Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 2 hours 6 min ago

The role of phylogenetically conserved elements in shaping patterns of human genomic diversity.

2 hours 6 min ago
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The role of phylogenetically conserved elements in shaping patterns of human genomic diversity.

Mol Biol Evol. 2018 Aug 03;:

Authors: Woerner AE, Veeramah KR, Watkins JC, Hammer MF

Abstract
Evolutionary genetic studies have shown a positive correlation between levels of nucleotide diversity and either rates of recombination or genetic distance to genes. Both positive-directional and purifying selection have been offered as the source of these correlations via genetic hitchhiking and background selection, respectively. Phylogenetically conserved elements (CEs) are short (∼100bp), widely distributed (comprising ∼5% of genome), sequences that are often found far from genes. While the function of many CEs is unknown, CEs also are associated with reduced diversity at linked sites. Using high coverage (>80x) whole genome data from two human populations, the Yoruba and the CEU, we perform fine scale evaluations of diversity, rates of recombination, and linkage to genes. We find that the local rate of recombination has a stronger effect on levels of diversity than linkage to genes, and that these effects of recombination persist even in regions far from genes. Our whole genome modeling demonstrates that, rather than recombination or GC-biased gene conversion, selection on sites within or linked to CEs better explains the observed genomic diversity patterns. A major implication is that very few sites in the human genome are predicted to be free of the effects of selection. These sites, which we refer to as the human "neutralome", comprise only 1.2% of the autosomes and 5.1% of the X chromosome. Demographic analysis of the neutralome reveals larger population sizes and lower rates of growth for ancestral human populations than inferred by previous analyses.

PMID: 30113695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of InnoTyper® 21 in a sample of Rio de Janeiro population as an alternative forensic panel.

2 hours 6 min ago
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Evaluation of InnoTyper® 21 in a sample of Rio de Janeiro population as an alternative forensic panel.

Int J Legal Med. 2018 Jan;132(1):149-151

Authors: Moura-Neto RS, Mello ICT, Silva R, Maette APC, Bottino CG, Woerner A, King J, Wendt F, Budowle B

Abstract
The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0.05/20, p < 0.0025), and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between markers. Assuming loci independence, the cumulative random match probability (RMP) was 2.3 × 10-8. A lower mean Fis value was obtained for this sample population compared with those of three North American populations (African-American, Southwest Hispanic, US Caucasian). Principal component analysis with the three North American populations and one from 21 East Asian population showed that African Americans segregated as an independent group while US Caucasian, Southwest Hispanic, East Asian, and Rio de Janeiro populations are in a single large heterogeneous group. Also, a full Innuls profile was produced from an evidence sample, despite the DNA being highly degraded. In conclusion, this system is a useful complement to standard STR kits.

PMID: 28748403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Peripheral Retinal Telangiectasia and Ischemia in Takayasu Arteritis.

2 hours 6 min ago
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Peripheral Retinal Telangiectasia and Ischemia in Takayasu Arteritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 09;68(9):2350

Authors: Batliwala SY, Perez M, Aston W, Chavala SH

PMID: 27110659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MicroRNAs Regulate Thymic Epithelium in Age-Related Thymic Involution via Down- or Upregulation of Transcription Factors.

Tue, 08/14/2018 - 07:32
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MicroRNAs Regulate Thymic Epithelium in Age-Related Thymic Involution via Down- or Upregulation of Transcription Factors.

J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:2528957

Authors: Xu M, Zhang X, Hong R, Su DM, Wang L

Abstract
Age-related thymic involution is primarily induced by defects in nonhematopoietic thymic epithelial cells (TECs). It is characterized by dysfunction of multiple transcription factors (TFs), such as p63 and FoxN1, and also involves other TEC-associated regulators, such as Aire. These TFs and regulators are controlled by complicated regulatory networks, in which microRNAs (miRNAs) act as a key player. miRNAs can either directly target the 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions) of the TFs to suppress TF expression or target TF inhibitors to reduce or increase TF inhibitor expression and thereby indirectly enhance or inhibit TF expression. Here, we review the current understanding and recent studies about how miRNAs are involved in age-related thymic involution via regulation of TEC-autonomous TFs. We also discuss potential strategies for targeting miRNAs to rejuvenate age-related declined thymic function.

PMID: 29226156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

Tue, 08/14/2018 - 07:32
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Jan;38(1):209-217

Authors: Lazuko SS, Kuzhel OP, Belyaeva LE, Manukhina EB, Fred Downey H, Tseilikman OB, Komelkova MV, Tseilikman VE

Abstract
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K+ channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts. Predator stress induced significant decreases in coronary tone of isolated hearts and in blood pressure of intact rats. L-NAME, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, but not S-MT, a selective iNOS inhibitor, and increased coronary tone of control rats. In PTSD rats, both L-NAME and S-MT increased coronary tone. Therefore, the stress-induced coronary vasodilation resulted from NO overproduction by both iNOS and eNOS. NOS induction was apparently due to systemic inflammation as evidenced by increased serum interleukin-1β and C-reactive protein in PTSD rats. Decreased corticosterone in PTSD rats may have contributed to inflammation and its effect on coronary tone. PTSD was also associated with voltage-gated K+ channel dysfunction, which would have also reduced coronary tone.

PMID: 28676988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Continuous Infusion Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Perioperative Pain Management.

Tue, 08/14/2018 - 07:32
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Continuous Infusion Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Perioperative Pain Management.

J Pharm Pract. 2018 Feb;31(1):66-81

Authors: Howard ML, Isaacs AN, Nisly SA

Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the use of continuous infusion (CI) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as an alternative modality for pain control in surgical patient populations.
METHODS: A PubMed and MEDLINE search was conducted from 1964 through February 2016 using the following search terms alone or in combinations: continuous, infusion, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, and surgery. All English-language, prospective and retrospective, adult and pediatric studies evaluating intravenous or intramuscular CI NSAIDs for surgical pain were evaluated for inclusion in this review.
RESULTS: Twenty four prospective and retrospective publications evaluating CI NSAIDs were identified: 12 in abdominal surgery, 7 in orthopedic surgery, and 5 in pediatric surgery. Specific CI NSAIDs utilized included diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, and ketorolac. Most studies compared the CI NSAID to placebo or an alternative analgesic and evaluated pain control, supplemental opioid use, and related adverse effects. In these surgical populations, CI NSAIDs decreased opioid consumption, alongside provision of adequate pain control. While long-term adverse effects were rarely collected, a decrease in nausea and sedation was often seen with the CI NSAID groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In the abdominal, orthopedic, and pediatric surgical populations, CI NSAIDs represent a feasible alternative modality for perioperative pain control.

PMID: 27580638 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vitamin B3 in Health and Disease: Toward the Second Century of Discovery.

Mon, 08/13/2018 - 13:32
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Vitamin B3 in Health and Disease: Toward the Second Century of Discovery.

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1813:3-8

Authors: Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL

Abstract
This introductory chapter briefly reviews the history, chemistry, and biochemistry of NAD (the term NAD as it is used here refers to both oxidized and reduced forms of the molecule) consuming ADP-ribose transfer enzymes as components of the involvement of vitamin B3 in health and disease.

PMID: 30097857 [PubMed - in process]

Measuring Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) Quality across the Continuum of Care.

Sat, 08/11/2018 - 07:33
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Measuring Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) Quality across the Continuum of Care.

EGEMS (Wash DC). 2018 Jul 24;6(1):18

Authors: Deng X, Finitzo T, Aryal S

Abstract
Improving quality measurement while reducing costs helps public health programs identify and better support critical aspects of the care and services delivered to the patients they serve. This is true for state-based early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs as they strive to develop robust clinical quality measures to help track the quality of hearing health services provided during the EHDI processes. Leveraging today's electronic health records and public health surveillance system functionalities, state reporting requirements facilitate and yield efficient collection and analysis of data for quality measurement. In this study, we tested three EHDI quality measures endorsed by the National Quality Forum using a retrospective sample of more than 1,100,000 newborns from 3 states using electronic health data available in the state EHDI Information Systems (EHDI-IS). The results of the analysis reported herein from a large multi-state cohort provide a "real life" benchmark for future quality improvement projects and of where EHDI stands today. Reflecting on these findings, suggestions are posed for enhancing the EHDI quality measures in future updates.

PMID: 30094290 [PubMed]

Experimental ischemic stroke induces long-term T cell activation in the brain.

Sat, 08/11/2018 - 07:33
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Experimental ischemic stroke induces long-term T cell activation in the brain.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 Aug 10;:271678X18792372

Authors: Xie L, Li W, Hersh J, Liu R, Yang SH

Abstract
Mounting evidence has demonstrated that both innate and adaptive immune cells infiltrate into the brain after ischemic stroke. T cell invasion has been found in the ischemic region up to one month post experimental ischemic stroke and has been shown to persist for years in stroke patients. However, the function and phenotypic characteristics of the brain invading T cells after ischemic stroke have not been investigated. In the current study, we determined the function of brain invading T cells in the acute and chronic phase following experimental ischemic stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We observed a significant increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells presented in the peri-infarct area at up to one month after experimental ischemic stroke. The brain invading T cells after ischemic stroke demonstrated close interaction with active astrocytes and a progressive proinflammatory phenotype as evidenced by the increased expression of T cell activation markers CD44 and CD25, proinflammatory cytokines INF-γ, IL-17, IL-10, TNF-α, and perforin, with corresponding transcriptional factors T-bet and RORc. Our results indicated a prolonged activation of brain invading CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after ischemic stroke which may play a role in the neural repair process after stroke.

PMID: 30092705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Spotlight on solithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: design, development, and potential place in therapy.

Sat, 08/11/2018 - 07:33
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Spotlight on solithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: design, development, and potential place in therapy.

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017;11:3559-3566

Authors: Donald BJ, Surani S, Deol HS, Mbadugha UJ, Udeani G

Abstract
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, antibacterial agents used to treat common pathogens in CABP are marked by adverse drug events and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Solithromycin is a new ketolide antibiotic, based on the macrolide antibiotic structure, being studied for use in CABP. It has efficacy in vitro against the common causative pathogens in CABP including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and atypical pathogens. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, it has been demonstrated efficacious as a single agent for treatment of CABP with an apparently milder adverse event profile than alternative agents.

PMID: 29263651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hypoxia, hibernation and Neuroprotection: An Experimental Study in Mice.

Fri, 08/10/2018 - 07:31
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Hypoxia, hibernation and Neuroprotection: An Experimental Study in Mice.

Aging Dis. 2018 Aug;9(4):761-768

Authors: Ren C, Li S, Rajah G, Shao G, Lu G, Han R, Huang Q, Li H, Ding Y, Jin K, Ji X

Abstract
Hibernation is a unique physiological state that evolved to survive periods of food shortages. It is characterized by profound decreases in metabolic rate, body temperature and physiological functions. Studies have shown that animals in hibernation can resist neurological damage. Here, we aimed to study whether hypoxia can induce a hibernation-like state in a traditionally non-hibernating animal and whether it is neuroprotective. All procedures were conducted according to international guidelines on laboratory animal safety. Mice C57BL/6 (19-21g) were placed into a 125 mL jar with fresh air and the jar was sealed with a rubber plug. For each run, the tolerance limit was judged by the animals' appearance for "air hunger". The animal was removed from the jar as soon as its first gasping breath appeared and was moved to another fresh-air-containing jar of similar volume. This procedure was performed in four runs. The hypoxia exposure significantly decreased oxygen (O2) consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) production, respiratory rate and heart rate. Meanwhile, rectal temperature reached a minimum of 12.7±2.56°C, which is lower than a wide range of ambient temperatures. The mimicked hibernation decreased the infarct size in a focal cerebral ischemia mouse model. Our findings suggest the possibility of inducing suspended animation-like hibernation states for medical applications post injury.

PMID: 30090664 [PubMed]

Hyperglycemia Alters Astrocyte Metabolism and Inhibits Astrocyte Proliferation.

Fri, 08/10/2018 - 07:31
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Hyperglycemia Alters Astrocyte Metabolism and Inhibits Astrocyte Proliferation.

Aging Dis. 2018 Aug;9(4):674-684

Authors: Li W, Roy Choudhury G, Winters A, Prah J, Lin W, Liu R, Yang SH

Abstract
Diabetes milieu is a complex metabolic disease that has been known to associate with high risk of various neurological disorders. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could dramatically increase neuronal glucose levels which leads to neuronal damage, a phenomenon referred to as glucose neurotoxicity. On the other hand, the impact of hyperglycemia on astrocytes has been less explored. Astrocytes play important roles in brain energy metabolism through neuron-astrocyte coupling. As the component of blood brain barrier, glucose might be primarily transported into astrocytes, hence, impose direct impact on astrocyte metabolism and function. In the present study, we determined the effect of high glucose on the energy metabolism and function of primary astrocytes. Hyperglycemia level glucose (25 mM) induced cell cycle arrest and inhibited proliferation and migration of primary astrocytes. Consistently, high glucose decreased cyclin D1 and D3 expression. High glucose enhanced glycolytic metabolism, increased ATP and glycogen content in primary astrocytes. In addition, high glucose activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in astrocytes. In summary, our in vitro study indicated that hyperglycemia might impact astrocyte energy metabolism and function phenotype. Our study provides a potential mechanism which may underlie the diabetic cerebral neuropathy and warrant further in vivo study to determine the effect of hyperglycemia on astrocyte metabolism and function.

PMID: 30090655 [PubMed]

Gait Analyses in Mice: Effects of Age and Glutathione Deficiency.

Fri, 08/10/2018 - 07:31
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Gait Analyses in Mice: Effects of Age and Glutathione Deficiency.

Aging Dis. 2018 Aug;9(4):634-646

Authors: Mock JT, Knight SG, Vann PH, Wong JM, Davis DL, Forster MJ, Sumien N

Abstract
Minor changes (~0.1 m/s) in human gait speed are predictive of various measures of decline and can be used to identify at-risk individuals prior to further decline. These associations are possible due to an abundance of human clinical research. However, age-related gait changes are not well defined in rodents, even though rodents are used as the primary pre-clinical model for many disease states as well as aging research. Our study investigated the usefulness of a novel automated system, the CatWalk™ XT, to measure age-related differences in gait. Furthermore, age-related functional declines have been associated with decreases in the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio leading to a pro-oxidizing cellular shift. Therefore the secondary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic glutathione deficiency led to exacerbated age-associated impairments. Groups of male and female wild-type (gclm+/+) and knock-out (gclm-/-) mice aged 4, 10 and 17 months were tested on the CatWalk and gait measurements recorded. Similar age-related declines in all measures of gait were observed in both males and females, and chronic glutathione depletion was associated with some delays in age-related declines, which were further exacerbated. In conclusion, the CatWalk is a useful tool to assess gait changes with age, and further studies will be required to identify the potential compensating mechanisms underlying the effects observed with the chronic glutathione depletion.

PMID: 30090652 [PubMed]

Neuronal subset-specific deletion of Pten results in aberrant Wnt signaling and memory impairments.

Wed, 08/08/2018 - 07:32
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Neuronal subset-specific deletion of Pten results in aberrant Wnt signaling and memory impairments.

Brain Res. 2018 Aug 04;:

Authors: Hodges SL, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Jefferson TS, Gao N, Morrison JB, White J, Nolan SO, Lugo JN

Abstract
The canonical Wnt and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways both play critical roles in brain development early in life. There is extensive evidence of how each pathway is involved in neuronal and synaptic maturation, however, how these molecular networks interact requires further investigation. The present study examines the effect of neuronal deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) in mice on Wnt signaling protein levels and associated cognitive impairments. PTEN functions as a negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and mutations in Pten can result in cognitive and behavioral impairments. We found that deletion of Pten resulted in elevated Dvl2, Wnt5a/b, and Naked2, along with decreased GSK3β hippocampal synaptosome protein expression compared to wild type mice. Aberrations in the canonical Wnt pathway were associated with learning and memory deficits in Pten knockout mice, specifically in novel object recognition and the Lashley maze. This study demonstrates that deletion of Pten not only significantly impacts PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, but effects proper functioning of the Wnt signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will help elucidate how the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intersects with Wnt signaling to result in cognitive impairments, specifically in memory.

PMID: 30086265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reaching for the Stars in the Brain: Polymer-Mediated Gene Delivery to Human Astrocytes.

Tue, 08/07/2018 - 08:10

Reaching for the Stars in the Brain: Polymer-Mediated Gene Delivery to Human Astrocytes.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2018 Jun 28;12:645-657

Authors: Joshi CR, Raghavan V, Vijayaraghavalu S, Gao Y, Saraswathy M, Labhasetwar V, Ghorpade A

Abstract
Astrocytes, the "star-shaped" glial cells, are appealing gene-delivery targets to treat neurological diseases due to their diverse roles in brain homeostasis and disease. Cationic polymers have successfully delivered genes to mammalian cells and hence present a viable, non-immunogenic alternative to widely used viral vectors. In this study, we investigated the gene delivery potential of a series of arginine- and polyethylene glycol-modified, siloxane-based polyethylenimine analogs in primary cultured human neural cells (neurons and astrocytes) and in mice. Plasmid DNAs encoding luciferase reporter were used to measure gene expression. We hypothesized that polyplexes with arginine would help in cellular transport of the DNA, including across the blood-brain barrier; polyethylene glycol will stabilize polyethylenimine and reduce its toxicity while maintaining its DNA-condensing ability. Polyplexes were non-toxic to human neural cells and red blood cells. Cellular uptake of polyplexes and sustained gene expression were seen in human astrocytes as well as in mouse brains post-intravenous-injections. The polyplexes also delivered and expressed genes driven by astrocyte-restricted glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters, which are weaker than viral promoters. To our knowledge, the presented work validates a biocompatible and effective polymer-facilitated gene-delivery system for both human brain cells and mice for the first time.

PMID: 30081235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Increased Substrate Stiffness Elicits a Myofibroblastic Phenotype in Human Lamina Cribrosa Cells.

Tue, 08/07/2018 - 08:10
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Increased Substrate Stiffness Elicits a Myofibroblastic Phenotype in Human Lamina Cribrosa Cells.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 02 01;59(2):803-814

Authors: Liu B, Kilpatrick JI, Lukasz B, Jarvis SP, McDonnell F, Wallace DM, Clark AF, O'Brien CJ

Abstract
Purpose: Alteration in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the optic nerve head (ONH) causes lamina cribrosa (LC) fibrosis and affects the mechanical integrity of the ONH. Increased ECM tissue stiffness drives myofibroblast activation leading to tissue fibrosis throughout the body. Here using primary human LC cells, we investigate the effect of substrate stiffness on profibrotic changes, which might be a key molecular mechanism driving ECM remodeling of the LC in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) glaucoma.
Methods: Primary human LC cells from normal and age-matched POAG glaucoma donors were cultured on substrates with defined mechanical properties of 5 and 100 kPa to replicate the range of mechanical microenvironments that cells may experience in vivo. Cell morphology, spread area, actin stress fibers, vinculin-focal adhesion formation, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) signal were examined using immunofluorescence staining. The elastic modulus of cells was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Results: Significantly greater cell spread area along with increased actin filament development, and vinculin-focal adhesion formation (number and size) were found in both normal and glaucoma LC cells cultured on stiff substrates. These changes were positively associated with elevated cell stiffness measured by AFM. Changes in spreading and cytoskeleton organization of glaucoma LC cells were significantly more pronounced than those in normal cells. The transformation to a myofibroblast-like cell phenotype was identified in both LC cells exposed to stiffer substrates, as indicated by an increased α-SMA signal and its colocalization with the actin stress fibers.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that a stiffer cell microenvironment activates a myofibroblastic transformation in human LC cells, and therefore contributes to LC remodelling and fibrosis in glaucoma.

PMID: 29392327 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Assessing a traditional case-based application exercise and a student question creation exercise on student performance and perceptions.

Tue, 08/07/2018 - 08:10
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Assessing a traditional case-based application exercise and a student question creation exercise on student performance and perceptions.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2017 Jul;9(4):689-697

Authors: Tatachar A, Kominski C

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the impact of a traditional case-based application exercise with a student question creation exercise on a) student exam performance, b) student perceptions of enjoyment, competence, understanding, effort, interest in continuing participation, and interest in the subject.
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Subjects were 84 second-year pharmacy students in a pharmacotherapy course. The research focus was active learning involving the topic of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder. Student teams were randomly assigned to either case-based or student question creation exercises using PeerWise. Student performance was assessed by a pre- and posttest and on block and final exams. After completion, an online survey assessed student perceptions of both exercises.
FINDINGS: Statistically significant differences were revealed in favor of the student question creation group on enjoyment and interest in the subject matter. No statistically differences were found between the traditional case-based group and the student question creation group on gain score from pre-test to posttest. The student question creation group performed slightly better than the case-based application group on two of the five questions on the block exam but none of these differences reached statistical significance.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Students randomly assigned to groups that created and reviewed questions exhibited slightly improved summative exam performance and reported significantly more positive perceptions than students engaging in a more traditional case-based learning activity. Student question creation has demonstrated potential as a useful learning activity. Despite inherent difficulties in designing studies involving educational research in a controlled environment, students who have submitted, created, rated, and answered peers' questions have overall performed well.

PMID: 29233444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relationships Among Chewing Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Chronic Health Conditions in Males 18-44 Years of Age.

Tue, 08/07/2018 - 08:10
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Relationships Among Chewing Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Chronic Health Conditions in Males 18-44 Years of Age.

J Prim Prev. 2017 Oct;38(5):505-514

Authors: Hernandez SL, Banks HE, Bailey AE, Bachman MJ, Kane J, Hartos JL

Abstract
As more public places are designated "non-smoking," chewing tobacco could be an alternative choice for tobacco use; however, controversy exists over the long-term health effects associated with it. This study assessed the relationship between chewing tobacco, cigarette smoking, and chronic health conditions in a representative sample of males 18-44 years of age, while controlling for other variables known to be related to tobacco use. This cross sectional analysis used 2013 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The results indicated that about 41% of males reported one or more chronic health conditions, and that about 15% used chewing tobacco only, 21% smoked cigarettes only, and 6% did both. From adjusted analyses, those who chewed tobacco only were 49% more likely to report one or more health conditions; those who smoked cigarettes only were 34% more likely to report one or more health conditions; and those who did both were 95% more likely to report at least one health condition. Overall, any combination of tobacco use was significantly and similarly related to the increased prevalence of chronic health conditions in males aged 18-44 years. Although chewing tobacco use may not be as prevalent in the general population as cigarette smoking, clinicians should be aware of the similar health risks associated with all tobacco use at ages younger than may be expected, and encourage cessation of any tobacco use.

PMID: 28785858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sleep and Mental Health in the General Population of Elderly Women.

Tue, 08/07/2018 - 08:10
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Sleep and Mental Health in the General Population of Elderly Women.

J Prim Prev. 2017 Oct;38(5):495-503

Authors: Thomas KM, Redd LA, Wright JD, Hartos JL

Abstract
Sleep and mental health complaints are prevalent in the elderly and share common risk factors. We assessed the relationship between sleep and mental health in three representative samples of elderly women while controlling for multiple risk factors common to both. We performed this cross sectional secondary data analysis in 2015 using 2013 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for females ages 65 years and older from California (N = 1912), Florida (N = 9120), and Pennsylvania (N = 2429). We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the relationship between sleep duration group (short, moderate/reference, or long) and mental health issues in the past 30 days (yes or no) in elderly females, while controlling for multiple covariates. About 25% of the elderly females reported mental health issues and 20% reported short or long sleep durations. In adjusted analysis, compared to the elderly females in the moderate sleep duration group (averaging 6-8 h of sleep per day), those in the short and long sleep duration groups had increased prevalence of mental health issues by 66% and 26%, respectively. Mental health was also related to physical health issues including general health status, activity limitations, and chronic health conditions. Overall, sleep was related to mental health in representative samples of elderly females even after controlling for risk factors common to both. Even though we could not determine the direction of influence, the findings indicate a need for clinicians to screen their elderly female patients for both sleep and mental health issues, especially in those with physical health comorbidities.

PMID: 28748316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Supraciliary Microstent in Refractory Open-Angle Glaucoma: Two-Year Outcomes from the DUETTE Trial.

Sat, 08/04/2018 - 12:16
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Supraciliary Microstent in Refractory Open-Angle Glaucoma: Two-Year Outcomes from the DUETTE Trial.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Aug 03;:

Authors: Garcìa-Feijoo J, Höh H, Uzunov R, Dickerson JE

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report longer term (24-month) outcomes for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients refractory to medical therapy implanted with a supraciliary microstent (CyPass Micro-Stent, Alcon) in the DUETTE clinical study.
METHODS: Sixty-five eyes were enrolled in this multicenter single-arm trial. Enrolled patients had POAG and intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg at baseline on 1-4 ocular hypotensive medications. Microstent implantation was performed as stand-alone surgery in these phakic or pseudophakic patients through a standard clear corneal approach. IOP and the use of IOP-lowering medications were monitored in this 1-year extension beyond the 12-month primary endpoint.
RESULTS: Two-year follow-up visits were scheduled to confirm the 12-month results; safety data were obtained for 37 eyes of 35 patients. IOP at the end of the 24-month follow-up was 16.8 mmHg (n = 32), with a mean reduction of 7.7 mmHg from the baseline IOP of 24.5 mmHg (n = 65). Medication use was decreased from an average of 2.1 (baseline) to 1.5 at 24 months. The IOP and medication use at 24 months were consistent with the 12-month results (16.4 mmHg, 1.4 medications) reported previously. The adverse event profile remained as described for the first 12 months postimplantation.
CONCLUSIONS: Placement of a supraciliary microstent provides up to 24 months of effective IOP lowering for medication-refractory POAG patients while, on average, decreasing the requirement for ocular hypotensive medications.

PMID: 30074429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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