Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Potential Audiological and MRI Markers of Tinnitus.

Tue, 06/12/2018 - 07:38
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Potential Audiological and MRI Markers of Tinnitus.

J Am Acad Audiol. 2017 Sep;28(8):742-757

Authors: Gopal KV, Thomas BP, Nandy R, Mao D, Lu H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Subjective tinnitus, or ringing sensation in the ear, is a common disorder with no accepted objective diagnostic markers.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify possible objective markers of tinnitus by combining audiological and imaging-based techniques.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control studies.
STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty adults drawn from our audiology clinic served as participants. The tinnitus group consisted of ten participants with chronic bilateral constant tinnitus, and the control group consisted of ten participants with no history of tinnitus. Each participant with tinnitus was closely matched with a control participant on the basis of age, gender, and hearing thresholds.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: Data acquisition focused on systematic administration and evaluation of various audiological tests, including auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and otoacoustic emissions, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A total of 14 objective test measures (predictors) obtained from audiological and MRI tests were subjected to statistical analyses to identify the best predictors of tinnitus group membership. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique for feature extraction, supplemented by the leave-one-out cross-validation technique, were used to extract the best predictors. This approach provided a conservative model that was highly regularized with its error within 1 standard error of the minimum.
RESULTS: The model selected increased frontal cortex (FC) functional MRI activity to pure tones matching their respective tinnitus pitch, and augmented AEP wave N₁ amplitude growth in the tinnitus group as the top two predictors of tinnitus group membership. These findings suggest that the amplified responses to acoustic signals and hyperactivity in attention regions of the brain may be a result of overattention among individuals that experience chronic tinnitus.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased functional MRI activity in the FC to sounds and augmented N₁ amplitude growth may potentially be the objective diagnostic indicators of tinnitus. However, due to the small sample size and lack of subgroups within the tinnitus population in this study, more research is needed before generalizing these findings.

PMID: 28906245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ten-Year Follow-Up of Metatarsal Head Resurfacing Implants for Treatment of Hallux Rigidus.

Tue, 06/12/2018 - 07:38
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Ten-Year Follow-Up of Metatarsal Head Resurfacing Implants for Treatment of Hallux Rigidus.

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2017 Sep - Oct;56(5):1052-1057

Authors: Hilario H, Garrett A, Motley T, Suzuki S, Carpenter B

Abstract
Controversy remains regarding the use of arthroplasty versus arthrodesis in the surgical treatment of late-stage hallux rigidus. The purpose of our retrospective study was to report the long-term follow-up results of the metatarsal head resurfacing implant used for hemiarthroplasty. The patient assessments were conducted using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) metatarsophalangeal clinical rating system and a satisfaction questionnaire. A total of 59 consecutive implantations were performed from January 2005 to December 2009 at our institution. Of the 59 patients, 2 had died and 12 were lost to follow-up, for a 76.3% follow-up rate (45 of 59 procedures) at a mean of 117.67 (range 96 to 143) months. The mean overall AOFAS scale score was 90.6 ± 7.6. The AOFAS pain scale score was 37.78 ± 4.71. One implant was removed, and all remaining patients were happy with their outcome and would repeat the procedure on their other foot, if needed. A subset of patients from a previous mid-term study at our institution showed no significant change in the AOFAS scale scores. Of these 32 patients, 30 (93.75%) were available for follow-up examination at a mean of 122.62 (range 96 to 143) months. We were able to obtain long-term results for 32 implants (30 patients), resulting in a 10-year follow-up rate of 93.7%. With the minimal resection required for this implant, salvage arthrodesis remains a viable option if revision is needed. The surgical treatment of late-stage hallux rigidus with metatarsal head resurfacing allows for low-risk and excellent outcomes at long-term follow-up point.

PMID: 28842091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

"Curcumin-loaded Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanovesicles induce antinociceptive effects and reduce pronociceptive cytokine and BDNF release in spinal cord after acute administration in mice".

Tue, 06/12/2018 - 07:38
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"Curcumin-loaded Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanovesicles induce antinociceptive effects and reduce pronociceptive cytokine and BDNF release in spinal cord after acute administration in mice".

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017 Oct 01;158:379-386

Authors: Pieretti S, Ranjan AP, Di Giannuario A, Mukerjee A, Marzoli F, Di Giovannandrea R, Vishwanatha JK

Abstract
Given the poor bioavailability of curcumin, its antinociceptive effects are produced after chronic intravenous administration of high doses, while poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-loaded vesicles (PLGA) can improve drug delivery. This paper investigates the antinociceptive effects of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanovesicles (PLGA-CUR) administered via intravenous (i.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) routes at low and high doses. The following models of pain were used: formalin test, zymosan-induced hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve ligation inducing neuropathic allodynia and hyperalgesia. PLGA-CUR administered intravenously was able to reduce the response to nociceptive stimuli in the formalin test and hyperalgesia induced by zymosan. Curcumin, instead, was inactive. Low-dose i.t. administration of PLGA-CUR significantly reduced allodynia produced by sciatic nerve ligation, whereas low doses of curcumin did not change the response to nociceptive stimuli. Long-lasting antinociceptive effects were observed when high doses of PLGA-CUR were administered intrathecally. At high doses, i.t. administration of curcumin only exerted rapid and transient antinociceptive effects. Measurement of cytokine and BDNF in the spinal cord of neuropathic mice demonstrate that the antinociceptive effects of PLGA-CUR depend on the reduction in cytokine release and BDNF in the spinal cord. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of PLGA-CUR and suggest that PLGA-CUR nanoformulation might be a new potential drug in the treatment of pain.

PMID: 28719859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Characteristics and Outcomes of Psychology Referrals in Palliative Care Department.

Sun, 06/10/2018 - 07:36
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Characteristics and Outcomes of Psychology Referrals in Palliative Care Department.

J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Ann-Yi S, Bruera E, Wu J, Liu DD, Agosta M, Williams JL, Balankari VR, Carmack CL

Abstract
CONTEXT: Psychologists can provide unique contributions to interdisciplinary palliative care. Despite research indicating high distress in palliative care cancer patients, little has been reported regarding the feasibility and practice of psychology in this setting.
OBJECTIVES: To review the integration of clinical psychology practice in a palliative care department at a major comprehensive cancer center.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1940 unique cancer patients (6451 total patient contacts) referred for psychology services provided by clinical psychologists in palliative care from 9/1/2013 to 2/29/2016.
RESULTS: Psychologists provided services to 1644 in-patients (24% of palliative care in-patients) and 296 out-patients (19% of palliative care out-patients). The majority (85%) received services in the in-patient setting. Most patients were female (57%) and white (68%) with a variety of cancer diagnoses. Adjustment disorders were the most prevalent in both settings with significant differences in other DSM-5 diagnoses by service location (p<0.0001). Psychological assessment (86%) and supportive expressive counseling (79%) were the most frequent services provided in the initial consult. Duration of initial visit was significantly longer in out-patient (median=60 minutes) compared to in-patient setting (median=40 minutes) (p<.0001). No significant differences were noted between settings regarding the median number of counseling sessions per patient; however, the majority (70%) only received 1 or 2 sessions. Over time, total patient encounters increased in the in-patient setting (p<0.0001), while session lengths in both settings significantly decreased (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care psychology services successfully integrated into an interdisciplinary palliative care department and rapidly grew in both in-patient and out-patient settings.

PMID: 29885458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Texas Mexican American adult normative studies: Normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures for English- and Spanish-speakers.

Sat, 06/09/2018 - 07:45
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Texas Mexican American adult normative studies: Normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures for English- and Spanish-speakers.

Dev Neuropsychol. 2018 01;43(1):1-26

Authors: O'Bryant SE, Edwards M, Johnson L, Hall J, Gamboa A, O'jile J

Abstract
This study aimed to provide normative references for Mexican Americans on neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed from a total of 797 Mexican-Americans recruited across three Texas-based studies with approximately one-half of the participants tested in Spanish. Normative tables include: MMSE, AMNART, WMS-III (Logical Memory I, II; Visual Reproduction I, II; Digit Span), CERAD, RAVLT, Exit25, CLOX 1 & 2, Trail Making Test- A&B, BNT, COWA, and Animal Naming. The norms were stratified by education then age. Normative references were generated for Texas-based Mexican Americans and data may be limited to the population sampled.

PMID: 29190120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Texas Mexican American adult normative studies: Normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS).

Sat, 06/09/2018 - 07:45
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Texas Mexican American adult normative studies: Normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS).

Dev Neuropsychol. 2018 01;43(1):27-35

Authors: Hall JR, Balldin VH, Gamboa A, Edwards ML, Johnson LA, O'Bryant SE

Abstract
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is an assessment of neuropsychological functioning commonly used in clinical and research settings. To our knowledge, normative data for the RBANS is not available for Hispanic, Mexican Americans, which the current study sought to establish. Data from 136 Hispanic, Mexican Americans from Project FRONTIER were analyzed. Approximately half of the sample was administered testing in Spanish. Normative tables were created for English and Spanish speaking Mexican Americans. Generated RBANS normative references are provided for unadjusted raw scores as well as output adjusted by education level.

PMID: 29185823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Implementation, adoption, and utility of family health history risk assessment in diverse care settings: evaluating implementation processes and impact with an implementation framework.

Fri, 06/08/2018 - 07:44
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Implementation, adoption, and utility of family health history risk assessment in diverse care settings: evaluating implementation processes and impact with an implementation framework.

Genet Med. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Wu RR, Myers RA, Sperber N, Voils CI, Neuner J, McCarty CA, Haller IV, Harry M, Fulda KG, Cross D, Dimmock D, Rakhra-Burris T, Buchanan AH, Ginsburg GS, Orlando LA

Abstract
PURPOSE: This paper describes the implementation outcomes associated with integrating a family health history-based risk assessment and clinical decision support platform within primary care clinics at four diverse healthcare systems.
METHODS: A type III hybrid implementation-effectiveness trial. Uptake and implementation processes were evaluated using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework.
RESULTS: One hundred (58%) primary care providers and 2514 (7.8%) adult patients enrolled. Enrolled patients were 69% female, 22% minority, and 32% Medicare/Medicaid. Compared with their respective clinic's population, patient-participants were more likely to be female (69 vs. 59%), older (mean age 57 vs. 49), and Caucasian (88 vs. 69%) (all p values <0.001). Female (81.3% of females vs. 78.5% of males, p value = 0.018) and Caucasian (Caucasians 90.4% vs. minority 84.1%, p value = 0.02) patient-participants were more likely to complete the study once enrolled. Patient-participant survey responses indicated MeTree was easy to use (95%), and patient-participants would recommend it to family/friends (91%). Minorities and those with less education reported greatest benefit. Enrolled providers reflected demographics of underlying provider population.
CONCLUSION: Family health history-based risk assessment can be effectively implemented in diverse primary care settings and can effectively engage patients and providers. Future research should focus on finding better ways to engage young adults, males, and minorities in preventive healthcare.

PMID: 29875427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Folic acid supplementation does not attenuate thermoregulatory or cardiovascular strain of older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity.

Thu, 06/07/2018 - 07:52
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Folic acid supplementation does not attenuate thermoregulatory or cardiovascular strain of older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity.

Exp Physiol. 2018 Jun 05;:

Authors: Gagnon D, Romero SA, Cramer MN, Kouda K, Poh PY, Ngo H, Jay O, Crandall CG

Abstract
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Few studies have evaluated potential strategies to alleviate thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain of older adults during heat exposure. We studied the effects of folic acid supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of healthy older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. What is the main finding and its importance? Supplementation did not affect whole-limb blood flow/vasodilation, core and skin temperatures, heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output. Thus, 6 weeks of folic acid supplementation does not alleviate thermoregulatory or cardiovascular strain of healthy older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. ABSTRACT: folic acid supplementation reverses age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation during passive heating. however, it is unknown if folic acid supplementation alleviates thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain experienced by older adults during heat exposure. we evaluated the effect of folic acid supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of 9 healthy older adults (61-72 yrs, 3 males/6 females) exposed to extreme heat and humidity. participants rested at 42°c while relative humidity was increased from 30% to 70% in 2% increments every 5 minutes. the protocol was performed before (con) and after (folic) 6 weeks of folic acid supplementation (5 mg/day). local cutaneous vascular conductance (cvc, laser-doppler flowmetry), forearm vascular conductance (fvc, doppler ultrasound), mean skin and esophageal temperatures, heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output were measured. folic acid supplementation increased fasting serum folate concentrations (p < 0.01). absolute cvc was greater throughout the protocol following supplementation (con: 1.29 ± 0.16 units/mmhg vs. folic: 1.65 ± 0.24 units/mmhg, p < 0.01). however, normalized cvc (con: 54 ± 8% vs. folic: 59 ± 7%, p = 0.22), fvc (con: 3.47 ± 0.76 ml/mmhg vs. folic: 3.40 ± 0.56 ml/mmhg, p = 0.93), mean skin (p = 0.81) and esophageal (con: 36.87 ± 0.28°c vs. folic: 36.90 ± 0.25°c, p = 0.98) temperatures, heart rate (con: 83 ± 10 beats/min vs. folic: 84 ± 8 beats/min, p = 0.64), blood pressure (p = 0.71), and cardiac output (p = 0.20) were unaffected by folic acid supplementation. these results demonstrate that 6 weeks of folic acid supplementation does not alleviate thermoregulatory or cardiovascular strain of healthy older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29873123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Changes in inflammatory biomarkers following spinal manipulation.

Thu, 06/07/2018 - 07:52
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Changes in inflammatory biomarkers following spinal manipulation.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017 08;30:e91-e92

Authors: Licciardone JC

PMID: 28533071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Alcohol retail sales licenses and sexually transmitted infections in Texas counties, 2008-2015.

Tue, 06/05/2018 - 07:34

Alcohol retail sales licenses and sexually transmitted infections in Texas counties, 2008-2015.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018 Jun 04;:1-8

Authors: Rossheim ME, Krall JR, Painter JE, Thombs DL, Stephenson CJ, Suzuki S, Cannell MB, Livingston MD, Gonzalez-Pons KM, Wagenaar AC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that reduced retail alcohol outlet density may be associated with lower prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). On-premise sale of alcohol for immediate consumption is theorized as increasing social interactions that can lead to sexual encounters.
OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between on- and off-premise retail alcohol sales licenses and number of newly diagnosed HIV and STI cases in Texas counties.
METHODS: Retail alcohol sales license data were obtained from the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission. HIV and bacterial STI data were obtained from the Texas Department of State Health Services. Associations between retail alcohol sales licenses and STIs were estimated using spatial linear models and Poisson mixed effects models for over-dispersed count data.
RESULTS: Adjusting for county-specific confounders, there was no evidence of residual spatial correlation. In Poisson models, each additional on-premise (e.g., bar and restaurant) alcohol license per 10,000 population in a county was associated with a 1.5% increase (95% CI: 0.4%, 2.6%) in the rate of HIV and a 2.4% increase (95% CI: 1.9%, 3.0%) in the rate of bacterial STIs, adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, number of off-premise licenses (e.g., take-out stores) was inversely associated with the incidence of STI and HIV, although the association with HIV was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the limited literature on the association between retail alcohol availability and STIs. Additional research is needed on the role of alcohol availability (and policies affecting availability) in the spread of HIV and other STIs.

PMID: 29863903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Redox imbalance stress in diabetes mellitus: Role of the polyol pathway.

Tue, 06/05/2018 - 07:34

Redox imbalance stress in diabetes mellitus: Role of the polyol pathway.

Animal Model Exp Med. 2018 Mar;1(1):7-13

Authors: Yan LJ

Abstract
In diabetes mellitus, the polyol pathway is highly active and consumes approximately 30% glucose in the body. This pathway contains 2 reactions catalyzed by aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase, respectively. AR reduces glucose to sorbitol at the expense of NADPH, while sorbitol dehydrogenase converts sorbitol to fructose at the expense of NAD+, leading to NADH production. Consumption of NADPH, accumulation of sorbitol, and generation of fructose and NADH have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. In this review, the roles of this pathway in NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance stress and oxidative stress in diabetes are highlighted. A potential intervention using nicotinamide riboside to restore redox balance as an approach to fighting diabetes is also discussed.

PMID: 29863179 [PubMed]

Exploring the 1000 Genomes Project haplotype reporting for the CYP2D6 pharmacogene.

Mon, 06/04/2018 - 07:59
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Exploring the 1000 Genomes Project haplotype reporting for the CYP2D6 pharmacogene.

Int J Legal Med. 2018 Jun 02;:

Authors: Wendt FR, Woerner AE, Sajantila A, Moura-Neto RS, Budowle B

PMID: 29860596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hypoxia compounds exercise-induced free radical formation in humans; partitioning contributions from the cerebral and femoral circulation.

Sun, 06/03/2018 - 07:47
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Hypoxia compounds exercise-induced free radical formation in humans; partitioning contributions from the cerebral and femoral circulation.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 May 30;:

Authors: Bailey DM, Rasmussen P, Evans KA, Bohm AM, Zaar M, Nielsen HB, Brassard P, Nordsborg NB, Homann PH, Raven PB, McEneny J, Young IS, McCord JM, Secher NH

Abstract
This study examined to what extent the human cerebral and femoral circulation contribute to free radical formation during basal and exercise-induced responses to hypoxia. Healthy participants (5♂, 5♀) were randomly assigned single-blinded to normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (10% O2) trials with measurements taken at rest and 30min after cycling at 70% of maximal power output in hypoxia and equivalent relative and absolute intensities in normoxia. Blood was sampled from the brachial artery (a), internal jugular and femoral veins (v) for non-enzymatic antioxidants (HPLC), ascorbate radical (A•-, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation (spectrophotometry). Cerebral and femoral venous blood flow was evaluated by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (CBF) and constant infusion thermodilution (FBF). With 3 participants lost to follow up (final n = 4♂, 3♀), hypoxia increased CBF and FBF (P = 0.041 vs. normoxia) with further elevations in FBF during exercise (P = 0.002 vs. rest). Cerebral and femoral ascorbate and α-tocopherol consumption (v < a) was accompanied by A•-/LOOH formation (v > a) and increased LDL oxidation during hypoxia (P < 0.043 to 0.049 vs. normoxia) implying free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation subsequent to inadequate antioxidant defense. This was pronounced during exercise across the femoral circulation in proportion to the increase in local O2 uptake (r = -0.397 to -0.459, P = 0.037 to 0.045) but unrelated to any reduction in PO2. These findings highlight considerable regional heterogeneity in the oxidative stress response to hypoxia that may be more attributable to local differences in O2 flux than to O2 tension.

PMID: 29859345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correction to: Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics: An Update and Comparison Between Agents.

Sun, 06/03/2018 - 07:47
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Correction to: Long-Acting Injectable Second-Generation Antipsychotics: An Update and Comparison Between Agents.

CNS Drugs. 2018 Jun 02;:

Authors: Jann MW, Penzak SR

Abstract
1. In Page 244, under General Pharmacokinetic Principles, Column 1-the following sentence should come after reference 21.

PMID: 29858836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A response to "Likelihood ratio as weight of evidence: A closer look" by Lund and Iyer.

Sun, 06/03/2018 - 07:47
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A response to "Likelihood ratio as weight of evidence: A closer look" by Lund and Iyer.

Forensic Sci Int. 2018 May 22;:

Authors: Gittelson S, Berger CEH, Jackson G, Evett IW, Champod C, Robertson B, Curran JM, Taylor D, Weir BS, Coble MD, Buckleton JS

Abstract
Recently, Lund and Iyer (L&I) raised an argument regarding the use of likelihood ratios in court. In our view, their argument is based on a lack of understanding of the paradigm. L&I argue that the decision maker should not accept the expert's likelihood ratio without further consideration. This is agreed by all parties. In normal practice, there is often considerable and proper exploration in court of the basis for any probabilistic statement. We conclude that L&I argue against a practice that does not exist and which no one advocates. Further we conclude that the most informative summary of evidential weight is the likelihood ratio. We state that this is the summary that should be presented to a court in every scientific assessment of evidential weight with supporting information about how it was constructed and on what it was based.

PMID: 29857959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mannich Ketones as Possible Antimycobacterial Agents.

Fri, 06/01/2018 - 11:02
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Mannich Ketones as Possible Antimycobacterial Agents.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2017 Sep;350(9):

Authors: Lutz Z, Orbán K, Bóna Á, Márk L, Maász G, Prókai L, Seress L, Lóránd T

Abstract
Twenty-three known unsaturated and fused Mannich ketones and their reduced derivatives (amino alcohols) were selected for an antituberculotic study. They were screened against several mycobacterial strains including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. xenopi, and M. gordonae, and minimum inhibitory concentration values were also determined using the standard antituberculotic drug isoniazid (INH) as a reference. Structure-activity relationships were also studied. The mode of action of the test compounds was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Several test substances proved to be as potent as INH, but their antimycobacterial spectra were broader than that of INH. Our findings suggest that their mode of action is probably through the inhibition of mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

PMID: 28752666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

Thu, 05/31/2018 - 07:32

College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 May 30;:

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Krall JR, Jernigan DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supersized alcopops are a class of single-serving beverages popular among underage drinkers. These products contain large quantities of alcohol. This study examines the extent to which young adults recognize how intoxicated they would become from consuming these products.
METHODS: The study sample included 309 undergraduates who had consumed alcohol within the past year. Thirty-two sections of a college English course were randomized to 1 of 2 survey conditions, based on hypothetical consumption of supersized alcopops or beer of comparable liquid volume. Students were provided an empty can of 1 of the 2 beverages to help them answer the survey questions. Equation-calculated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)-based on body weight and sex-were compared to the students' self-estimated BACs for consuming 1, 2, and 3 cans of the beverage provided to them.
RESULTS: In adjusted regression models, students randomized to the supersized alcopop group greatly underestimated their BAC, whereas students randomized to the beer group overestimated it. The supersized alcopop group underestimated their BAC by 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.053), 0.09 (95% CI: 0.067, 0.107), and 0.13 g/dl (95% CI: 0.097, 0.163) compared to the beer group. When asked how much alcohol they could consume before it would be unsafe to drive, students in the supersized alcopop group had 7 times the odds of estimating consumption that would generate a calculated BAC of at least 0.08 g/dl, compared to those making estimates based on beer consumption (95% CI: 3.734, 13.025).
CONCLUSIONS: Students underestimated the intoxication they would experience from consuming supersized alcopops. Revised product warning labels are urgently needed to clearly identify the number of standard drinks contained in a supersized alcopop can. Moreover, regulations are needed to limit alcohol content of single-serving products.

PMID: 29846956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Real-world data on antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus infections: Can we define intention to treat or per protocol analyses?

Thu, 05/31/2018 - 07:32
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Real-world data on antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus infections: Can we define intention to treat or per protocol analyses?

J Hepatol. 2018 May 26;:

Authors: Ojha RP, Steyerberg EW

PMID: 29843905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Predictors of latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion in the US private sector: an analysis of administrative claims data.

Thu, 05/31/2018 - 07:32
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Predictors of latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion in the US private sector: an analysis of administrative claims data.

BMC Public Health. 2018 May 29;18(1):662

Authors: Stockbridge EL, Miller TL, Carlson EK, Ho C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Factors that affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment completion in the US have not been well studied beyond public health settings. This gap was highlighted by recent health insurance-related regulatory changes that are likely to increase LTBI treatment by private sector healthcare providers. We analyzed LTBI treatment completion in the private healthcare setting to facilitate planning around this important opportunity for tuberculosis (TB) control in the US.
METHODS: We analyzed a national sample of commercial insurance medical and pharmacy claims data for people ages 0 to 64 years who initiated daily dose isoniazid treatment between July 2011 and March 2014 and who had complete data. All individuals resided in the US. Factors associated with treatment completion were examined using multivariable generalized ordered logit models and bivariate Kruskal-Wallis tests or Spearman correlations.
RESULTS: We identified 1072 individuals with complete data who initiated isoniazid LTBI treatment. Treatment completion was significantly associated with less restrictive health insurance, age < 15 years, patient location, use of interferon-gamma release assays, non-poverty, HIV diagnosis, immunosuppressive drug therapy, and higher cumulative counts of clinical risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Private sector healthcare claims data provide insights into LTBI treatment completion patterns and patient/provider behaviors. Such information is critical to understanding the opportunities and limitations of private healthcare in the US to support treatment completion as this sector's role in protecting against and eliminating TB grows.

PMID: 29843664 [PubMed - in process]

Protection of Hamsters from Mortality by Reducing Fecal Moxifloxacin Concentration with DAV131A in a Model of Moxifloxacin-Induced Clostridium difficile Colitis.

Thu, 05/31/2018 - 07:32
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Protection of Hamsters from Mortality by Reducing Fecal Moxifloxacin Concentration with DAV131A in a Model of Moxifloxacin-Induced Clostridium difficile Colitis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Oct;61(10):

Authors: Burdet C, Sayah-Jeanne S, Nguyen TT, Miossec C, Saint-Lu N, Pulse M, Weiss W, Andremont A, Mentré F, de Gunzburg J

Abstract
Lowering the gut exposure to antibiotics during treatments can prevent microbiota disruption. We evaluated the effects of an activated charcoal-based adsorbent, DAV131A, on the fecal free moxifloxacin concentration and mortality in a hamster model of moxifloxacin-induced Clostridium difficile infection. A total of 215 hamsters receiving moxifloxacin subcutaneously (day 1 [D1] to D5) were orally infected at D3 with C. difficile spores. They received various doses (0 to 1,800 mg/kg of body weight/day) and schedules (twice a day [BID] or three times a day [TID]) of DAV131A (D1 to D8). Moxifloxacin concentrations and C. difficile counts were determined at D3, and mortality was determined at D12 We compared mortality rates, moxifloxacin concentrations, and C. difficile counts according to DAV131A regimen and modeled the links between DAV131A regimen, moxifloxacin concentration, and mortality. All hamsters that received no DAV131A died, but none of those that received 1,800 mg/kg/day died. Significant dose-dependent relationships between DAV131A dose and (i) mortality, (ii) moxifloxacin concentration, and (iii) C. difficile count were evidenced. Mathematical modeling suggested that (i) lowering the moxifloxacin concentration at D3, which was 58 μg/g (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50 to 66 μg/g) without DAV131A, to 17 μg/g (14 to 21 μg/g) would reduce mortality by 90%; and (ii) this would be achieved with a daily DAV131A dose of 703 mg/kg (596 to 809 mg/kg). In this model of C. difficile infection, DAV131A reduced mortality in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the fecal free moxifloxacin concentration.

PMID: 28739791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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