chen X, Yang S, Jin K, Shao B

Abstract
The inflammatory response is an unavoidable process and contributes to the destruction of cerebral tissue during the acute ischemic stroke (AIS) phase and has not been addressed fully to date. Insightful understanding of correlation of inflammatory mediators and stroke outcome may provide new biomarkers or therapeutic approaches for ischemic stroke. Here, we prospectively recruited 180 first-ever AIS patients within 72 hrs after stroke onset. We used the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to quantify stroke severity and modified Rankin scale (mRS) to assess the 3-month outcome for AIS patients. Initially, we screened 35 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in sera from 75 AIS patients and control subjects. Cytokines that were of interest were further investigated in the 180 AIS patients and 14 heathy controls. We found that IL-1RA, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, EGF, G-CSF, Flt-3L, GM-CSF and Fractalkine levels were significantly decreased in severe stroke patients. In particular, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-15, G-CSF and GM-CSF were significantly reduced in AIS patients with poor outcome, compared to those with good prognosis. IL-6 was notably higher in the poor outcome group. Only IL-9 level decreased in the large infarct volume group. After adjusting for confounders, we found that IL-5 was an independent protective factor for prognosis in AIS patients with an adjusted OR of 0.042 (P = 0.007), whereas IL-6 was an independent risk predictor for AIS patients with an adjusted OR of 1.293 (P = 0.003). Our study suggests the levels of serum cytokines are related to stroke severity, short-term prognosis and cerebral infarct volume in AIS patients.

PMID: 31164999 [PubMed]

Pulmonary Carcinoid Surface Receptor Modulation Using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

Thu, 06/06/2019 - 05:17
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Pulmonary Carcinoid Surface Receptor Modulation Using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

Cancers (Basel). 2019 Jun 03;11(6):

Authors: Guenter RE, Aweda T, Carmona Matos DM, Whitt J, Chang AW, Cheng EY, Liu XM, Chen H, Lapi SE, Jaskula-Sztul R

Abstract
Pulmonary carcinoids are a type of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) accounting for 1-2% of lung cancer cases. Currently, Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/CT based on the radiolabeled sugar analogue [18F]-FDG is used to diagnose and stage pulmonary carcinoids, but is suboptimal due to low metabolic activity in these tumors. A new technique for pulmonary carcinoid imaging, using PET/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs that specifically target somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), is becoming more standard, as many tumors overexpress SSTR2. However, pulmonary carcinoid patients with diminished SSTR2 expression are not eligible for this imaging or any type of SSTR2-specific treatment. We have found that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can upregulate the expression of SSTR2 in pulmonary carcinoid cell lines. In this study, we used a non-cytotoxic dose of HDAC inhibitors to induce pulmonary carcinoid SSTR2 expression in which we confirmed in vitro and in vivo. A non-cytotoxic dose of the HDAC inhibitors: thailandepsin A (TDP-A), romidepsin (FK228), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), AB3, and valproic acid (VPA) were administered to promote SSTR2 expression in pulmonary carcinoid cell lines and xenografts. This SSTR2 upregulation technique using HDAC inhibitors could enhance radiolabeled somatostatin analog-based imaging and the development of potential targeted treatments for pulmonary carcinoid patients with marginal or diminished SSTR2 expression.

PMID: 31163616 [PubMed]

Systemic milieu and age-related deterioration.

Tue, 06/04/2019 - 08:00
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Systemic milieu and age-related deterioration.

Geroscience. 2019 May 31;:

Authors: Zhang H, Cherian R, Jin K

Abstract
Aging is a fundamental biological process accompanied by a general decline in tissue function and an increased risk for age-related disease. The risk for cardiovascular, stroke, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases significantly increases with aging, especially in people aged 60 years and older in the USA. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying aging and age-related disease are beginning to be unraveled, the role of the systemic milieu remains unknown. Recent studies have shown that systemic factors in young blood can revise age-related impairments and extend organismal lifespan, suggesting that the systemic milieu contains pro-aging and rejuvenating factors that play a critical role in the health and aging phenotype. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of systemic milieu changes during the aging process and its link to age-related deterioration.

PMID: 31152364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Global research initiatives to understand the prescription drug misuse epidemic and ways to monitor and intervene.

Tue, 06/04/2019 - 08:00
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Global research initiatives to understand the prescription drug misuse epidemic and ways to monitor and intervene.

Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019 May 24;:

Authors: Rickles NM, Fleming ML, Björnsdottir I

PMID: 31151917 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Ceruloplasmin, a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease.

Mon, 06/03/2019 - 10:45
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Ceruloplasmin, a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease.

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 05 10;28(14):1323-1337

Authors: Zhao YS, Zhang LH, Yu PP, Gou YJ, Zhao J, You LH, Wang ZY, Zheng X, Yan LJ, Yu P, Chang YZ

Abstract
AIMS: Ceruloplasmin (CP), a ferrous oxidase enzyme, plays an important role in regulating iron metabolism and redox reactions. Previous studies showed that CP deficiency contributes to Parkinson's disease by increasing iron accumulation and oxidative stress in the substantia nigra. However, the role of CP in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unclear. We hypothesized that the lack of CP gene expression would affect the pathogenesis and damage of AD by promoting abnormal iron levels and oxidative stress.
RESULTS: AD mouse models were induced in CP knockout mouse either by injection of Aβ25-35 into the lateral ventricle of the brain or transgenic APP expression. CP levels were decreased significantly in the hippocampus of AD patients, as well as Aβ-CP+/+ and APP-CP+/+ mice. Compared to control AD mice, CP gene deletion increased memory impairment and iron accumulation, which could be associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lead to cell apoptosis mediated through the Bcl-2/Bax and Erk/p38 signaling pathways in Aβ-CP-/- and APP-CP-/- mice. In contrast, the restoration of CP expression to CP-/- mice through injection of an exogenous expression plasmid into the brain ventricle alleviated Aβ-induced neuronal damage in the hippocampus.
INNOVATION: CP alterations in iron contents were mediated through DMT1(-IRE) and changes in ROS levels, which in turn attenuated the progression of AD through the Erk/p38 and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our results show a protective role of CP in AD and suggest that regulating CP expression in the hippocampus may provide a new neuroprotective strategy for AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1323-1337.

PMID: 28874056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A meta-analysis of the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori and periodontal diseases.

Fri, 05/31/2019 - 13:13
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A meta-analysis of the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori and periodontal diseases.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(22):e15922

Authors: Chen Z, Cai J, Chen YM, Wei J, Li HB, Lu Y, Zhou Z, Chen XL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and periodontal disease (PD).
METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible articles published from inception up to April 2018. Further articles were retrieved through a manual search of recent reviews. Cross-sectional studies, case-control studies and cohort studies reporting the association between H pylori and PD were included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
RESULTS: Four case-control studies and nine cross-sectional studies were included. A total of 6800 patients were included in this review. The odds for oral H pylori positivity was 2.31 times (95% CI: 1.99-2.68) greater than those without H pylori. Subgroup analyses involving different study locations, designs, and types of study population showed the similar results. The pooled OR for the gastric disease patients was the largest (3.50, 95% CI: 2.22-5.53, five articles). Stomach H pylori was also significantly associated with PD, with OR 2.90 (95% CI: 1.37-6.14, two articles).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports an association between H pylori and PD. More well-designed studies, especially prospective cohort studies are necessary to confirm these results.

PMID: 31145357 [PubMed - in process]

Correction to: Tat expression led to increased histone 3 tri-methylation at lysine 27 and contributed to HIV latency in astrocytes through regulation of MeCP2 and Ezh2 expression.

Thu, 05/30/2019 - 07:01
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Correction to: Tat expression led to increased histone 3 tri-methylation at lysine 27 and contributed to HIV latency in astrocytes through regulation of MeCP2 and Ezh2 expression.

J Neurovirol. 2019 May 28;:

Authors: Liu Y, Niu Y, Li L, Timani KA, He VL, Sanborn C, Xie J, He JJ

Abstract
In the original article the name of author Chris Sanborn was misspelled. It is correct here. Also, in the Acknowledgments section there was an error in the NIH/NINDS grant numbers.

PMID: 31140128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Maternal iodine excess: an uncommon cause of acquired neonatal hypothyroidism.

Thu, 05/30/2019 - 07:01
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Maternal iodine excess: an uncommon cause of acquired neonatal hypothyroidism.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Sep 25;31(9):1061-1064

Authors: Hamby T, Kunnel N, Dallas JS, Wilson DP

Abstract
Background Excessive iodine exposure is an often overlooked cause of neonatal hypothyroidism. Case presentation We present an infant with iodine-induced hypothyroidism, which was detected at age 15 days by newborn screening. The infant's iodine excess resulted from maternal intake of seaweed soup both during and after pregnancy. Treatment included discontinuation of seaweed soup, temporary interruption of breastfeeding and short-term levothyroxine therapy. By age 4 months, the infant's hypothyroidism had resolved, and her growth and development were normal. Conclusions This case illustrates the importance of considering excess dietary iodine as a possible cause of hypothyroidism in infants.

PMID: 30052521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of Salt Loading on Supraoptic Vasopressin Neurons Assessed by ClopHensorN Chloride Imaging.

Wed, 05/29/2019 - 06:48
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Effects of Salt Loading on Supraoptic Vasopressin Neurons Assessed by ClopHensorN Chloride Imaging.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2019 May 28;:e12752

Authors: Balapattabi K, Farmer GE, Knapp BA, Little JT, Bachelor M, Yuan JP, Cunningham JT

Abstract
Salt loading (SL) impairs GABAA inhibition of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hypothalamus. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that SL activates tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) downregulating the activity of K+ /Cl- co-transporter2 (KCC2) and upregulating Na+ /K+ /Cl- co-transporter1 (NKCC1). These changes in chloride transport would result in increased [Cl- ]i in SON AVP neurons. This study combined virally mediated chloride imaging with ClopHensorN with single cell Western blot analysis (Simple Wes). An adeno associated virus with ClopHensorN and a vasopressin promoter (AAV2-0VP1-ClopHensorN) was bilaterally injected in the SON of adult male Sprague Dawley rats that were either euhydrated (Eu) or salt loaded (SL) for 7 days. Acutely dissociated SON neurons expressing ClopHensorN were tested for decreases or increases in [Cl- ]i in response to focal application of the GABAA agonist muscimol (100uM). SON AVP neurons from Eu rats showed muscimol-induced chloride influx (p<0.05;23/35). SON AVP neurons from SL rats either significantly increased chloride efflux (p<0.05;27/39) or did not change chloride flux (12/39). The SON AVP neurons that responded to muscimol appeared viable and expressed KCC2 and ß-Actin. Neurons that did not respond during chloride imaging did not have KCC2 and ß-Actin protein expression. The KCC2 antagonist (VU0240551,10uM) significantly blocked the chloride influx in cells from Eu rats but did not affect cells from SL rats. A NKCC1 antagonist (Bumetanide,10uM) significantly blocked the chloride efflux in cells from SL rats but had no effect on cells from Eu rats. Blocking NKCC1 using bumetanide had less effect on the muscimol induced Cl- influx in Eu rat neurons compared to the KCC2 antagonist. The TrkB antagonist (AnA-12,50uM) and protein kinase inhibitor (K252a,100nM) each significantly blocked chloride efflux in SON AVP neurons from SL rats. Salt loading increases [Cl- ]i in SON AVP neurons through TrKB-KCC2-NKCC1 dependent mechanism in rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31136029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Survival of Mice with Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome through Control of Bacterial Translocation.

Wed, 05/29/2019 - 06:48
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Survival of Mice with Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome through Control of Bacterial Translocation.

J Immunol. 2018 07 01;201(1):77-86

Authors: Suzuki F, Loucas BD, Ito I, Asai A, Suzuki S, Kobayashi M

Abstract
Macrophages (Mϕ) with the M2b phenotype (Pheno2b-Mϕ) in bacterial translocation sites have been described as cells responsible for the increased susceptibility of mice with gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome to sepsis caused by gut bacteria. In this study, we tried to reduce the mortality of mice exposed to 7-10 Gy of gamma rays by controlling Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization in bacterial translocation sites. MicroRNA-222 was induced in association with gamma irradiation. Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization was promoted and maintained in gamma-irradiated mice through the reduction of a long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (a CCL1 gene silencer) influenced by this microRNA. Therefore, the host resistance of 7-9-Gy gamma-irradiated mice to sepsis caused by bacterial translocation was improved after treatment with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. However, the mortality of 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice was not alleviated by this treatment. The crypts and villi in the ileum of 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice were severely damaged, but these were markedly improved after transplantation of intestinal lineage cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem cells. All 10-Gy gamma-irradiated mice given both of the oligodeoxynucleotide and intestinal lineage cells survived, whereas all of the same mice given either of them died. These results indicate that high mortality rates of mice irradiated with 7-10 Gy of gamma rays are reducible by depleting CCL1 in combination with the intestinal lineage cell transplantation. These findings support the novel therapeutic possibility of victims who have gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome for the reduction of their high mortality rates.

PMID: 29743312 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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