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Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

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Use of virtual reality gaming systems for children who are critically ill.

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 11:28pm
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Use of virtual reality gaming systems for children who are critically ill.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2014;7(3):273-6

Authors: Salem Y, Elokda A

Abstract
Children who are critically ill are frequently viewed as "too sick" to tolerate physical activity. As a result, these children often fail to develop strength or cardiovascular endurance as compared to typically developing children. Previous reports have shown that early participation in physical activity in is safe and feasible for patients who are critically ill and may result in a shorter length of stay and improved functional outcomes. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems has become a popular form of therapy for children with disabilities and has been supported by a growing body of evidence substantiating its effectiveness with this population. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems in pediatric rehabilitation provides the children with opportunity to participate in an exercise program that is fun, enjoyable, playful, and at the same time beneficial. The integration of those systems in rehabilitation of children who are critically ill is appealing and has the potential to offer the possibility of enhancing physical activities. The lack of training studies involving children who are critically ill makes it difficult to set guidelines on the recommended physical activities and virtual reality gaming systems that is needed to confer health benefits. Several considerations should be taken into account before recommended virtual reality gaming systems as a training program for children who are critically ill. This article highlighted guidelines, limitations and challenges that need to be considered when designing exercise program using virtual reality gaming systems for critically ill children. This information is helpful given the popular use of virtual reality gaming systems in rehabilitation, particularly in children who are critically ill.

PMID: 25260510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clear Cell "Sugar" Tumor of the Lung: Benign or Malignant?

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 3:28am

Clear Cell "Sugar" Tumor of the Lung: Benign or Malignant?

Int Surg. 2015 May;100(5):924-926

Authors: Olivencia-Yurvati AH, Rodriguez AE

Abstract
Clear cell "sugar" tumors of the lung are rare pulmonary tumors. This case study illustrates a patient who was found to have a persistent nodule in the left-upper lobe of the lung. Positron emission tomographic scanning showed mild-moderate 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Based on these findings, a video-assisted resection of the tumor was undertaken. The mass was identified histologically, as a clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung. This case report discusses the benign versus malignant nature of this rare tumor.

PMID: 26011217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Chest pain · shortness of breath · fever and nausea · Dx?

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 3:28am

Chest pain · shortness of breath · fever and nausea · Dx?

J Fam Pract. 2015 May;64(5):282-4

Authors: Manov A, Gopalakrishnan PP, Subramaniam S, Wardi M, White J

Abstract
A 38-year-old Hispanic man was brought to the emergency department after losing consciousness and falling at home, striking his elbow, head, and neck. For the past week, he'd had palpitations, shortness of breath, mild swelling of the lower extremities, fever, nausea, and fatigue. He had also been experiencing squeezing chest pain that worsened with exertion and was only partially relieved by nitroglycerin.

PMID: 26009736 [PubMed - in process]

Motivational tools to improve probationer treatment outcomes.

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 3:28am

Motivational tools to improve probationer treatment outcomes.

Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 May 22;

Authors: Taxman FS, Walters ST, Sloas LB, Lerch J, Rodriguez M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising practice to increase motivation, treatment retention, and reducing recidivism among offender populations. Computer-delivered interventions have grown in popularity as a way to change behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use.
METHODS/DESIGN: Motivational Assistance Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) is a three arm, multisite, randomized controlled trial, which examines the impact of Motivational Interviewing (MI), a Motivational Computer Program (MC), and Supervision as Usual (SAU) on addiction treatment initiation, engagement, and retention. Secondary outcomes include drug/alcohol use, probation progress, recidivism (i.e., criminal behavior) and HIV/AIDS testing and treatment among probationers. Participant characteristics are measured at baseline, 2, and 6months after assignment. The entire study will include 600 offenders, with each site recruiting 300 offenders (Baltimore City, Maryland and Dallas, Texas). All participants will go through standard intake procedures for probation and participate in probation requirements as usual. After standard intake, participants will be recruited and screened for eligibility.
DISCUSSION: The results of this clinical trial will fill a gap in knowledge about ways to motivate probationers to participate in addiction treatment and HIV care. This randomized clinical trial is innovative in the way it examines the use of in-person vs. technological approaches to improve probationer success.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01891656.

PMID: 26009023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Selective chemoprecipitation to enrich nitropeptides from complex proteomes for mass-spectrometric analysis.

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 3:28am
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Selective chemoprecipitation to enrich nitropeptides from complex proteomes for mass-spectrometric analysis.

Nat Protoc. 2014 Apr;9(4):882-95

Authors: Prokai L, Guo J, Prokai-Tatrai K

Abstract
Post-translational protein nitration has attracted interest owing to its involvement in cellular signaling, effects on protein function and potential as biomarker of nitroxidative stress. We describe a procedure for enriching nitropeptides for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics that is a simple and reliable alternative to immunoaffinity-based methods. The starting material for this procedure is a proteolytic digest. The peptides are reacted with formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride to dimethylate all the N-terminal and side chain amino groups. Sodium dithionite is added subsequently to reduce the nitro groups to amines; in theory, the only amino groups present will have originally been nitro groups. The peptide sample is then applied to a solid-phase active ester reagent (SPAER), and those peptides with amino groups will be selectively and covalently captured. Release of the peptides on hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) results in peptides that have a 4-formyl-benzamido group where the nitro group used to be. In qualitative setups, the procedure can be used to identify proteins modified by reactive nitrogen species and to determine the specific sites of their nitration. Quantitative measurements can be performed by stable-isotope labeling of the peptides in the reductive dimethylation step. Preparation of the SPAER takes about 1 d. Enrichment of nitropeptides requires about 2 d, and sample preparations need 1-30 h, depending on the experimental design. LC-MS/MS assays take from 4 h to several days and data processing can be done in 1-7 d.

PMID: 24651500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A pilot case-cohort study of brain cancer in poultry and control workers.

Fri, 05/29/2015 - 3:28am
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A pilot case-cohort study of brain cancer in poultry and control workers.

Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(3):343-50

Authors: Gandhi S, Felini MJ, Ndetan H, Cardarelli K, Jadhav S, Faramawi M, Johnson ES

Abstract
We conducted an exploratory study to investigate which exposures (including poultry oncogenic viruses) are associated with brain cancer in poultry workers. A total of 46,819 workers in poultry and nonpoultry plants from the same union were initially followed for mortality. Brain cancer was observed to be in excess among poultry workers. Here we report on a pilot case-cohort study with cases consisting of 26 (55%) of the 47 brain cancer deaths recorded in the cohort, and controls consisting of a random sample of the cohort (n = 124). Exposure information was obtained from telephone interviews, and brain cancer mortality risk estimated by odds ratios. Increased risk of brain cancer was associated with killing chickens, odds ratio (OR) = 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-28.3); working in a shell-fish farm, OR = 13.0 (95% CI, 1.9-84.2); and eating uncooked fish, OR = 8.2 (95% CI, 1.8-37.0). Decreased risks were observed for chicken pox illness, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and measles vaccination, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Killing chickens, an activity associated with the highest occupational exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses, was associated with brain cancer mortality, as were occupational and dietary shellfish exposures. These findings are novel.

PMID: 24564367 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Role of Charity Care and Primary Care Physician Assignment on ED Use in Homeless Patients.

Wed, 05/27/2015 - 3:28am
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The Role of Charity Care and Primary Care Physician Assignment on ED Use in Homeless Patients.

Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Apr 20;

Authors: Wang H, Nejtek VA, Zieger D, Robinson RD, Schrader CD, Phariss C, Ku J, Zenarosa NR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Homeless patients are a vulnerable population with a higher incidence of using the emergency department (ED) for noncrisis care. Multiple charity programs target their outreach toward improving the health of homeless patients, but few data are available on the effectiveness of reducing ED recidivism. The aim of this study is to determine whether inappropriate ED use for nonemergency care may be reduced by providing charity insurance and assigning homeless patients to a primary care physician (PCP) in an outpatient clinic setting.
METHODS: A retrospective medical records review of homeless patients presenting to the ED and receiving treatment between July 2013 and June 2014 was completed. Appropriate vs inappropriate use of the ED was determined using the New York University ED Algorithm. The association between patients with charity care coverage, PCP assignment status, and appropriate vs inappropriate ED use was analyzed and compared.
RESULTS: Following New York University ED Algorithm standards, 76% of all ED visits were deemed inappropriate with approximately 77% of homeless patients receiving charity care and 74% of patients with no insurance seeking noncrisis health care in the ED (P=.112). About 50% of inappropriate ED visits and 43.84% of appropriate ED visits occurred in patients with a PCP assignment (P=.019).
CONCLUSIONS: Both charity care homeless patients and those without insurance coverage tend to use the ED for noncrisis care resulting in high rates of inappropriate ED use. Simply providing charity care and/or PCP assignment does not seem to sufficiently reduce inappropriate ED use in homeless patients.

PMID: 26001738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Racial and ethnic differences in health behaviors among cancer survivors.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am

Racial and ethnic differences in health behaviors among cancer survivors.

Am J Prev Med. 2015 Jun;48(6):729-36

Authors: Nayak P, Paxton RJ, Holmes H, Thanh Nguyen H, Elting LS

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of health behaviors of adult cancer survivors have not adequately examined racial and ethnic differences because of small sample sizes. A national data set was used to examine differences in health behaviors between cancer survivors and controls and between racial and ethnic groups among survivors.
METHODS: The study analyzed 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2012-2014. Descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in health behaviors between cancer survivors and controls aged 20-64 years. Multivariable analysis was conducted to examine associations between race/ethnicity (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American) and health behaviors (BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and smoking status) while adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics. Significance was set at p<0.01.
RESULTS: Compared with controls (n=245,283), cancer survivors (n=17,158) had higher prevalence rates for overweight/obese status (67% vs 65%); not meeting physical activity recommendations (53% vs 49%); and current smoking status (22% vs 20%). In the multivariable model, diet and smoking behavior differed across cancer status. African American (AOR=1.95) and Hispanic (AOR=2.06) survivors were more likely to have higher BMI than white survivors. African American survivors (AOR=1.6) were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Native American (AOR=3.08) and multiracial (AOR=1.74) survivors were more likely to be current smokers than non-Hispanic white survivors.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that racial and ethnic differences exist in the adoption of recommended health behaviors; future research should identify factors to reduce these differences.

PMID: 25998923 [PubMed - in process]

Joseon funerary texts tested using ancient DNA analysis of a korean mummy.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am

Joseon funerary texts tested using ancient DNA analysis of a korean mummy.

Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2015 Jun;298(6):1191-207

Authors: Oh CS, Koh BJ, Yoo DS, Park JB, Min SR, Kim YS, Lee SS, Ge J, Seo SB, Shin DH

Abstract
In Korea, ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis has been applied to investigations into the genetic affiliations of mummies found in Joseon Dynasty tombs (1392-1910 CE), becoming now indispensable tool for researches studying human remains from archaeological sites. In the course of our recent examinations on a Korean mummy of Joseon Dynasty, we discovered many teeth contained in a pouch. And in fact, the historical literature on the topic of Joseon funerals contain general accounts of pouches in which an individual's lost teeth were collected over the course of a lifetime and, after death, placed in the coffin with the body. To test the veracity of the historical texts, the present study undertook aDNA analyses and compared the results between specifically questioned (Q) samples (teeth) and known (K) samples (brain and bone) from the mummy to ensure that they came from the same individual. Although the Q-K comparison of autosomal short tandem repeat results did not show full concordance due to allelic drop-outs in some loci, our statistical calculation indicated that the teeth in the pouch are highly likely those of the mummy. Additionally, Q-K comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequence results showed 100% matches between samples. There results, in short, could not gainsay the conjecture that the teeth samples originated from the person buried in the tomb; and if so, he must have kept his teeth for a long time after their loss. As the application of aDNA analysis to Korean mummy studies develops, there will be other opportunities to test historical documents, particularly those referring to funerary rites. Anat Rec, 298:1191-1207, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25998652 [PubMed - in process]

Comparative behavioral pharmacology of three pyrrolidine-containing synthetic cathinone derivatives.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am

Comparative behavioral pharmacology of three pyrrolidine-containing synthetic cathinone derivatives.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 May 21;

Authors: Gatch MB, Dolan SB, Forster MJ

Abstract
Synthetic cathinones, often sold as "bath salts" are a popular class of recreational drugs used as quasi-legal alternatives to cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The increased prevalence and health consequences of synthetic cathinone use has prompted regulatory agencies to control a number of these compounds; however, a broad class of analogous compounds, known as the "second-generation cathinones," has been brought to the market to take the place of the banned synthetic cathinone derivatives. The current study aims to characterize the behavioral pharmacology of three pyrrolidinylated second-generation cathinones: 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4'-MePPP), α-pyrrolidinopropiobutiophenone (α-PBP), and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP). Locomotor activity was tested in mice over an 8-hour period. The discriminative stimulus effects of these compounds were tested in rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine. The rewarding effects of these drugs were assessed in mice using conditioned place preference. α-PBP and α-PVP produced long-lasting increases in locomotor activity across a wide range of doses, whereas 4'-MePPP produced locomotor stimulation only at 30 mg/kg. α-PBP and α-PVP fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine, whereas 4'-MePPP substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine only. α-PBP and α-PVP produced conditioned place preference in an inverted-U-shaped dose effect, whereas 4'-MePPP did not produce conditioned place preference. These findings suggest that α-PBP and α-PVP, at least, are likely to be recreationally used and have potential for addiction and abuse, whereas 4'-MePPP may not produce as much interest for recreational use.

PMID: 25998047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neurogenic mechanisms underlying the rapid onset of sympathetic responses to intermittent hypoxia.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am

Neurogenic mechanisms underlying the rapid onset of sympathetic responses to intermittent hypoxia.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 May 21;:jap.00198.2015

Authors: Mifflin SW, Cunningham JT, Toney GM

Abstract
Sleep apnea (SA) leads to metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular dysfunction. Rodent models of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH) are used to mimic arterial hypoxemias that occur during SA. This mini-review focuses on our work examining CNS mechanisms whereby nocturnal IH results in increased sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) and hypertension (HTN) that persist throughout the 24 hr diurnal period. Within the first 1-2 days of IH, arterial pressure (AP) increases even during non-IH periods of the day. Exposure to IH for 7 days biases nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons receiving arterial chemoreceptor inputs toward increased discharge, providing a substrate for persistent activation of sympathetic outflow. IH HTN is blunted by manipulations that reduce angiotensin (AngII) signaling within the forebrain lamina terminalis suggesting that central AngII supports persistent IH HTN. Inhibition of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) reduces ongoing SND and acutely lowers AP in IH conditioned animals. These findings support a role for the PVN, which integrates information ascending from NTS and descending from the lamina terminalis, in sustaining IH HTN. In sum, our findings indicate that IH rapidly and persistently activates a central circuit that includes the NTS, forebrain lamina terminalis and the PVN. Our working model holds that NTS neuromodulation increases transmission of arterial chemoreceptor inputs, increasing SND via connections with PVN and RVLM. Increased circulating AngII sensed by the lamina terminalis generates yet another excitatory drive to PVN. Together with adaptations intrinsic to the PVN, these responses to IH support rapid onset neurogenic HTN.

PMID: 25997944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

MIEN1 promotes oral cancer progression and implicates poor overall survival.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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MIEN1 promotes oral cancer progression and implicates poor overall survival.

Cancer Biol Ther. 2015 May 21;:0

Authors: Rajendiran S, Kpetemey M, Maji S, Gibbs LD, Dasgupta S, Mantsch R, Hare RJ, Vishwanatha JK

Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with the potential to invade local and distant sites and promote lymph node metastasis. Major players underlying the molecular mechanisms behind tumor progression are yet to be fully explored. Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1), a novel protein overexpressed in various cancers, facilitates cell migration and invasion. In the present study we investigated the expression and role of MIEN1 in oral cancer progression using an in vitro model, patient derived oral tissues and existing TCGA data. Expression analysis using immortalized normal and cancer cells demonstrated increased expression of MIEN1 in cancer. Assays performed after MIEN1 knockdown in OSC-2 cells showed decreased migration, invasion and filopodia formation; while MIEN1 overexpression in DOK cells increased these characteristics and also up-regulated some Akt/NF-κB effectors, thereby suggesting an important role for MIEN1 in oral cancer progression. Immunohistochemical staining and analyses of oral tissue specimens, collected from patients over multiple visits, revealed significantly more staining in severe dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma compared to mildly dysplastic or hyperplastic tissues. Finally, this was corroborated with the TCGA dataset, where MIEN1 expression was not only higher in intermediate and high grade cancer with significantly lower survival but also correlated with smoking. In summary, we demonstrate that MIEN1 expression not only positively correlates with oral cancer progression but also seems to be a critical molecular determinant in migration and invasion of oral cancer cells, thereby, playing a possible role in their metastatic dissemination.

PMID: 25996585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent tuberculosis infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent tuberculosis infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

Int Health. 2015 May 20;

Authors: Board AR, Suzuki S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex.
METHODS: Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression.
RESULTS: A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI 1.126-2.488).
DISCUSSION: A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations.

PMID: 25995214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Observational study fails to demonstrate the effectiveness of OMT in decreasing low back pain.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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Observational study fails to demonstrate the effectiveness of OMT in decreasing low back pain.

J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Nov;114(11):e119-20

Authors: Licciardone JC

PMID: 25352411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Response: observational study demonstrates that OMT is associated with reduced analgesic prescribing and fewer missed work days.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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Response: observational study demonstrates that OMT is associated with reduced analgesic prescribing and fewer missed work days.

J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Jul;114(7):530-1

Authors: Prinsen JK, Hensel KL, Snow RJ

PMID: 25002441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The OSTEOPATHIC trial demonstrates significant improvement in patients with chronic low back pain as manifested by decreased prescription rescue medication use.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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The OSTEOPATHIC trial demonstrates significant improvement in patients with chronic low back pain as manifested by decreased prescription rescue medication use.

J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Jul;114(7):528-9

Authors: Licciardone JC

PMID: 25002440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated Tip110 protein degradation by USP15.

Sun, 05/24/2015 - 3:29am
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Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated Tip110 protein degradation by USP15.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014 Sep;54:10-9

Authors: Timani KA, Liu Y, Suvannasankha A, He JJ

Abstract
Tip110 is a nuclear protein and has been shown to function in tumor antigenicity, regulation of gene transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and embryonic development. To characterize the in vivo functions of Tip110, a transgene cassette expressing human Tip110 protein (hTip110) was used to generate hTip110 transgenic (Tg) mice. Unexpectedly, only Tip110 mRNA but not Tip110 protein was expressed in Tg MEF and tissues. Treatment of Tg MEF with proteasome inhibitors led to detection of hTip110 protein, which prompted us to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of Tip110 degradation in mouse cells. We found that hTip110 was more sensitive to ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-mediated protein degradation than mouse Tip110 (mTip110), likely resulting from more hTip110 ubiquitination. Using affinity chromatography and proteomics, we identified USP15, a deubiquitinating enzyme, to be associated with Tip110. Tip110 expression led to re-distribution of USP15 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and complete co-localization of Tip110 with USP15 in the nucleus, whereas USP15 expression resulted in hTip110 deubiquitination. Interestingly, USP15 knockdown restored hTip110 protein expression in Tg MEF and USP15 expression had little effects. Taken together, these results provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of human Tip110 degradation by USP15.

PMID: 24984263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Statin therapy for venous ulcers.

Sat, 05/23/2015 - 3:30am
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Statin therapy for venous ulcers.

Br J Dermatol. 2015 Apr;172(4):1132-3

Authors: Dickerson JE, Slade HB

PMID: 25123223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In vivo assessment of SMT19969 in a hamster model of clostridium difficile infection.

Sat, 05/23/2015 - 3:30am
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In vivo assessment of SMT19969 in a hamster model of clostridium difficile infection.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Oct;58(10):5714-8

Authors: Weiss W, Pulse M, Vickers R

Abstract
SMT19969 [2,2'-bis(4-pyridyl)3H,3'-H 5,5-bibenzimidazole] is a novel narrow-spectrum nonabsorbable antibiotic currently in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The comparative activities of SMT19969 and vancomycin against nonepidemic and epidemic strains of C. difficile were studied in an established hamster model. Against nonepidemic (VA11) strains, the survival rates of SMT19969-treated animals ranged from 80% to 95%. Vancomycin exhibited 100% protection during treatment, with relapse observed starting on day 9 and 50% survival at day 20. At 50 mg/kg of body weight, SMT19969 administered orally once daily for 5 days provided full protection of treated animals on the dosing days and through day 12 against epidemic strains. Vancomycin also protected during the dosing interval, but apparent relapse occurred earlier, starting on day 11. SMT19969 exhibited excellent in vitro activity, with MICs of 0.25 μg/ml for all isolates. The MICs for vancomycin were 2- to 4-fold higher at ≤0.5 to 1 μg/ml. All plasma sample concentrations of SMT19969 were below the limit of quantification (25 ng/ml) at all time points, consistent with the reported lack of bioavailability of the compound. Cecal concentrations were significantly above the MIC (ranging from 96 μg/ml to 172 μg/ml).

PMID: 25022586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.

Thu, 05/21/2015 - 3:29am

Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.

Nat Commun. 2015;6:7152

Authors: Batini C, Hallast P, Zadik D, Delser PM, Benazzo A, Ghirotto S, Arroyo-Pardo E, Cavalleri GL, de Knijff P, Dupuy BM, Eriksen HA, King TE, de Munain AL, López-Parra AM, Loutradis A, Milasin J, Novelletto A, Pamjav H, Sajantila A, Tolun A, Winney B, Jobling MA

Abstract
The proportion of Europeans descending from Neolithic farmers ∼10 thousand years ago (KYA) or Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers has been much debated. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) has been widely applied to this question, but unbiased estimates of diversity and time depth have been lacking. Here we show that European patrilineages underwent a recent continent-wide expansion. Resequencing of 3.7 Mb of MSY DNA in 334 males, comprising 17 European and Middle Eastern populations, defines a phylogeny containing 5,996 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Dating indicates that three major lineages (I1, R1a and R1b), accounting for 64% of our sample, have very recent coalescent times, ranging between 3.5 and 7.3 KYA. A continuous swathe of 13/17 populations share similar histories featuring a demographic expansion starting ∼2.1-4.2 KYA. Our results are compatible with ancient MSY DNA data, and contrast with data on mitochondrial DNA, indicating a widespread male-specific phenomenon that focuses interest on the social structure of Bronze Age Europe.

PMID: 25988751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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