Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 2 hours 58 min ago

Neuronal subset-specific deletion of Pten results in aberrant Wnt signaling and memory impairments.

Tue, 10/01/2019 - 07:41
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Neuronal subset-specific deletion of Pten results in aberrant Wnt signaling and memory impairments.

Brain Res. 2018 11 15;1699:100-106

Authors: Hodges SL, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Jefferson TS, Gao N, Morrison JB, White J, Nolan SO, Lugo JN

Abstract
The canonical Wnt and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways both play critical roles in brain development early in life. There is extensive evidence of how each pathway is involved in neuronal and synaptic maturation, however, how these molecular networks interact requires further investigation. The present study examines the effect of neuronal subset-specific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) in mice on Wnt signaling protein levels and associated cognitive impairments. PTEN functions as a negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and mutations in Pten can result in cognitive and behavioral impairments. We found that deletion of Pten resulted in elevated Dvl2, Wnt5a/b, and Naked2, along with decreased GSK3β hippocampal synaptosome protein expression compared to wild type mice. Aberrations in the canonical Wnt pathway were associated with learning and memory deficits in Pten knockout mice, specifically in novel object recognition and the Lashley maze. This study demonstrates that deletion of Pten not only significantly impacts PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, but affects proper functioning of the Wnt signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will help elucidate how the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intersects with Wnt signaling to result in cognitive impairments, specifically in memory.

PMID: 30086265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis Predicts Mortality in an Animal Model of Clostridium difficile Infection.

Tue, 10/01/2019 - 07:41
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Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis Predicts Mortality in an Animal Model of Clostridium difficile Infection.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 10;62(10):

Authors: Burdet C, Sayah-Jeanne S, Nguyen TT, Hugon P, Sablier-Gallis F, Saint-Lu N, Corbel T, Ferreira S, Pulse M, Weiss W, Andremont A, Mentré F, de Gunzburg J

Abstract
Antibiotic disruption of the intestinal microbiota favors colonization by Clostridium difficile Using a charcoal-based adsorbent to decrease intestinal antibiotic concentrations, we studied the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in feces and the intensity of dysbiosis and quantified the link between this intensity and mortality. We administered either moxifloxacin (n = 70) or clindamycin (n = 60) to hamsters by subcutaneous injection from day 1 (D1) to D5 and challenged them with a C. difficile toxigenic strain at D3 Hamsters received various doses of a charcoal-based adsorbent, DAV131A, to modulate intestinal antibiotic concentrations. Gut dysbiosis was evaluated at D0 and D3 using diversity indices determined from 16S rRNA gene profiling. Survival was monitored until D16 We analyzed the relationship between fecal antibiotic concentrations and dysbiosis at the time of C. difficile challenge and studied their capacity to predict subsequent death of the animals. Increasing doses of DAV131A reduced fecal concentrations of both antibiotics, lowered dysbiosis, and increased survival from 0% to 100%. Mortality was related to the level of dysbiosis (P < 10-5 for the change of Shannon index in moxifloxacin-treated animals and P < 10-9 in clindamycin-treated animals). The Shannon diversity index and unweighted UniFrac distance best predicted death, with areas under the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82, 0.95) and 0.95 (0.90, 0.98), respectively. Altogether, moxifloxacin and clindamycin disrupted the diversity of the intestinal microbiota with a dependency on the DAV131A dose; mortality after C. difficile challenge was related to the intensity of dysbiosis in similar manners with the two antibiotics.

PMID: 30061286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ovarian cancer: Current status and strategies for improving therapeutic outcomes.

Sat, 09/28/2019 - 16:18

Ovarian cancer: Current status and strategies for improving therapeutic outcomes.

Cancer Med. 2019 Sep 27;:

Authors: Chandra A, Pius C, Nabeel M, Nair M, Vishwanatha JK, Ahmad S, Basha R

Abstract
Of all the gynecologic tumors, ovarian cancer (OC) is known to be the deadliest. Advanced-stages of OC are linked with high morbidity and low survival rates despite the immense amount of research in the field. Shortage of promising screening tools for early-stage detection is one of the major challenges linked with the poor survival rate for patients with OC. In OC, therapeutic management is used with multidisciplinary approaches that includes debulking surgery, chemotherapy, and (rarely) radiotherapy. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using immunomodulation for treating OC. Relapse rates are high in this malignancy and averages around every 2-years. Further treatments after the relapse are more intense, increasing the toxicity, resistance to chemotherapy drugs, and financial burden to patients with poor quality-of-life. A procedure that has been studied to help reduce the morbidity rate involves pre-sensitizing cancer cells with standard therapy in order to produce optimal results with minimum dosage. Utilizing such an approach, platinum-based agents are effective due to their increased response to platinum-based chemotherapy in relapsed cases. These chemo-drugs also help address the issue of drug resistance. After conducting an extensive search with available literature and the resources for clinical trials, information is precisely documented on current research, biomarkers, options for treatment and clinical trials. Several schemes for enhancing the therapeutic responses for OC are discussed systematically in this review with an attempt in summarizing the recent developments in this exciting field of translational/clinical research.

PMID: 31560828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reduced Cerebrovascular and Cardioventilatory Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia in Elderly.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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Reduced Cerebrovascular and Cardioventilatory Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia in Elderly.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2019 Sep 23;:103306

Authors: Liu X, Chen X, Kline G, Ross SE, Hall JR, Ding Y, Mallet RT, Shi X

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The impact of aging on cerebrovascular function and tissue oxygenation during graded hypoxemia is incompletely known. This study compared the age effect on these variables during cyclic hypoxemia-reoxygenation.
METHODS: Hypoxia-induced changes in arterial (SaO2) and cerebral tissue (ScO2) O2 saturation, middle cerebral arterial flow velocity (VMCA), estimated cerebral vascular conductance (CVC), heart rate (HR) and ventilation were compared between 12 elderly (71 ± 2 yr, 7 women) and 13 young (24 ± 3 yr, 5 women) adults during the first and fifth 5-min exposures to 10% O2.
RESULTS: Although pre-hypoxia SaO2 did not differ between the groups, ScO2 was lower (P < 0.05) in the elderly (68.4 ± 1.2%) than young (73.8 ± 0.9%) adults, commensurate with a lower resting VMCA (P < 0.05). SaO2 fell less sharply (P < 0.05) in the elderly subjects during the first and fifth hypoxia exposures. Moreover, the responses of ScO2, VMCA, CVC, HR and breathing frequency to hypoxia were attenuated in the elderly subjects. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures fell by 2-6 mmHg during hypoxia in both young and elderly. Thus, hypoxemia developed more gradually in elderly than young adults during normobaric hypoxia, concordant with a reduced metabolic demand in the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS: The elderly adults safely tolerated cyclic, moderate hypoxemia which lowered SaO2 by 2025%, despite dampening of cerebrovascular and cardiac responses to hypoxemia.

PMID: 31557538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inducible Rodent Models of Glaucoma.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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Inducible Rodent Models of Glaucoma.

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2019 Sep 23;:100799

Authors: Pang IH, Clark AF

Abstract
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of vision impairment worldwide. In order to further understand the molecular pathobiology of this disease and to develop better therapies, clinically relevant animal models are necessary. In recent years, both the rat and mouse have become popular models in glaucoma research. Key reasons are: many important biological similarities shared among rodent eyes and the human eye; development of improved methods to induce glaucoma and to evaluate glaucomatous damage; availability of genetic tools in the mouse; as well as the relatively low cost of rodent studies. Commonly studied rat and mouse glaucoma models include intraocular pressure (IOP)-dependent and pressure-independent models. The pressure-dependent models address the most important risk factor of elevated IOP, whereas the pressure-independent models assess "normal tension" glaucoma and other "non-IOP" related factors associated with glaucomatous damage. The current article provides descriptions of these models, their characterizations, specific techniques to induce glaucoma, mechanisms of injury, advantages, and limitations.

PMID: 31557521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Enhancing Statin Adherence Using a Motivational Interviewing Intervention and Past Adherence Trajectories in Patients with Suboptimal Adherence.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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Enhancing Statin Adherence Using a Motivational Interviewing Intervention and Past Adherence Trajectories in Patients with Suboptimal Adherence.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2019 Oct;25(10):1053-1062

Authors: Abughosh SM, Vadhariya A, Johnson ML, Essien EJ, Esse TW, Serna O, Gallardo E, Boklage SH, Choi J, Holstad MM, Fleming ML

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Statins have been shown to be effective in reducing the occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events and are widely prescribed for the risk reduction of CV diseases and recurrent CV events. However, poor adherence prevents some patients from receiving the maximum benefit of the therapy. Motivational interviewing (MoI) is a patient-centered collaborative approach that can be used to improve medication adherence. Group-based trajectory modeling depicts patterns of adherence over time and may help tailor the MoI intervention to further enhance adherence.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a phone-based MoI intervention tailored by patients' past adherence trajectory in improving adherence to statins among patients in a Medicare Advantage prescription drug plan (MAPD).
METHODS: Patients continuously enrolled in an MAPD from 2013 to 2017 with a statin prescription between January and June 2015 to allow 2 years of pre-index period and 1 year of follow-up were included in the study. Adherence to statins was measured monthly during the 1-year follow-up as proportion of days covered (PDC) and incorporated into a group-based trajectory model to provide 4 distinct patterns of adherence: adherent, rapid decline, gradual decline, and gaps in adherence. Patients in the 3 nonadherent groups were randomized to either control or intervention. The intervention was an initial counseling call and up to 2 monthly follow-up calls by pharmacy students trained in MoI, providing education consistent with a previously identified pattern of use. Refill data at 6 months post-intervention were evaluated to examine the intervention's effect on PDC, as continuous and dichotomized as PDC ≥ 0.8, as well as discontinuation. Multivariable regression adjusted for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and past adherence trajectory.
RESULTS: There were 152 patients included in the analysis who received MoI phone calls and 304 randomly selected controls. Mean PDC for the intervention group (0.67 ± 0.3) was significantly higher than the control (0.55 ± 0.4; P < 0.001). The intervention group was also less likely to discontinue (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.19-0.76) and more likely to be adherent in the linear regression model (β = 12.4; P < 0.001) as well as in the logistic regression model (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.18-2.95). Previous adherence trajectories were significantly associated with adherence in the follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received the MoI intervention were more likely to be adherent and less likely to discontinue the statin in the 6 months follow-up compared with controls. Future research can identify other approaches to tailor interventions and expand the intervention to other languages. This intervention may also prove valuable to improve adherence to other medications for chronic and asymptomatic diseases.
DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, which provided critical input during study design, implementation, and manuscript preparation. Abughosh reports grants from Sanofi, BMS/Pfizer, and Valeant Pharmaceuticals, unrelated to this study. Vadhariya reports a past internship at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, unrelated to this study. Esse, Serna, and Gallardo are employees of CareAllies, a Cigna subsidiary. Boklage is an employee of Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Choi was an employee of Sanofi during this study. Johnson, Essien, Fleming, and Holstad have nothing to disclose. A poster based on this study was presented at AMCP Nexus 2018; October 22-25, 2018; Orlando, FL.

PMID: 31556824 [PubMed - in process]

Prospective Risk for Incapacitated Rape among Sexual Minority Women: Hookups and Drinking.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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Prospective Risk for Incapacitated Rape among Sexual Minority Women: Hookups and Drinking.

J Sex Res. 2019 Sep 26;:1-12

Authors: Jaffe AE, Blayney JA, Lewis MA, Kaysen D

Abstract
Sexual minority women (SMW), including lesbian and bisexual women, are at greater risk for heavy drinking and sexual victimization than heterosexual women. Risk factors for alcohol-related sexual victimization, such as incapacitated rape (IR), include frequent heavy drinking and hookups among heterosexual women, but it is less clear whether these risk factors extend to SMW. This current study was designed to address this gap. In a national sample of SMW (N = 1,057), logistic regressions were used to test whether heavy drinking and hookups in the first year of the study were risk factors for IR during the second year. After controlling for history of prior sexual victimization, subsequent IR was predicted by an interaction between heavy drinking and the number of male hookup partners. Specifically, more frequent heavy drinking was associated with increased risk for subsequent IR, but only among SMW who reported more than one male hookup partner, indicating exposure to more potential perpetrators. When examined separately, this finding held for bisexual women, but was not significant for lesbian women, likely because they reported fewer male hookup partners. Overall, findings from this longitudinal study highlight that in combination, heavy drinking and hookups with multiple men elevate risk for IR.

PMID: 31556751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Emerging Roles of mTORC1 in Macromanaging Autophagy.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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The Emerging Roles of mTORC1 in Macromanaging Autophagy.

Cancers (Basel). 2019 Sep 24;11(10):

Authors: Dossou AS, Basu A

Abstract
Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that enables the cell to survive when faced with starvation or stressful conditions. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mammalian target of rapamycin, plays a critical role in maintaining a balance between cellular anabolism and catabolism. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) was unveiled as a master regulator of autophagy since inhibition of mTORC1 was required to initiate the autophagy process. Evidence has emerged in recent years to indicate that mTORC1 also directly regulates the subsequent steps of the autophagy process, including the nucleation, autophagosome elongation, autophagosome maturation and termination. By phosphorylating select protein targets of the autophagy core machinery and/or their regulators, mTORC1 can alter their functions, increase their proteasomal degradation or modulate their acetylation status, which is a key switch of the autophagy process. Moreover, it phosphorylates and alters the subcellular localization of transcription factors to suppress the expression of genes needed for autophagosome formation and lysosome biogenesis. The purpose of this review article is to critically analyze current literatures to provide an integrated view of how mTORC1 regulates various steps of the autophagy process.

PMID: 31554253 [PubMed]

An investigation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemic in Kavango and Zambezi regions of Namibia in 2016.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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An investigation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemic in Kavango and Zambezi regions of Namibia in 2016.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Dec 01;112(12):546-554

Authors: Chanda E, Arshad M, Khaloua A, Zhang W, Namboze J, Uusiku P, Angula AH, Gausi K, Tiruneh D, Islam QM, Kolivras K, Haque U

Abstract
Background: Namibia is one of the countries among the eight that are targeting malaria elimination in southern Africa. However, the country has encountered malaria epidemics in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate malaria epidemics and to contribute to strengthening malaria surveillance and control in an effort to move Namibia toward eliminating malaria.
Method: Malaria epidemiology data for 2014-2015 were collected from the weekly surveillance system. All consenting household members within a 100-m radius of index households were screened in 2016 using a Carestart malaria HRP2/pLDH combined rapid diagnostic test after epidemics. All houses within this radius were sprayed in 2016 with the pyrethroid deltamethrin and K-Othrine WG 250. Anopheles mosquito-positive breeding sites were identified and treated with the organophosphate larvicide temephos. Insecticide susceptibility and bioassay tests were conducted.
Results: During the epidemic response period in 2016, 56 parasitologically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in the Zambezi region were detected from active screening. The majority of those cases (83%) were asymptomatic infections. In the Kavango region, the malaria epidemic persisted, with 228 P. falciparum malaria cases recorded, but only 97 were investigated. In Namibia, malaria vector susceptibility was detected to 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Indoor residual spraying was conducted in 377 (90%) of the targeted households along with community awareness through health education of 1499 people and distribution of more than 2000 information, education and communication materials. The P. falciparum malaria cases in the Zambezi decreased from 122 in week 9 to 97 after week 15.
Conclusions: Malaria epidemics along with the persistence of asymptomatic reservoir infections pose a serious challenge in Namibia's elimination effort. The country needs to ensure sustainable interventions to target asymptomatic reservoir infections and prevent epidemics in order to successfully achieve its goal of eliminating malaria.

PMID: 30252108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Alcohol retail sales licenses and sexually transmitted infections in Texas counties, 2008-2015.

Fri, 09/27/2019 - 07:04
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Alcohol retail sales licenses and sexually transmitted infections in Texas counties, 2008-2015.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(6):678-685

Authors: Rossheim ME, Krall JR, Painter JE, Thombs DL, Stephenson CJ, Suzuki S, Cannell MB, Livingston MD, Gonzalez-Pons KM, Wagenaar AC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that reduced retail alcohol outlet density may be associated with lower prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). On-premise sale of alcohol for immediate consumption is theorized as increasing social interactions that can lead to sexual encounters.
OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between on- and off-premise retail alcohol sales licenses and number of newly diagnosed HIV and STI cases in Texas counties.
METHODS: Retail alcohol sales license data were obtained from the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission. HIV and bacterial STI data were obtained from the Texas Department of State Health Services. Associations between retail alcohol sales licenses and STIs were estimated using spatial linear models and Poisson mixed effects models for over-dispersed count data.
RESULTS: Adjusting for county-specific confounders, there was no evidence of residual spatial correlation. In Poisson models, each additional on-premise (e.g., bar and restaurant) alcohol license per 10,000 population in a county was associated with a 1.5% increase (95% CI: 0.4%, 2.6%) in the rate of HIV and a 2.4% increase (95% CI: 1.9%, 3.0%) in the rate of bacterial STIs, adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, number of off-premise licenses (e.g., take-out stores) was inversely associated with the incidence of STI and HIV, although the association with HIV was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the limited literature on the association between retail alcohol availability and STIs. Additional research is needed on the role of alcohol availability (and policies affecting availability) in the spread of HIV and other STIs.

PMID: 29863903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Growing Up, Hooking Up, and Drinking: A Review of Uncommitted Sexual Behavior and Its Association With Alcohol Use and Related Consequences Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States.

Thu, 09/26/2019 - 06:52
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Growing Up, Hooking Up, and Drinking: A Review of Uncommitted Sexual Behavior and Its Association With Alcohol Use and Related Consequences Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States.

Front Psychol. 2019;10:1872

Authors: Garcia TA, Litt DM, Davis KC, Norris J, Kaysen D, Lewis MA

Abstract
Hookups are uncommitted sexual encounters that range from kissing to intercourse and occur between individuals in whom there is no current dating relationship and no expressed or acknowledged expectations of a relationship following the hookup. Research over the last decade has begun to focus on hooking up among adolescents and young adults with significant research demonstrating how alcohol is often involved in hooking up. Given alcohol's involvement with hooking up behavior, the array of health consequences associated with this relationship, as well as its increasing prevalence from adolescence to young adulthood, it is important to determine the predictors and consequences associated with alcohol-related hooking up. The current review extends prior reviews by adding more recent research, including both qualitative and experimental studies (i.e., expanding to review more diverse methods), research that focuses on the use of technology in alcohol-related hookups (i.e., emerging issues), further develops prevention and intervention potentials and directions, and also offers a broader discussion of hooking up outside of college student populations (i.e., expanding generalization). This article will review the operationalization and ambiguity of the phrase hooking up, the relationship between hooking up and alcohol use at both the global and event levels, predictors of alcohol-related hooking up, and both positive and negative consequences, including sexual victimization, associated with alcohol-related hookups. Throughout, commentary is provided on the methodological issues present in the field, as well as limitations of the existing research. Future directions for research that could significantly advance our understanding of hookups and alcohol use are provided.

PMID: 31551844 [PubMed]

Comparative effectiveness of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens for HCV infection.

Thu, 09/26/2019 - 06:52
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Comparative effectiveness of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens for HCV infection.

Antivir Ther. 2018;23(7):585-592

Authors: Ojha RP, MacDonald BR, Chu TC, Fasanmi EO, Moore JD, Stewart RA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Real-world studies have aimed to compare the effects of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens on sustained virological response (SVR) among HCV infection genotype-1 (HCV-1) treatment-naive patients. Nevertheless, real-world comparative effectiveness studies pose unique challenges, such as confounding by indication, that were not adequately addressed in prior studies. We thus aimed to address limitations in prior studies and compare overall- and subgroup-specific effectiveness of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens among HCV-1 treatment-naive patients.
METHODS: Patients eligible for our study were aged ≥18 years and initiated 8- or 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens for treatment-naive HCV-1 at an urban public hospital network. We excluded patients with HIV or cirrhosis. We used marginal structural models to estimate overall and subgroup-specific risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence limits (CL) comparing the effect of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens on 12-week SVR.
RESULTS: Our study population comprised 191 patients. Among both regimens, the majority were aged >50 years, non-Hispanic White and uninsured. The overall risk of SVR was comparable between the 8- and 12-week regimens (RR=1.01, 95% CL: 0.92, 1.11). The risk of SVR did not vary by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Black: RR=1.01, 95% CL: 0.84, 1.21; non-Hispanic White: RR=1.01, 95% CL: 0.89, 1.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world results suggest that 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir have comparable effects on SVR among HCV-1 patients without cirrhosis or HIV. In addition, the comparable effectiveness of 8- and 12-week regimens among non-Hispanic Black individuals adds to the growing body of evidence that supports the removal of race-based treatment guidelines.

PMID: 29969099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

Thu, 09/26/2019 - 06:52
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College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 07;42(7):1271-1280

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Krall JR, Jernigan DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Supersized alcopops are a class of single-serving beverages popular among underage drinkers. These products contain large quantities of alcohol. This study examines the extent to which young adults recognize how intoxicated they would become from consuming these products.
METHODS: The study sample included 309 undergraduates who had consumed alcohol within the past year. Thirty-two sections of a college English course were randomized to 1 of 2 survey conditions, based on hypothetical consumption of supersized alcopops or beer of comparable liquid volume. Students were provided an empty can of 1 of the 2 beverages to help them answer the survey questions. Equation-calculated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)-based on body weight and sex-were compared to the students' self-estimated BACs for consuming 1, 2, and 3 cans of the beverage provided to them.
RESULTS: In adjusted regression models, students randomized to the supersized alcopop group greatly underestimated their BAC, whereas students randomized to the beer group overestimated it. The supersized alcopop group underestimated their BAC by 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.053), 0.09 (95% CI: 0.067, 0.107), and 0.13 g/dl (95% CI: 0.097, 0.163) compared to the beer group. When asked how much alcohol they could consume before it would be unsafe to drive, students in the supersized alcopop group had 7 times the odds of estimating consumption that would generate a calculated BAC of at least 0.08 g/dl, compared to those making estimates based on beer consumption (95% CI: 3.734, 13.025).
CONCLUSIONS: Students underestimated the intoxication they would experience from consuming supersized alcopops. Revised product warning labels are urgently needed to clearly identify the number of standard drinks contained in a supersized alcopop can. Moreover, regulations are needed to limit alcohol content of single-serving products.

PMID: 29846956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Perceptions of Zika Virus Prevention Among College Students in Florida.

Thu, 09/26/2019 - 06:52
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Perceptions of Zika Virus Prevention Among College Students in Florida.

J Community Health. 2018 08;43(4):673-679

Authors: Thompson EL, Vamos CA, Jones J, Liggett LG, Griner SB, G Logan R, Daley EM

Abstract
Zika virus in Florida prompted a strong public health response, due to its causal association with birth defects. While primarily spread by mosquitos, Zika can be transmitted sexually. The spread of Zika may influence reproductive behaviors among sexually active persons in Florida. This study examined factors associated with willingness to change birth control method use in response to Zika virus among college women and men in Florida. Women and men ages 18-44 at a Florida university (N = 328) were surveyed about Zika knowledge, beliefs about Zika, use of contraceptives and condoms, and socio-demographics between November 2016-April 2017. The outcome variable was willingness to change birth control method were Zika in their area. Logistic regression models in SAS 9.4 were used. Most participants were women (80%), and 47% were 20-22 years old. Only 27% of participants said they would change their birth control method if Zika were in their area. Participants who knew that Zika was sexually transmitted were more likely to be willing to change their birth control method (aOR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.01-2.91). Participants who agreed or strongly agreed that they were fearful of being infected with Zika virus were more likely to be willing to change their birth control methods (aOR = 1.98, 95%CI 1.07-3.67). This study found that, among Florida college students, Zika beliefs and knowledge were associated with a willingness to change birth control method in response to Zika. Understanding the factors that motivate individuals to change reproductive behaviors during an emerging health issue can help tailor preventative messages.

PMID: 29380211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy aging among women.

Wed, 09/25/2019 - 09:42
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Associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy aging among women.

Maturitas. 2019 Nov;129:6-11

Authors: Shadyab AH, Manson JE, Li W, Gass M, Brunner RL, Naughton MJ, Cannell B, Howard BV, LaCroix AZ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 years among older women.
STUDY DESIGN: This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sub-cohort of 8,983 postmenopausal women from the larger Women's Health Initiative population, recruited during 1993-1998 and followed for up to 25 years through 2018.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was categorized as: 1) healthy survival, defined as survival to age 90 without major morbidities (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, or hip fracture) or mobility disability; 2) usual survival, defined as survival to age 90 without healthy aging (reference category); or 3) death before age 90. Women reported their own and their parents' birth years, and parental ages at childbirth were calculated and categorized as <25, 25-29, 30-34, or ≥35 years.
RESULTS: Women were aged on average 71.3 (standard deviation 2.7; range 65-79) years at baseline. There was no significant association of maternal age at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 or death before age 90. Women born to fathers aged ≥35 compared with 30-34 years at their births were more likely to achieve healthy than usual survival (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32). There was no association of paternal age at childbirth with death before age 90.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that being born to older fathers was associated with healthy survival to age 90 among women who had survived to ages 65-79 years at study baseline. There was no association of maternal age at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 among these older women.

PMID: 31547915 [PubMed - in process]

High-alcohol-content flavored alcoholic beverages (supersized alcopops) should be reclassified to reduce public health hazard.

Tue, 09/24/2019 - 06:30
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High-alcohol-content flavored alcoholic beverages (supersized alcopops) should be reclassified to reduce public health hazard.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(4):413-417

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Treffers RD

Abstract
In the US, underage drinkers often consume supersized alcopop - a high-alcohol-content, ready-to-drink flavored alcoholic beverage that is currently regulated as beer. However, calculations in this paper illustrate how the high alcohol by volume and low price of supersized alcopops suggest that they rely on a larger proportion of additives for their alcohol content than permitted to meet the legal definition for beer. From a public safety perspective, it is urgently important that the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau assess the formulation of supersized alcopops - specifically, the percent of alcohol in the finished product that is derived from additives. Appropriate reclassification of supersized alcopops as distilled spirits would reduce youth access by resulting in increased price and reduced availability at the retail locations where youth most often obtain alcohol.

PMID: 29672179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gender differences in substance use treatment and substance use among adults on probation.

Tue, 09/24/2019 - 06:30
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Gender differences in substance use treatment and substance use among adults on probation.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(4):480-487

Authors: Reingle Gonzalez JM, Walters ST, Lerch J, Taxman FS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although many formal and informal substance use treatment programs were originally designed for men, no studies have investigated how gender affects the use of substance use treatment modalities, and how gender differences in treatment utilization impact substance use in the unique probation context.
OBJECTIVE: To describe gender differences in use and effectiveness of substance use treatment modalities (formal and informal) among probationers.
METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from 335 individuals (93 women) who participated in the Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) study. Timeline follow-back measures were used to quantify daily substance use and treatment modality (formal treatment included inpatient and outpatient treatment; informal treatment included self-help, religious, and all other group meetings). Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to examine relationships between gender, treatment, and substance use.
RESULTS: Gender was not associated with alcohol use. Use of formal treatment programs reduced the odds of alcohol use by 15%. The probability of alcohol use was the lowest (8%) for men who participated in formal treatment. For men using informal treatment programs, the probability of alcohol use was 11%. The probability of alcohol use for women was similar regardless of the type of treatment utilization (15-16%). No differences in illicit drug use by gender or type of treatment were detected.
CONCLUSION: This research found limited evidence of a relationship between gender, substance use treatment modality, and alcohol use. These findings have clinical significance in that both formal and informal treatment approaches are similarly effective across both men and women.

PMID: 29451815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environmental suitability for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the spatial distribution of major arboviral infections in Mexico.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Environmental suitability for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the spatial distribution of major arboviral infections in Mexico.

Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2019 Aug;6:e00116

Authors: Lubinda J, Treviño C JA, Walsh MR, Moore AJ, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akgun S, Zhao B, Barro AS, Begum MM, Jamal H, Angulo-Molina A, Haque U

Abstract
Background: This paper discusses a comparative geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Mexico, using environmental suitability modeling and reported cases of arboviral infections.
Methods: Using presence-only records, we modeled mosquito niches to show how much they influenced the distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus based on mosquito records collected at the municipality level. Mosquito surveillance data were used to create models regarding the predicted suitability of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitos in Mexico.
Results: Ae. albopictus had relatively a better predictive performance (area under the curve, AUC = 0.87) to selected bioclimatic variables compared to Ae. aegypti (AUC = 0.81). Ae. aegypti were more suitable for areas with minimum temperature of coldest month (Bio6, permutation importance 28.7%) -6 °C to 21.5 °C, cumulative winter growing degree days (GDD) between 40 and 500, and precipitation of wettest month (Bio13) >8.4 mm. Minimum temperature range of the coldest month (Bio6) was -6.6 °C to 20.5 °C, and average precipitation of the wettest month (Bio13) 8.9 mm ~ 600 mm were more suitable for the existence of Ae. albopictus. However, arboviral infections maps prepared from the 2012-2016 surveillance data showed cases were reported far beyond predicted municipalities.
Conclusions: This study identified the urgent necessity to start surveillance in 925 additional municipalities that reported arbovirus infections but did not report Aedes mosquito.

PMID: 31528740 [PubMed]

Unilateral Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to Absence of Right Pulmonary Artery.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Unilateral Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to Absence of Right Pulmonary Artery.

Cureus. 2019 Jul 17;11(7):e5161

Authors: Sumdani H, Shahbuddin Z, Farhataziz N, Barkley JM

Abstract
Pulmonary fibrosis is typically a bilateral, progressive interstitial lung disease that is often idiopathic but can be associated with risk factors such as advanced age, environmental exposure, and drug toxicity. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood but involves transforming growth factor. The treatment choices for idiopathic disease include medical therapy that manipulates epigenetic pathways and lung transplantation. Here we present a 30-year-old female with no identifiable risk factors who developed unilateral pulmonary fibrosis. Clinical investigation eventually revealed a congenitally absent right pulmonary artery which was presumed to cause her unilateral disease. In contrast to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis due to unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery include ipsilateral pulmonary vasculature embolization and/or pneumonectomy if disease is unmanageable without therapy.

PMID: 31528513 [PubMed]

Glia-immune interactions post-ischemic stroke and potential therapies.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Glia-immune interactions post-ischemic stroke and potential therapies.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2018 12;243(17-18):1302-1312

Authors: Hersh J, Yang SH

Abstract
IMPACT STATEMENT: This article reviews glial cell interactions with the immune system post-ischemic stroke. Research has shown that glial cells in the brain play a role in altering phenotypes of other glial cells and have downstream immune cell targets ultimately regulating a neuroinflammatory response. These interactions may play a deleterious as well as beneficial role in stroke recovery. Furthermore, they may provide a novel way to approach potential therapies, since current stroke drug therapy is limited to only one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug complicated by a narrow therapeutic window. Until this point, most research has emphasized neuroimmune interactions, but little focus has been on bidirectional communication of glial-immune interactions in the ischemic brain. By expanding our understanding of these interactions through a compilation of glial cell effects, we may be able to pinpoint major modulating factors in brain homeostasis to maintain or discover ways to suppress irreversible ischemic damage and improve brain repair.

PMID: 30537868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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