Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Pexidartinib (TURALIO™): The First FDA-Indicated Systemic Treatment for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor.

Sat, 07/04/2020 - 06:55
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Pexidartinib (TURALIO™): The First FDA-Indicated Systemic Treatment for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor.

Drugs R D. 2020 Jul 02;:

Authors: Monestime S, Lazaridis D

Abstract
Tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a rare proliferative tumor that arises from the synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths due to an overproduction of colony-stimulating factor 1. Historically, treatment options for patients with local or diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor have been limited to surgical interventions. However, for some patients, surgical resection could worsen functional limitations and/or morbidity. In August 2019, the FDA approved pexidartinib (TURALIO™, Daiichi Sankyo), the first systemic treatment option for adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations that were not amenable to improvement with surgery. Pexidartinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with selective inhibition of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and is the first systemic therapy to show significant improvement in overall response rates when compared with placebo. Clinicians using pexidartinib should monitor for liver-related adverse events, which may require treatment interruption, dose reduction, or treatment discontinuation. Pexidartinib provides a novel non-surgical treatment option for patients with tenosynovial giant cell tumor that may significantly improve patients' overall response, range of motion, physical function, tumor volume, and stiffness.

PMID: 32617868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Gamer's Thrombosis: A Review of Published Reports.

Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:28
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Gamer's Thrombosis: A Review of Published Reports.

Ochsner J. 2020;20(2):182-186

Authors: Rambaran KA, Alzghari SK

Abstract
Background: Thrombosis, well known as a condition of the elderly, is occurring in the otherwise healthy adolescent population. Immobility is a significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and adolescents who play video games are immobile for extended periods of time. Some are presenting with VTE. When other risk factors such as obesity are present, the risk of VTE formation increases. We provide a review of published case reports regarding gaming and thrombosis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO for articles published through July 2019, using the keywords "computer game thrombosis," "computer game pulmonary embolism," "computer game deep vein thrombosis," "video game thrombosis," "video game pulmonary embolism," and "video game deep vein thrombosis." Results: Of the 26 articles we identified, we included 12 articles in our review that report a total of 15 cases, of which 2 resulted in fatalities. Modifiable risk factors included cigarette use, being overweight, birth control use, and prolonged immobility. Anticoagulation was the principal treatment modality in patients presenting with gaming thrombosis. Conclusion: We strongly encourage screening gamers for possible VTEs if clinically warranted.

PMID: 32612473 [PubMed]

"I'll Just Pick It Up…": Women's Acceptability of Self-Sampling Methods for Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening.

Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:28
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"I'll Just Pick It Up…": Women's Acceptability of Self-Sampling Methods for Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening.

Sex Transm Dis. 2019 12;46(12):762-767

Authors: Griner SB, Vamos CA, Puccio JA, Perrin KM, Beckstead JW, Daley EM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening are suboptimal among college women. Self-sampling methods (SSMs) may improve STI screening rates, but critical gaps remain regarding the influential characteristics of SSM to prioritize in intervention development. The purpose of this study was to explore intervention characteristics influencing the decision to adopt SSM among college women.
METHODS: In-depth interviews (n = 24) were conducted with sexually active college women aged 18-24 years to explore preferred intervention characteristics of SSM. Interviews were stratified by screening status (screened or not screened). The instrument was guided by constructs from the Diffusion of Innovation theory and included characteristics of SSM, such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, adaptability, and risk and uncertainty.
RESULTS: Overall, women felt that the SSM was not complex and that the instructions were straightforward. Participants discussed their strong preference for receiving their results via text or e-mail rather than via telephone. In addition, women described their concerns about mailing their sample and described their concern about potential contamination and tampering. The most salient advantage to use of SSM was avoiding an interaction with a health care provider.
CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to an understanding of the salient intervention characteristics influencing the use of SSM for STI screening, which can be leveraged to improve the health of students and improve rates of screening. Findings can be used to inform the development of a future innovative, theory-based intervention that promotes the use of SSM to improve STI screening rates, and ultimately decrease the burden of STI-related disease.

PMID: 31688722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wearable Devices for Single-Cell Sensing and Transfection.

Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:28
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Wearable Devices for Single-Cell Sensing and Transfection.

Trends Biotechnol. 2019 11;37(11):1175-1188

Authors: Chang L, Wang YC, Ershad F, Yang R, Yu C, Fan Y

Abstract
Wearable healthcare devices are mainly used for biosensing and transdermal delivery. Recent advances in wearable biosensors allow for long-term and real-time monitoring of physiological conditions at a cellular resolution. Transdermal drug delivery systems have been further scaled down, enabling wide selections of cargo, from natural molecules (e.g., insulin and glucose) to bioengineered molecules (e.g., nanoparticles). Some emerging nanopatches show promise for precise single-cell gene transfection in vivo and have advantages over conventional tools in terms of delivery efficiency, safety, and controllability of delivered dose. In this review, we discuss recent technical advances in wearable micro/nano devices with unique capabilities or potential for single-cell biosensing and transfection in the skin or other organs, and suggest future directions for these fields.

PMID: 31072609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Alteration of the Gut Microbiome by Immunosuppressive Agents Used in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:20
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The Alteration of the Gut Microbiome by Immunosuppressive Agents Used in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 01;:e13397

Authors: Gibson CM, Childs-Kean LM, Naziruddin Z, Howell CK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Studies have suggested that in addition to antimicrobials, some non-antibiotics may alter the gut microbiome. This systematic review sought to determine if there is an association between immunosuppressive agents used in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) and alterations in the gut microbiome.
METHODS: English language PubMed and Scopus searches were conducted to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria were defined as pertaining to solid organ transplantation, immunosuppression, and the gut microbiome. Articles were excluded if they contained only genetic microbiota descriptions, narrative reviews of bacteria, or described bacteria as a pathogen for infections. PRISMA reporting was used to guide this literature review.
RESULTS: A preliminary search identified 665 articles, of which 75 articles met the inclusion criteria, and 10 articles remained after application of exclusion criteria. Seventy-one percent of articles discussed calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, 38% included mycophenolate mofetil, and 52% included steroids, such as prednisone. Some studies utilized a combination of immunosuppressants or had multiple study arms. Seventy percent of the articles indicated changes in quantities of anaerobic bacteria including Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Clostridiales. Combinations of immunosuppressant agents was associated with an increase in colonization of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp..
CONCLUSION: Some immunosuppressants are associated with changes in gut flora, but the impact on clinical outcomes is unknown. Robust clinical trials delineating the direct effect of immunosuppressants on the gut microbiome as well as the impact on clinical outcomes are warranted.

PMID: 32609940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antioxidative and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ta-ermi Extracts on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:20
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Antioxidative and Hypoglycemic Effect of Ta-ermi Extracts on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020;13:2147-2155

Authors: Jing S, Zhao Z, Wu J, Yan LJ

Abstract
Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to reveal the potential positive effect of the Ta-ermi extracts on oxidative stress and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice and rats treated with Ta-ermi water- and alcohol-extracts.
Methods: The study was carried out using three experimental model: 1) in vitro experiments whereby Ta-ermi extracts were incubated with free radical generators such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) to evaluate Ta-ermi's antioxidant effects; 2) testing the hypoglycemic effects of Ta-ermi extracts in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice; and 3) testing the beneficial effects of Ta-ermi extracts on mitochondrial complex I function using STZ-diabetic rats.
Results: In vitro antioxidant experiments showed that both of the extracts could scavenge free radicals and exhibited inhibitory effects on glucosidase and aldose reductase with differential effects between water extract and alcohol extract. In the STZ mouse diabetic model, both the water- and alcohol-extracts attenuated body weight decrease, decreased blood glucose levels in a concentration-dependent manner, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased oral glucose tolerance ability. In the STZ-diabetic rat model, both the water- and alcohol-extracts were found to be able to lower blood glucose levels in the diabetic animals with no effects on body weight changes. Moreover, in the STZ-diabetic rats, both the water- and alcohol-extracts of Ta-ermi could inhibit the increase of mitochondrial NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) activity in the pancreas and enhanced complex I activity in the liver but showed no effect on lung or kidney mitochondrial complex I.
Discussion: The present study points to the potential medicinal value of Ta-ermi's water and alcohol extracts in lowering blood glucose and decreasing diabetic oxidative stress. One limitation of our study is that the compound or compounds that actually have this beneficial effect in the extracts remain unknown at this time. Therefore, the future studies should be focused on the identification of the components in the extracts that exhibit anti-oxidative and hypoglycemic effects.
Conclusion: Taken together, our studies using different experimental paradigms indicate that Ta-ermi extracts possess antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties and may be employed as functional food ingredients for the remission of diabetes.

PMID: 32606873 [PubMed]

Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes-7.

Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:20
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Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes-7.

Molecules. 2020 Jun 28;25(13):

Authors: Gütschow M, Eynde JJV, Jampilek J, Kang C, Mangoni AA, Fossa P, Karaman R, Trabocchi A, Scott PJH, Reynisson J, Rapposelli S, Galdiero S, Winum JY, Brullo C, Prokai-Tatrai K, Sharma AK, Schapira M, Azuma YT, Cerchia L, Spetea M, Torri G, Collina S, Geronikaki A, García-Sosa AT, Vasconcelos MH, Sousa ME, Kosalec I, Tuccinardi T, Duarte IF, Salvador JAR, Bertinaria M, Pellecchia M, Amato J, Rastelli G, Gomes PAC, Guedes RC, Sabatier JM, Estévez-Braun A, Pagano B, Mangani S, Ragno R, Kokotos G, Brindisi M, González FV, Borges F, Miloso M, Rautio J, Muñoz-Torrero D

Abstract
Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry [...].

PMID: 32605268 [PubMed - in process]

High seizure load during sensitive periods of development leads to broad shifts in ultrasonic vocalization behavior in neonatal male and female C57BL/6J mice.

Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:20
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High seizure load during sensitive periods of development leads to broad shifts in ultrasonic vocalization behavior in neonatal male and female C57BL/6J mice.

Epilepsy Behav. 2019 06;95:26-33

Authors: Nolan SO, Hodges SL, Condon SM, Muhammed IDA, Tomac LA, Binder MS, Reynolds CD, Lugo JN

Abstract
There is increasing evidence that seizures during early development can impact ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted from neonatal mice. However, most of the effects of early-life seizures have been reported using chemoconvulsants that produce continuous seizures (status epilepticus). In the present study, we evaluated the impact of different seizure frequency loads during early-life vocalization development in C57BL/6J male and female mice. For the high seizure load (HSL) paradigm, we administered 3 flurothyl seizures to mice on postnatal day (PD) 7 through PD11, and recorded USVs on PD12. We found that the induction of seizures across PD7-11 resulted in increased average duration (P < 0.05) and cumulative duration (P < 0.05) of USVs across both sexes. Call-type analyses indicated several call-type changes, including reduced production of complex call-types from males' HSL condition. For the low seizure load (LSL) paradigm, we induced 3 flurothyl seizures only on PD10 and recorded USVs on PD12. We found no change in any spectral or temporal features of USVs. However, call-type production analyses indicated that both male and female animals from the LSL paradigm also produced changes in call-types. This study provides evidence that the magnitude of communication impairment following seizures is significantly impacted by seizure frequency load early in development.

PMID: 31022661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Motion Preservation in Hallux Rigidus After Failure of Hydrogel Implantation: Treatment Considerations and a Report of 2 Cases.

Wed, 07/01/2020 - 06:03
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Motion Preservation in Hallux Rigidus After Failure of Hydrogel Implantation: Treatment Considerations and a Report of 2 Cases.

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020 Jan - Feb;59(1):162-168

Authors: Carpenter B, Klemeyer L

Abstract
Hallux rigidus is a common condition treated daily by surgeons worldwide. During the past decade, the standard treatment algorithm has been questioned by both patients and surgeons seeking alternatives to arthrodesis, which was previously considered the gold standard for advanced disease. Patients are living longer, and many have a more active lifestyle; thus, recreating and improving range of motion and achieving pain relief are increasingly desirable. The treatment spectrum and implant options for motion-preserving techniques in the metatarsophalangeal joint has been widened with the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of a polyvinyl-alcohol hydrogel implant. In the controlled US Food and Drug Administration trial, the 2-year revision rate was 9.2% and all failures were revised to a first metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis. Outcomes comparison of these revisions to primary fusions showed less predictable pain relief and may warrant alternative treatment considerations, preferably those that allow for continuation of motion preservation. Revision of failed hydrogel implants to arthrodesis can be performed through various first metatarsophalangeal fusion techniques or, as introduced in this review, with a fourth-generation threaded hemiarthroplasty. Excellent 10-year results with primary hemiarthroplasty supported its use as revision procedure in 2 failed polyvinyl-alcohol implantations, preserving arthrodesis for future salvage if necessary. The purpose of this report was to outline a motion-preserving technique after failed hydrogel implants and describe preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations for optimized outcomes.

PMID: 31882138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An Institutional Coordinated Plan for Effective Partnerships to Achieve Health Equity and Biomedical Workforce Diversity.

Wed, 07/01/2020 - 06:03
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An Institutional Coordinated Plan for Effective Partnerships to Achieve Health Equity and Biomedical Workforce Diversity.

Ethn Dis. 2019;29(Suppl 1):129-134

Authors: Vishwanatha JK, Basha R, Nair M, Jones HP

Abstract
The rapid growth and accumulation of specialized knowledge in today's biomedical fields, combined with entrenched and emerging health issues that persist among certain groups within the US population, emphasizes the significant need to diversify the nation's biomedical science workforce. The under-representation of minorities in science results in inadequate scientific input from divergent social or cultural perspectives and detracts from our nation's ability to resolve health disparities. The University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth has developed a coordinated approach with local, regional, and national partners to increase participation of underrepresented students along the career pathway from K-12 to faculty level. Career stage specific activities that include research, mentoring, networking, career development, grantsmanship and health disparities curriculum are provided for participants. Successful outcomes from our coordinated plan includes an increase in participant self-efficacy, research presentation awards, increase in grant awards and publications, and career advancement. Through partnerships within our institution, local school districts, and minority serving institutions nationwide, our coordinated plan provides mutually beneficial co-learning experiences to increase the number of under-represented individuals entering translational research focused on increasing the biomedical research workforce diversity and achieving health equity.

PMID: 30906161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Craniofacial allometry in the OIM-/- mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

Sun, 06/28/2020 - 05:19
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Craniofacial allometry in the OIM-/- mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

FASEB J. 2020 Jun 27;:

Authors: Menegaz RA, Ladd SH, Organ JM

Abstract
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal disorder characterized by the impaired synthesis of type I collagen (Col1). This study tests the hypothesis that the craniofacial phenotype of severe OI is linked to an overall reduction in body size. 3D landmark data were collected from µCT scans of adult OIM-/- and wild-type (WT) mice and used to calculate centroid sizes (CS) and interlandmark distances (ILDs). To remove the effect of body size, ILDs were scaled against craniomandibular lengths and CS. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare CS and absolute/scaled ILDs between genotypes. OIM-/- mice are smaller than their WT littermates in body mass, craniomandibular CS, and absolute ILDs including skull, basicranial, palatal, mandibular, and toothrow lengths. When linear distances are scaled to CS, OIM-/- mice have a relatively short midface, short nasal bones, tall mandibular corpora, and long mandibular toothrows. Results underscore the importance of size and scaling in morphometric analyses. The deleterious effect of Col1 mutations on global skeletal dimensions combined with localized morphometric changes may underlie the facial phenotype seen in human patients with severe OI. Attempts to identify these localized changes should first account for the restricted growth and small body sizes present in individuals with OI.

PMID: 32592291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Applying the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior model to identify opportunities to increase pharmacist comfort dispensing naloxone in Texas: A structural equation modeling approach.

Sat, 06/27/2020 - 05:05

Applying the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior model to identify opportunities to increase pharmacist comfort dispensing naloxone in Texas: A structural equation modeling approach.

Int J Drug Policy. 2020 Jun 26;83:102827

Authors: Varisco TJ, Downs CG, Rathburn KR, Fleming ML, Thornton JD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of opioid use and misuse in the United States contributed to 48,000 opioid related deaths in 2018. Naloxone, a potent opioid reversal agent, can be dispensed by pharmacists without a prescription, however few do so. Previous studies on naloxone dispensing have contributed to our understanding of the determinants of naloxone in community pharmacy, however, none have focused on comprehensive behavioral change. This study utilized the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior (COM-B) model, a behavioral change and intervention design framework, to examine community pharmacists' comfort dispensing naloxone.
METHODS: A 48-item questionnaire grounded in the COM-B and theoretical domains framework was developed and mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in Texas, USA using a modified Dillman cross-sectional survey design. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to refine and establish dimensionality of the hypothesized scales and structural equation modeling was used to estimate the fit of the COM-B in explaining pharmacists' comfort dispensing naloxone.
RESULTS: The usable response rate was 19.4%. Of surveyed pharmacists, 29.7% had ever had a patient request naloxone and 35.1% had dispensed naloxone without a prescription. Capability and opportunity explained 60% of the variance in motivation. Opportunity and motivation were the most salient predictors of comfort dispensing naloxone. Together, capability, opportunity, and motivation explained 78.1% of variance in pharmacists' comfort dispensing naloxone, indicating that the COM-B model is useful in this setting.
CONCLUSION: Despite previous findings, policy interventions to increase naloxone dispensing should go beyond providing additional education to the pharmacy workforce. Rather, these results suggest that a complex intervention designed with pharmacist input that enables them to act autonomously and evaluate whether patients need naloxone may increase their comfort dispensing. Without collaboration from pharmacy and managed care corporations, dissemination efforts will continue to be limited.

PMID: 32589581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Trends in Magnesium Intake among Hispanic Adults, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014.

Fri, 06/26/2020 - 07:50
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Trends in Magnesium Intake among Hispanic Adults, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014.

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 22;11(12):

Authors: Liu J, Huang Y, Dai Q, Fulda KG, Chen S, Tao MH

Abstract
This study aimed at examining trends in magnesium intake among U.S. Hispanic adults stratified by gender, Hispanic origins, age, and poverty income ratio (PIR) level. Data on 9304 Hispanic adults aged ≥20 years from eight National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles (1999-2014) were included in this study. For each cycle, survey-weighted mean dietary and total magnesium intakes were estimated. The prevalence of dietary and total magnesium intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was further estimated stratified by gender and age groups. Linear regression was used to test trend. Over the survey cycles, both dietary and total magnesium intakes were significantly increased among Hispanic adults. In the study period, magnesium intake tended to be lower in females, adults in other Hispanic-origin group, those aged ≥65 years old, and those with a PIR <1.0. The prevalence of magnesium intake inadequacy decreased among Hispanic adults; however, more than 70% of Hispanic males and females continued to have magnesium intake below the RDA in 2013-2014. From 1999/2000 to 2013/2014, despite several improvements in magnesium intake having been identified, additional findings showed insufficient intake in Hispanic males and females, suggesting the need to improve magnesium intake through diet and dietary supplementation for U.S. Hispanics.

PMID: 31766698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ex-vivo cultured human corneoscleral segment model to study the effects of glaucoma factors on trabecular meshwork.

Thu, 06/25/2020 - 07:32
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Ex-vivo cultured human corneoscleral segment model to study the effects of glaucoma factors on trabecular meshwork.

PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0232111

Authors: Kasetti RB, Patel PD, Maddineni P, Zode GS

Abstract
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma, is often associated with elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to the dysfunction of trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. Currently, an ex vivo human anterior segment perfusion cultured system is widely used to study the effects of glaucoma factors and disease modifying drugs on physiological parameters like aqueous humor (AH) dynamics and IOP homeostasis. This system requires the use of freshly enucleated intact human eyes, which are sparsely available at very high cost. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using human donor corneoscleral segments for modeling morphological and biochemical changes associated with POAG. Among the number of corneas donated each year, many are deemed ineligible for transplantation due to stringent acceptance criteria. These ineligible corneoscleral segments were obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, Florida. Each human donor anterior corneoscleral segment was dissected into four equal quadrants and cultured for 7 days by treating with the glaucoma factors dexamethasone (Dex) or recombinant transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 or transduced with lentiviral expression vectors containing wild type (WT) and mutant myocilin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining analysis revealed that the TM structural integrity is maintained after 7 days in culture. Increased TUNEL positive TM cells were observed in corneoscleral quadrants treated with glaucoma factors compared to their respective controls. However, these TUNEL positive cells were mainly confined to the scleral region adjacent to the TM. Treatment of corneoscleral quadrants with Dex or TGFβ2 resulted in glaucomatous changes at the TM, which included increased extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Western blot analysis of the conditioned medium showed an increase in ECM (fibronectin and collagen IV) levels in Dex- or TGFβ2-treated samples compared to control. Lentiviral transduction of quadrants resulted in expression of WT and mutant myocilin in TM tissues. Western blot analysis of conditioned medium revealed decreased secretion of mutant myocilin compared to WT myocilin. Moreover, increased ECM deposition and ER stress induction was observed in the TM of mutant myocilin transduced quadrants. Our findings suggest that the ex-vivo cultured human corneoscleral segment model is cost-effective and can be used as a pre-screening tool to study the effects of glaucoma factors and anti-glaucoma therapeutics on the TM.

PMID: 32579557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Evaluate Factors That Influence PharmD Students' Intention to Attend Lectures.

Thu, 06/25/2020 - 07:32
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Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Evaluate Factors That Influence PharmD Students' Intention to Attend Lectures.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2020 May;84(5):7550

Authors: Skoglund E, Fernandez J, Sherer JT, Coyle EA, Garey KW, Fleming ML, Sofjan AK

Abstract
Objective. To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to evaluate the contribution of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control in predicting students' intention to attend class lectures in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum in which lecture recordings were available. Methods. A survey instrument based on the TPB was developed from focus groups with PharmD students. The survey was then distributed to first through third year students at the conclusion of the 2017-2018 academic school year. Respondents were asked to evaluate their beliefs regarding lecture attendance and their intention to attend lectures during the upcoming fall semester. Predictors of intention were evaluated using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results. Responses from 198 of 383 students contained usable data (52% effective response rate). The TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm were predictors of high intention to attend lectures. Students with a positive attitude towards lecture attendance (eg, believed that purposeful active learning is desirable and occurs during class) were nearly 30% more likely to have high intention to attend lectures. Students with a positive subjective norm (ie, perceived social pressure from professors and classmates to attend lectures) were 66% more likely to have high intention to attend lectures. Perceived behavioral control was not associated with high intention to attend lectures. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at improving students' attitudes and subjective norm may be beneficial in improving students' intention to attend class lectures.

PMID: 32577029 [PubMed - in process]

The effect of insurance status on overall survival among children and adolescents with cancer.

Wed, 06/24/2020 - 07:12
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The effect of insurance status on overall survival among children and adolescents with cancer.

Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Jun 23;:

Authors: Wang X, Ojha RP, Partap S, Johnson KJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Differences in access, delivery and utilisation of health care may impact childhood and adolescent cancer survival. We evaluated whether insurance coverage impacts survival among US children and adolescents with cancer diagnoses, overall and by age group, and explored potential mechanisms.
METHODS: Data from 58 421 children (aged ≤14 years) and adolescents (15-19 years), diagnosed with cancer from 2004 to 2010, were obtained from the National Cancer Database. We examined associations between insurance status at initial diagnosis or treatment and diagnosis stage; any treatment received; and mortality using logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression, restricted mean survival time (RMST) and mediation analyses.
RESULTS: Relative to privately insured individuals, the hazard of death (all-cause) was increased and survival months were decreased in those with Medicaid [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.33; and -1.73 months, 95% CI: -2.07 to -1.38] and no insurance (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.46; and -2.13 months, 95% CI: -2.91 to -1.34). The HR for Medicaid vs. private insurance was larger (pinteraction <0.001) in adolescents (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.41 to 1.64) than children (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.23). Despite statistical evidence violation of the PH assumption, RMST results supported all interpretations. Earlier diagnosis for staged cancers in the Medicaid and uninsured populations accounted for an estimated 13% and 19% of the survival deficit, respectively, vs. the privately insured population. Any treatment received did not account for insurance-associated survival differences in children and adolescents with cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents without private insurance had a higher risk of death and shorter survival within 5 years following cancer diagnosis. Additional research is needed to understand underlying mechanisms.

PMID: 32572489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

How Is Health Literacy Related to Pap Testing Among US Women?

Wed, 06/24/2020 - 07:12
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How Is Health Literacy Related to Pap Testing Among US Women?

J Cancer Educ. 2019 Aug;34(4):789-795

Authors: Thompson EL, Wheldon CW, Vamos CA, Griner SB, Daley EM

Abstract
While Pap testing has significantly reduced the burden of cervical cancer, not all women follow prevention recommendations of cervical cancer screening every 3 years. Health literacy regarding Pap testing may influence the adoption of this behavior. The objective of this study was to assess the health literacy-related factors associated with Pap testing among a nationally representative sample of women in the USA. The Health Information National Trends Survey Cycles 4.4 and 5.1 were restricted to women 21-65 years of age (N = 2992). Questions were selected using the Integrated Model of Health Literacy domains: access (i.e., seeking cancer information), understand (i.e., HPV awareness, HPV knowledge), appraise (i.e., prevention not possible, chance of getting cancer), and apply (i.e., received a Pap in last 3 years [outcome]). Survey-weighted, logistic regression models estimated how the health literacy domains were associated with Pap testing, using SAS 9.4. In the sample, 81.1% of women received a Pap test within the last 3 years. The analysis revealed women who knew HPV is an STD (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.26) were more likely to have received a Pap test in the last 3 years, while controlling for sociodemographic factors. These findings indicate that knowledge about HPV may be associated with Pap testing behavior among US women. Continued research is needed to examine the impact of health literacy on Pap testing given the changes in screening guidelines, with the ultimate goal of decreasing cervical cancer.

PMID: 29931455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trends in the proportionate mortalities attributed to noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000 to 2016.

Tue, 06/23/2020 - 07:03
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Trends in the proportionate mortalities attributed to noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000 to 2016.

Int J Health Plann Manage. 2020 Jun 21;:

Authors: Duah HO, Agbadi P, Amankwa CE, Adomako I, Owusu B

Abstract
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) remain a growing global health issue and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is no exception. Using secondary data obtained from the World Bank on 48 SSA countries, we describe the trends in the proportionate mortalities attributed to NCDs in SSA between 2000 and 2016. The baseline proportionate mortalities attributed to NCDs in SSA increased from 22.49% in 2000 to 33.69% in 2016, representing about 11% increase. The trend was replicated across the low-, middle-, and high-income countries in SSA. The highest change in the NCD mortalities in low-income SSA countries was seen in Eritrea where NCD mortalities increased from 19.3% in the year 2000 to 45.2% in 2016. In Rwanda, it rose from 24.8% to 44% during the same period. Ghana, a lower-middle-income country, also witnessed an increase from 27.3% in 2000 to 42.7% in 2016. The general increasing trend in the burden of NCD mortalities in SSA and implies the need for higher prioritization of NCD prevention and control initiatives. There is a need for a greater contribution of nontraditional stakeholders in health through a multi-sectoral approach. We also recommend integrating NCD prevention and control strategies into existing public health structures being used for communicable disease control.

PMID: 32567067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reductive Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cardiomyopathy.

Tue, 06/23/2020 - 07:03
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Reductive Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cardiomyopathy.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020;2020:5136957

Authors: Ma WX, Li CY, Tao R, Wang XP, Yan LJ

Abstract
The goal of this review was to summarize reported studies focusing on cellular reductive stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, dithiothreitol- (DTT-) induced reductive stress, and reductive stress-related free radical reactions published in the past five years. Reductive stress is considered to be a double-edged sword in terms of antioxidation and disease induction. As many underlying mechanisms are still unclear, further investigations are obviously warranted. Nonetheless, reductive stress is thought to be caused by elevated levels of cellular reducing power such as NADH, glutathione, and NADPH; and this area of research has attracted increasing attention lately. Albeit, we think there is a need to conduct further studies in identifying more indicators of the risk assessment and prevention of developing heart damage as well as exploring more targets for cardiomyopathy treatment. Hence, it is expected that further investigation of underlying mechanisms of reductive stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction will provide novel insights into therapeutic approaches for ameliorating reductive stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

PMID: 32566086 [PubMed - in process]

Technical brief: Direct, real-time electrochemical measurement of nitric oxide in ex vivo cultured human corneoscleral segments.

Tue, 06/23/2020 - 07:03
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Technical brief: Direct, real-time electrochemical measurement of nitric oxide in ex vivo cultured human corneoscleral segments.

Mol Vis. 2020;26:434-444

Authors: Patel PD, Kasetti RB, Sonkusare SK, Zode GS

Abstract
Chronic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a common form of progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to debilitating loss of vision. Recent studies have identified the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of IOP, and as a result, several therapeutic ventures are currently targeting enhancement of NO signaling in the eye. Although a low level of NO is important for ocular physiology, excess exogenous NO can be detrimental. Therefore, the ability to directly measure NO in real time is essential for determining the role of NO signaling in glaucomatous pathophysiology. Historically, NO activity in human tissues has been determined by indirect methods that measure levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) or downstream components of the NO signaling pathway (cGMP). In this proof-of-concept work, we assess the feasibility of direct, real-time measurement of NO in ex vivo cultured human corneoscleral segments using electrochemistry. A NO-selective electrode (ISO-NOPF200) paired to a free radical analyzer (TBR1025) was placed on the trabecular meshwork (TM) rim for real-time measurement of NO released from cells. Exogenous NO produced within cells was measured after treatment of corneoscleral segments with esterase-dependent NO-donor O2-acetoxymethylated diazeniumdiolate (DETA-NONOate/AM; 20 μM) and latanoprostene bunod (5-20 μM). A fluorescent NO-binding dye DAF-FM (4-Amino-5-methylamino- 2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) was used for validation. A linear relationship was observed between the electric currents measured by the NO-sensing electrode and the NO standard concentrations, establishing a robust calibration curve. Treatment of ex vivo cultured human donor corneoscleral segments with DETA-NONOate/AM and latanoprostene bunod led to a significant increase in NO production compared with vehicle-treated controls, as detected electrochemically. Furthermore, the DAF-FM fluorescence intensity was higher in outflow pathway tissues of corneoscleral segments treated with DETA-NONOate/AM and latanoprostene bunod compared with vehicle-treated controls. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that NO-sensing electrodes can be used to directly measure NO levels in real time from the tissues of the outflow pathway.

PMID: 32565671 [PubMed - in process]

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