Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 43 min 31 sec ago

The language of change among criminal justice clients: Counselor language, client language, and client substance use outcomes.

Sun, 09/24/2017 - 07:39

The language of change among criminal justice clients: Counselor language, client language, and client substance use outcomes.

J Clin Psychol. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Rodriguez M, Walters ST, Houck JM, Ortiz JA, Taxman FS

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Counselor and client language have been identified as mechanisms of change in motivational interviewing (MI) counseling sessions. This study evaluated whether language patterns exhibited during MI sessions with substance users in the community would also be found during MI sessions with substance users in the criminal justice system.
METHOD: Forty audio recordings of MI sessions with substance-using probationers were coded and analyzed sequentially using the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) 2.5. Analyses examined the relationship between counselor and client language, and the relationship between client language and client substance use after 2 months.
RESULTS: Counselor MI inconsistent language was associated with decreased change talk (lnOR = - 0.76, p < .05) though not with increased sustain talk. Both sustain talk (b = - 4.591, t = - 18.634 p < .001) and MI inconsistent language MIIN (b = - 4.419, t = - 19.886, p < .001) were positively associated with substance use at 2 months. Sustain talk early in the session (i.e., during deciles 1 and 2) was significantly greater among clients who reported using substances at 2 months, compared to clients who did not use substances.
CONCLUSION: These findings are broadly consistent with previous literature documenting the association between counselor language, client language, and client outcome.

PMID: 28940435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Protein kinase C-eta regulates Mcl-1 level via ERK1.

Sun, 09/24/2017 - 07:39

Protein kinase C-eta regulates Mcl-1 level via ERK1.

Cell Signal. 2017 Sep 19;:

Authors: Pal D, Basu A

Abstract
Protein kinase C (PKC)-eta (PKCη) is a member of the novel category of PKC family. It is overexpressed in breast cancer and was shown to inhibit apoptosis and contribute to chemoresistance. Since the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) plays an important role in breast cancer cell survival and chemoresistance, we investigated if PKCη regulates Mcl-1 level. Silencing of PKCη decreased Mcl-1 in several breast cancer cells, including MCF-7 and T47D cells. PKCη depletion had no effect on MCL1 mRNA but the decrease in Mcl-1 by PKCη knockdown was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors, such as MG132 and lactacystin. Moreover, knockdown of Mule (Mcl-1 ubuiquitin ligase) prevented Mcl-1 downregulation caused by PKCη deficiency. Overexpression of catalytically-active Akt or knockdown of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)-β, a substrate for Akt, had little effect on Mcl-1 downregulation caused by PKCη silencing. However, knockdown of PKCη but not PKCα, -δ or -ε caused a significant decrease in ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) phosphorylation. Knockdown of ERK1 but not ERK2 decreased Mcl-1 level, and the decrease in Mcl-1 caused by PKCη knockdown was restored by ERK1 overexpression. These results suggest that PKCη utilizes the ERK signaling pathway to protect against ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1.

PMID: 28939105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35

A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0185390

Authors: Wang J, Ma HY, Krishnamoorthy RR, Yorio T, He S

Abstract
c-Jun, c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) and endothelin B (ETB) receptor have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Previously, we reported that an increase of c-Jun and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) immunohistostaining is associated with upregulation of the ETB receptor within the ganglion cell layer of rats with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, both transcription factors regulate the expression of the ETB receptor in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE). The current study addressed the mechanisms by which ET-1 produced upregulation of ET receptors in primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and HNPE cells. Treatment of ET-1 and ET-3 increased the immunocytochemical staining of c-Jun and C/EBPβ in primary rat RGCs and co-localization of both transcription factors was observed. A marked increase in DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBPβ as well as elevated protein levels of c-Jun and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were detected following ET-1 treatment in HNPE cells. Overexpression of ETA or ETB receptor promoted the upregulation of c-Jun and also elevated its promoter activity. In addition, upregulation of C/EBPβ augmented DNA binding and mRNA expression of c-Jun, and furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun and C/EBPβ was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis of HNPE cells was identified following ET-1 treatment, and overexpression of the ETA or ETB receptor produced enhanced apoptosis. ET-1 mediated upregulation of c-Jun and C/EBPβ and their interaction may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of endothelin receptor expression. Reciprocally, c-Jun was also found to regulate the ET receptors and C/EBPβ appeared to play a regulatory role in promoting expression of c-Jun. Taken together, the data suggests that ET-1 triggers the upregulation of c-Jun through both ETA and ETB receptors, and conversely c-Jun also upregulates endothelin receptor expression, thereby generating a positive feed-forward loop of endothelin receptor activation and expression. This feed-forward regulation may contribute to RGC death and astrocyte proliferation following ET-1 treatment.

PMID: 28938016 [PubMed - in process]

Letter to the Editor. Ventricular catheter tip proximity to choroid plexus is a key factor in shunt failure.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35

Letter to the Editor. Ventricular catheter tip proximity to choroid plexus is a key factor in shunt failure.

J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017 Sep 22;:1-3

Authors: Dickerman R, Reynolds A

PMID: 28937314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Population resequencing of European mitochondrial genomes highlights sex-bias in Bronze Age demographic expansions.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35
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Population resequencing of European mitochondrial genomes highlights sex-bias in Bronze Age demographic expansions.

Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 21;7(1):12086

Authors: Batini C, Hallast P, Vågene ÅJ, Zadik D, Eriksen HA, Pamjav H, Sajantila A, Wetton JH, Jobling MA

Abstract
Interpretations of genetic data concerning the prehistory of Europe have long been a subject of great debate, but increasing amounts of ancient and modern DNA data are now providing new and more informative evidence. Y-chromosome resequencing studies in Europe have highlighted the prevalence of recent expansions of male lineages, and focused interest on the Bronze Age as a period of cultural and demographic change. These findings contrast with phylogeographic studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which have been interpreted as supporting expansions from glacial refugia. Here we have undertaken a population-based resequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes in Europe and the Middle East, in 340 samples from 17 populations for which Y-chromosome sequence data are also available. Demographic reconstructions show no signal of Bronze Age expansion, but evidence of Paleolithic expansions in all populations except the Saami, and with an absence of detectable geographical pattern. In agreement with previous inference from modern and ancient DNA data, the unbiased comparison between the mtDNA and Y-chromosome population datasets emphasizes the sex-biased nature of recent demographic transitions in Europe.

PMID: 28935946 [PubMed - in process]

A Lifestyle Intervention via Email in Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: Randomized Parallel-Group Feasibility Study.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35
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A Lifestyle Intervention via Email in Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: Randomized Parallel-Group Feasibility Study.

JMIR Cancer. 2017 Sep 21;3(2):e13

Authors: Paxton RJ, Hajek R, Newcomb P, Dobhal M, Borra S, Taylor WC, Parra-Medina D, Chang S, Courneya KS, Block G, Block T, Jones LA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our data have indicated that minority breast cancer survivors are receptive to participating in lifestyle interventions delivered via email or the Web, yet few Web-based studies exist in this population.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary results of an email-delivered diet and activity intervention program, "A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email (ALIVE)," delivered to a sample of racial and ethnic minority breast cancer survivors.
METHODS: Survivors (mean age: 52 years, 83% [59/71] African American) were recruited and randomized to receive either the ALIVE program's 3-month physical activity track or its 3-month dietary track. The fully automated system provided tools for self-monitoring and goal setting, tailored content, and automated phone calls. Descriptive statistics and mixed-effects models were computed to examine the outcomes of the study.
RESULTS: Upon completion, 44 of 71 survivors completed the study. Our "intention-to-treat" analysis revealed that participants in the physical activity track made greater improvements in moderate to vigorous activity than those in the dietary track (+97 vs. +49 min/week, P<.001). Similarly, reductions in total sedentary time among those in the physical activity track (-304 vs. -59 min/week, P<.001) was nearly 5 times greater than that for participants in the dietary track. Our completers case analysis indicated that participants in the dietary track made improvements in the intake of fiber (+4.4 g/day), fruits and vegetables (+1.0 cup equivalents/day), and reductions in saturated fat (-2.3 g/day) and trans fat (-0.3 g/day) (all P<.05). However, these improvements in dietary intake were not significantly different from the changes observed by participants in the physical activity track (all P>.05). Process evaluation data indicated that most survivors would recommend ALIVE to other cancer survivors (97%), were satisfied with ALIVE (82%), and felt that ALIVE was effective (73%). However, survivors expressed concerns about the functionality of the interactive emails.
CONCLUSIONS: ALIVE appears to be feasible for racial and ethnic minority cancer survivors and showed promising results for larger implementation. Although survivors favored the educational content, a mobile phone app and interactive emails that work on multiple email domains may help to boost adherence rates and to improve satisfaction with the Web-based platform.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02722850; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02722850 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6tHN9VsPh).

PMID: 28935620 [PubMed]

Impact of Booster Breaks and Computer Prompts on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Desk-Based Workers: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35
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Impact of Booster Breaks and Computer Prompts on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Desk-Based Workers: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prev Chronic Dis. 2016 11 17;13:E155

Authors: Taylor WC, Paxton RJ, Shegog R, Coan SP, Dubin A, Page TF, Rempel DM

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The 15-minute work break provides an opportunity to promote health, yet few studies have examined this part of the workday. We studied physical activity and sedentary behavior among office workers and compared the results of the Booster Break program with those of a second intervention and a control group to determine whether the Booster Break program improved physical and behavioral health outcomes.
METHODS: We conducted a 3-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial at 4 worksites in Texas from 2010 through 2013 to compare a group-based, structured Booster Break program to an individual-based computer-prompt intervention and a usual-break control group; we analyzed physiologic, behavioral, and employee measures such as work social support, quality of life, and perceived stress. We also identified consistent and inconsistent attendees of the Booster Break sessions.
RESULTS: We obtained data from 175 participants (mean age, 43 y; 67% racial/ethnic minority). Compared with the other groups, the consistent Booster Break attendees had greater weekly pedometer counts (P < .001), significant decreases in sedentary behavior and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (P < .001), and a significant increase in triglyceride concentrations (P = .02) (levels remained within the normal range). Usual-break participants significantly increased their body mass index, whereas Booster Break participants maintained body mass index status during the 6 months. Overall, Booster Break participants were 6.8 and 4.3 times more likely to have decreases in BMI and weekend sedentary time, respectively, than usual-break participants.
CONCLUSION: Findings varied among the 3 study groups; however, results indicate the potential for consistent attendees of the Booster Break intervention to achieve significant, positive changes related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index.

PMID: 27854422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Spatial Microbial Composition Along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Captive Attwater's Prairie Chicken.

Sat, 09/23/2017 - 07:35
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Spatial Microbial Composition Along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Captive Attwater's Prairie Chicken.

Microb Ecol. 2017 May;73(4):966-977

Authors: Zhang Y, Simon SE, Johnson JA, Allen MS

Abstract
Gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. Non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. However, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract, and measures obtained from the cloaca may not actually represent the diversity present elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we systematically characterized the gastrointestinal microbial community of the critically endangered Attwater's Prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) by opportunistically sampling four different locations (ileum, cecum, large intestine, and cloaca) along the gastrointestinal tract of eight individuals. Spatial variation of microbial community was observed at different sampling locations within the gastrointestinal tract. The cecum harbored the most diverse and significantly different microbiota from the other locations, while the microbial α- and β-diversities were similar in the ileum, large intestine, and cloaca. The results of this study provide evidence that microbiota diversity can differ depending on sampling location and metric used to quantify diversity. As shown here, non-invasive cloacal sampling strategies may reflect microbiota diversity elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, yet caution is warranted when making generalizations in terms of the microbiota diversity correlations when samples are obtained from a single location within the gastrointestinal tract.

PMID: 27752719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults in the Tujia-Nationality Settlement of China.

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 07:33
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The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults in the Tujia-Nationality Settlement of China.

Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:8315603

Authors: Liu X, Xiang Z, Shi X, Schenck H, Yi X, Ni R, Liu C

Abstract
Demographics questionnaires, and fitness tests were utilized to identify the risk factors of hypertension among younger adults in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in China's southwest province of Hubei. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 among the young people in this area. The main risk factors of developing hypertension were found to be sex (as man), individuals over 40 years old, blue collar employees who worked in rural areas, overweight/obesity, and those with the low CRF.

PMID: 28932747 [PubMed - in process]

Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion.

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 07:33
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Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion.

BMC Genet. 2016 Aug 31;17(1):125

Authors: Bieber FR, Buckleton JS, Budowle B, Butler JM, Coble MD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The evaluation and interpretation of forensic DNA mixture evidence faces greater interpretational challenges due to increasingly complex mixture evidence. Such challenges include: casework involving low quantity or degraded evidence leading to allele and locus dropout; allele sharing of contributors leading to allele stacking; and differentiation of PCR stutter artifacts from true alleles. There is variation in statistical approaches used to evaluate the strength of the evidence when inclusion of a specific known individual(s) is determined, and the approaches used must be supportable. There are concerns that methods utilized for interpretation of complex forensic DNA mixtures may not be implemented properly in some casework. Similar questions are being raised in a number of U.S. jurisdictions, leading to some confusion about mixture interpretation for current and previous casework.
RESULTS: Key elements necessary for the interpretation and statistical evaluation of forensic DNA mixtures are described. Given the most common method for statistical evaluation of DNA mixtures in many parts of the world, including the USA, is the Combined Probability of Inclusion/Exclusion (CPI/CPE). Exposition and elucidation of this method and a protocol for use is the focus of this article. Formulae and other supporting materials are provided.
CONCLUSIONS: Guidance and details of a DNA mixture interpretation protocol is provided for application of the CPI/CPE method in the analysis of more complex forensic DNA mixtures. This description, in turn, should help reduce the variability of interpretation with application of this methodology and thereby improve the quality of DNA mixture interpretation throughout the forensic community.

PMID: 27580588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Liver Biomarkers and Lipid Profiles in Mexican and Mexican-American 10- to 14-Year-Old Adolescents at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 07:33
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Liver Biomarkers and Lipid Profiles in Mexican and Mexican-American 10- to 14-Year-Old Adolescents at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:4262536

Authors: Fernández-Gaxiola AC, Valdés-Ramos R, Fulda KG, López ALG, Martínez-Carrillo BE, Franks SF, Fernando S

Abstract
Liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) are markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); alkaline phosphatase is a marker of liver disease. Mexican-American adolescents are disproportionately affected by T2DM, while in Mexico its prevalence is emerging. We assessed liver biomarkers and lipid profiles among Mexican and Mexican-American adolescents 10-14 years old with high/low risk of T2DM through a cross-sectional, descriptive study (Texas n = 144; Mexico n = 149). We included family medical histories, anthropometry, and blood pressure. Obesity was present in one-third of subjects in both sites. ALT (UL) was higher (p < 0.001) in high-risk adolescents (23.5 ± 19.5 versus 17.2 ± 13.4 for males, 19.7 ± 11.6 versus 15.1 ± 5.5 for females), in Toluca and in Texas (26.0 ± 14.7 versus 20.0 ± 13.2 for males, 18.2 ± 13.4 versus 14.6 ± 10.1 for females), as well as GGT (UL) (p < 0.001) (18.7 ± 11.1 versus 12.4 ± 2.3 for males, 13.6 ± 5.8 versus 11.5 ± 3.9 for Mexican females; 21.0 ± 6.8 versus 15.4 ± 5.5 for males, 14.3 ± 5.0 versus 13.8 ± 5.3 for females in Texas). We found no differences by sex or BMI. Total cholesterol and HDL were higher among Mexican-Americans (p < 0.001). In conclusion, multiple risk factors were present in the sample. We found differences by gender and between high and low risk for T2DM adolescents in all liver enzymes in both sites.

PMID: 28929119 [PubMed - in process]

Protecting the PCL During Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Bone Island Technique.

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 07:33
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Protecting the PCL During Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Bone Island Technique.

J Arthroplasty. 2017 Aug 26;:

Authors: Wood AR, Rabbani TA, Sheffer B, Wagner RA, Sanchez HB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) may be partially resected during cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using highly experienced hands and standard surgical technique; therefore, proper surgical technique is aimed at preservation and balance of the PCL during CR TKA. The central objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple surgical technique to prevent PCL damage during performance of a CR TKA.
METHODS: Sixty embalmed cadaver specimens were randomized into 2 groups, experimental and control. The control group consisted of standard tibial resection without the use of an osteotome. The experimental group utilized an osteotome in addition to standard technique to preserve a bone island anterior to the tibial attachment of the PCL.
RESULTS: In the control group, PCL damage was noted in 73% (22/30) of specimens. In the experimental group, where an osteotome was used, PCL damage was found in 23% (7/30) of specimens. The use of an osteotome was found to have an absolute risk reduction of 50% when compared to the control group which did not use an osteotome to protect the PCL.
CONCLUSION: In the setting of minimal surgical experience, the use of an osteotome to preserve the PCL during CR TKA by forming a bone island was found to be an effective means of protecting the PCL over standard technique. In addition, standard technique with the use of a Y-shaped PCL retractor was found to provide questionable protection to the PCL.

PMID: 28927647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fluorescence properties of doxorubicin in PBS buffer and PVA films.

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 07:33
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Fluorescence properties of doxorubicin in PBS buffer and PVA films.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 May;170:65-69

Authors: Shah S, Chandra A, Kaur A, Sabnis N, Lacko A, Gryczynski Z, Fudala R, Gryczynski I

Abstract
We studied steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of an anticancer drug Doxorubicin in a saline buffer and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) film. Absorption of Doxorubicin, located at blue-green spectral region, allows a convenient excitation with visible light emitting diodes or laser diodes. Emission of Doxorubicin with maximum near 600nm can be easily detected with photomultipliers and CCD cameras. Both, absorption and fluorescence spectra in polymeric matrix show more pronounced vibronic structures than in solution. Also, the steady-state anisotropy in the polymer film is significantly higher than in the saline solution. In PVA film the fluorescence anisotropy is about 0.30 whereas in the saline buffer only 0.07. Quantum efficiencies of Doxorubicin were compared to a known standard Rhodamine 101 which has fluorescence emission in a similar spectral region. The quantum yield of Doxorubicin in PVA film is more than 10% and about twice higher than in the saline solution. Similarly, the lifetime of doxorubicin in PVA film is about 2ns whereas in the saline solution only about 1ns. The fluorescence anisotropy decays show that Doxorubicin molecules are freely rotating in the saline buffer with a correlation time of about 290ps, and are almost completely immobilized in the PVA film. The spectroscopic investigations presented in this manuscript are important, as they provide answers to changes in molecular properties of Doxorubicin depending changes in the local environment, which is useful when synthesizing nanoparticles for Doxorubicin entrapment.

PMID: 28390260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hormone-Related Migraine Headaches and Mood Disorders: Treatment with Estrogen Stabilization.

Wed, 09/20/2017 - 07:34
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Hormone-Related Migraine Headaches and Mood Disorders: Treatment with Estrogen Stabilization.

Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Jan;37(1):120-128

Authors: Warnock JK, Cohen LJ, Blumenthal H, Hammond JE

Abstract
Because estrogens and the trigeminal system are inherently linked, prescribers who are treating a woman with a hormonally related mood disorder and migraine headaches should consider hormonal options to optimize the patient's treatment. This article discusses the interrelationships of estrogen, serotonin, and the trigeminal system as they relate to menstrual migraine occurrence and hormone-related mood symptoms. In addition, clinical examples are provided to facilitate the prescribers treating women during reproductive transitions in which declining estrogens are related to their suffering.

PMID: 27888528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

New perspectives on healthy aging.

Tue, 09/19/2017 - 07:33
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New perspectives on healthy aging.

Prog Neurobiol. 2017 Oct;157:1

Authors: Jin K

PMID: 28918824 [PubMed - in process]

Research data management in academic institutions: A scoping review.

Tue, 09/19/2017 - 07:33
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Research data management in academic institutions: A scoping review.

PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178261

Authors: Perrier L, Blondal E, Ayala AP, Dearborn D, Kenny T, Lightfoot D, Reka R, Thuna M, Trimble L, MacDonald H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the volume, topics, and methodological nature of the existing research literature on research data management in academic institutions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a scoping review by searching forty literature databases encompassing a broad range of disciplines from inception to April 2016. We included all study types and data extracted on study design, discipline, data collection tools, and phase of the research data lifecycle.
RESULTS: We included 301 articles plus 10 companion reports after screening 13,002 titles and abstracts and 654 full-text articles. Most articles (85%) were published from 2010 onwards and conducted within the sciences (86%). More than three-quarters of the articles (78%) reported methods that included interviews, cross-sectional, or case studies. Most articles (68%) included the Giving Access to Data phase of the UK Data Archive Research Data Lifecycle that examines activities such as sharing data. When studies were grouped into five dominant groupings (Stakeholder, Data, Library, Tool/Device, and Publication), data quality emerged as an integral element.
CONCLUSION: Most studies relied on self-reports (interviews, surveys) or accounts from an observer (case studies) and we found few studies that collected empirical evidence on activities amongst data producers, particularly those examining the impact of research data management interventions. As well, fewer studies examined research data management at the early phases of research projects. The quality of all research outputs needs attention, from the application of best practices in research data management studies, to data producers depositing data in repositories for long-term use.

PMID: 28542450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Upregulation of the endothelin A (ETA) receptor and its association with neurodegeneration in a rodent model of glaucoma.

Tue, 09/19/2017 - 07:33
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Upregulation of the endothelin A (ETA) receptor and its association with neurodegeneration in a rodent model of glaucoma.

BMC Neurosci. 2017 Mar 01;18(1):27

Authors: McGrady NR, Minton AZ, Stankowska DL, He S, Jefferies HB, Krishnamoorthy RR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary open angle glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies that results in optic nerve degeneration and a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ultimately causing blindness if allowed to progress. Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most attributable risk factor for developing glaucoma and lowering of IOP is currently the only available therapy. However, despite lowering IOP, neurodegenerative effects persist in some patients. Hence, it would be beneficial to develop approaches to promote neuroprotection of RGCs in addition to IOP lowering therapies. The endothelin system is a key target for intervention against glaucomatous neurodegeneration. The endothelin family of peptides and receptors, particularly endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin B (ETB) receptor, has been shown to have neurodegenerative roles in glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in endothelin A (ETA) receptor protein expression in the retinas of adult male Brown Norway rats following IOP elevation by the Morrison's model of ocular hypertension and the impact of ETA receptor overexpression on RGC viability in vitro.
RESULTS: IOP elevation was carried out in one eye of Brown Norway rats by injection of hypertonic saline through episcleral veins. After 2 weeks of IOP elevation, immunohistochemical analysis of retinal sections from rat eyes showed an increasing trend in immunostaining for ETA receptors in multiple retinal layers including the inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and outer plexiform layer. Following 4 weeks of IOP elevation, a significant increase in immunostaining for ETA receptor expression was found in the retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cells. A modest increase in staining for ETA receptors was also found in the outer plexiform layer in the retina of rats with IOP elevation. Cell culture studies showed that overexpression of ETA receptors in 661W cells as well as primary RGCs decreases cell viability, compared to empty vector transfected cells. Adeno-associated virus mediated overexpression of the ETA receptor produced an increase in the ETB receptor in primary RGCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IOP results in an appreciable change in ETA receptor expression in the retina. Overexpression of the ETA receptor results in an overall decrease in cell viability, accompanied by an increase in ETB receptor levels, suggesting the involvement of both ETA and ETB receptors in mediating cell death. These findings raise possibilities for the development of ETA/ETB dual receptor antagonists as neuroprotective treatments for glaucomatous neuropathy.

PMID: 28249604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

M2b macrophage polarization accompanied with reduction of long noncoding RNA GAS5.

Mon, 09/18/2017 - 07:34
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M2b macrophage polarization accompanied with reduction of long noncoding RNA GAS5.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Sep 13;:

Authors: Ito I, Asai A, Suzuki S, Kobayashi M, Suzuki F

Abstract
Macrophages (Mϕ) are highly plastic and change their functional phenotypes depending on microenvironmental signals. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs are involved in the polarization of Mϕ. In this study, we demonstrated that the phenotype of M2bMϕ [CCL1(+) IL-10(+) LIGHT(+)] switches to other phenotypes with interchangeability attained through the increased expression of growth arrest-specific 5 RNA (GAS5 RNA), a long non-coding RNA. GAS5 RNA has been described as a silencer of the CCL1 gene. Various phenotypes of Mϕ were prepared from bone marrow-derived Mϕ (BMDMϕ) after stimulation with IFNγ [M(IFNγ)]/M1Mϕ, IL-4 [M(IL-4)]/M2aMϕ, LPS and immobilized IgG [M(LPS + IC)]/M2bMϕ, and IL-10 [M(IL-10)/M2cMϕ]. BMDMϕ cultured with medium, [M(no)]/quiescent Mϕ, were used as a control. As compared to Μ(no), M(IFNγ), M(IL-4) and M(IL-10), the reduced level of GAS5 RNA was shown in M(LPS + IC). CCL1 and LIGHT mRNAs (typical biomarkers of M2bMϕ) were not expressed by M(LPS + IC) transduced with a GAS5 gene using lentiviral vector. The reduction of GAS5 RNA in M(LPS + IC) was mediated by the activation of nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD pathway). BMDMϕ overexpressed with GAS5 RNA after GAS5 gene transduction did not polarize to M2bMϕ even though they were stimulated with LPS and IC in combination. These results indicate that the reduction of GAS5 RNA influenced by the NMD pathway activation leads to the Mϕ polarization stimulated with LPS and IC in combination.

PMID: 28917839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A technique for setting analytical thresholds in massively parallel sequencing-based forensic DNA analysis.

Sat, 09/16/2017 - 07:44
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A technique for setting analytical thresholds in massively parallel sequencing-based forensic DNA analysis.

PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178005

Authors: Young B, King JL, Budowle B, Armogida L

Abstract
Amplicon (targeted) sequencing by massively parallel sequencing (PCR-MPS) is a potential method for use in forensic DNA analyses. In this application, PCR-MPS may supplement or replace other instrumental analysis methods such as capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing for STR and mitochondrial DNA typing, respectively. PCR-MPS also may enable the expansion of forensic DNA analysis methods to include new marker systems such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) that currently are assayable using various instrumental analysis methods including microarray and quantitative PCR. Acceptance of PCR-MPS as a forensic method will depend in part upon developing protocols and criteria that define the limitations of a method, including a defensible analytical threshold or method detection limit. This paper describes an approach to establish objective analytical thresholds suitable for multiplexed PCR-MPS methods. A definition is proposed for PCR-MPS method background noise, and an analytical threshold based on background noise is described.

PMID: 28542338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Genetic redundancy of GATA factors in the extraembryonic trophoblast lineage ensures the progression of preimplantation and postimplantation mammalian development.

Sat, 09/16/2017 - 07:44
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Genetic redundancy of GATA factors in the extraembryonic trophoblast lineage ensures the progression of preimplantation and postimplantation mammalian development.

Development. 2017 Mar 01;144(5):876-888

Authors: Home P, Kumar RP, Ganguly A, Saha B, Milano-Foster J, Bhattacharya B, Ray S, Gunewardena S, Paul A, Camper SA, Fields PE, Paul S

Abstract
GATA transcription factors are implicated in establishing cell fate during mammalian development. In early mammalian embryos, GATA3 is selectively expressed in the extraembryonic trophoblast lineage and regulates gene expression to promote trophoblast fate. However, trophoblast-specific GATA3 function is dispensable for early mammalian development. Here, using dual conditional knockout mice, we show that genetic redundancy of Gata3 with paralog Gata2 in trophoblast progenitors ensures the successful progression of both pre- and postimplantation mammalian development. Stage-specific gene deletion in trophoblasts reveals that loss of both GATA genes, but not either alone, leads to embryonic lethality prior to the onset of their expression within the embryo proper. Using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses, we define the global targets of GATA2/GATA3 and show that they directly regulate a large number of common genes to orchestrate stem versus differentiated trophoblast fate. In trophoblast progenitors, GATA factors directly regulate BMP4, Nodal and Wnt signaling components that promote embryonic-extraembryonic signaling cross-talk, which is essential for the development of the embryo proper. Our study provides genetic evidence that impairment of trophoblast-specific GATA2/GATA3 function could lead to early pregnancy failure.

PMID: 28232602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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