Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 2 hours 26 min ago

Creatine, Creatine Kinase, and Aging.

Wed, 02/20/2019 - 07:23
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Creatine, Creatine Kinase, and Aging.

Subcell Biochem. 2018;90:145-168

Authors: Sumien N, Shetty RA, Gonzales EB

Abstract
With an ever aging population, identifying interventions that can alleviate age-related functional declines has become increasingly important. Dietary supplements have taken center stage based on various health claims and have become a multi-million dollar business. One such supplement is creatine, a major contributor to normal cellular physiology. Creatine, an energy source that can be endogenously synthesized or obtained through diet and supplement, is involved primarily in cellular metabolism via ATP replenishment. The goal of this chapter is to summarize how creatine and its associated enzyme, creatine kinase, act under normal physiological conditions, and how altered levels of either may lead to detrimental functional outcomes. Furthermore, we will focus on the effect of aging on the creatine system and how supplementation may affect the aging process and perhaps reverse it.

PMID: 30779009 [PubMed - in process]

Molecular interplay between hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in the NS-Pten knockout mouse model.

Wed, 02/20/2019 - 07:23
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Molecular interplay between hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and Alzheimer's disease neuropathology in the NS-Pten knockout mouse model.

Neuroreport. 2018 09 05;29(13):1109-1113

Authors: Hodges SL, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Jefferson TS, Nolan SO, Lugo JN

Abstract
Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade has been associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both in-vivo models and post-mortem brain samples of individuals with AD have commonly shown hyperactivation of the pathway. In the present study, we examine how neuron subset-specific deletion of Pten (NS-Pten) in mice, which presents with hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, affects the hippocampal protein levels of key neuropathological hallmarks of AD. We found NS-Pten knockout (KO) mice to have elevated levels of amyloid-β, α-synuclein, neurofilament-L, and pGSK3α in the hippocampal synaptosome compared with NS-Pten wild type mice. In contrast, there was a decreased expression of amyloid precursor protein, tau, GSK3α, and GSK3β in NS-Pten KO hippocampi. Overall, there were significant alterations in levels of proteins associated with AD pathology in NS-Pten KO mice. This study provides novel insight into how altered mTOR signaling is linked to AD pathology, without the use of an in-vivo AD model that already displays neuropathological hallmarks of the disease.

PMID: 29965873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

National Trends in Human Papillomavirus Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers.

Mon, 02/18/2019 - 19:04

National Trends in Human Papillomavirus Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers.

Am J Prev Med. 2019 Feb 14;:

Authors: Wheldon CW, Krakow M, Thompson EL, Moser RP

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The President's Cancer Panel released a report in 2014 calling for communication strategies to promote the human papillomavirus vaccine among males and females. The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers from 2014 to 2017 using a nationally representative survey of adults in the U.S. and (2) identify differences in population subgroups that showed significant changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers.
METHODS: Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2014 and 2017 surveys). Health Information National Trends Survey is a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized adults (aged ≥18 years) in the U.S. Human papillomavirus awareness was assessed with one item indicating aware or never heard of human papillomavirus. Human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge was assessed with four items asking if human papillomavirus can cause cervical, anal, oral, or penile cancer (responses coded yes/no or not sure).
RESULTS: The majority (64%, SE=1.4) were aware of human papillomavirus. Awareness was higher among females and the vaccine-eligible subpopulation. No change in awareness was observed. Knowledge of cervical cancer was high (78%), but low for anal (26%); oral (30%); and penile (30%) cancers. Cervical cancer knowledge significantly increased among females, and anal cancer knowledge increased among college graduates and non-vaccine eligible subgroups. No other increases in human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The general public was moderately aware of human papillomavirus, but associated human papillomavirus with cervical cancer. Knowledge of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers is low, even among vaccine-eligible subgroups. Public health education is needed to raise awareness of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers.

PMID: 30772151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Supplementation with N-Acetyl Cysteine Affects Motor and Cognitive Function in Young but Not Old Mice.

Sun, 02/17/2019 - 06:48
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Supplementation with N-Acetyl Cysteine Affects Motor and Cognitive Function in Young but Not Old Mice.

J Nutr. 2019 Feb 15;:

Authors: Ikonne US, Vann PH, Wong JM, Forster MJ, Sumien N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a thiolic antioxidant that is thought to increase cellular glutathione (GSH) by augmenting the concentration of available cysteine, an essential precursor to GSH production. Manipulating redox status can affect brain function, and NAC intake has been associated with improving brain function in models of neurodegenerative diseases.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine if short-term dietary supplementation with NAC could ameliorate functional impairment associated with aging.
METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice aged 6, 12, or 24 mo were fed a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.3% NAC for a total of 12 wk. After 4 wk of dietary supplementation, mice began a series of behavioral tests to measure spontaneous activity (locomotor activity test), psychomotor performance (bridge-walking and coordinated running), and cognitive capacity (Morris water maze and discriminated active avoidance). The performance of the mice on these tests was analyzed through the use of analyses of variance with Age and Diet as factors.
RESULTS: Supplementation of NAC improved peak motor performance in a coordinated running task by 14% (P < 0.05), and increased the time spent around the platform by 24% in a Morris water maze at age 6 mo. However, the supplementation had no to minimal effect on the motor and cognitive functions of 12- and 24-mo-old mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this preclinical study support the claim that NAC has nootropic properties in 6-mo-old mice, but suggest that it may not be useful for improving motor and cognitive impairments in older mice.

PMID: 30770531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inflammatory biomarkers, depressive symptoms and falls among the elderly in Panama.

Sat, 02/16/2019 - 06:39
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Inflammatory biomarkers, depressive symptoms and falls among the elderly in Panama.

Curr Aging Sci. 2019 Feb 15;:

Authors: Britton GB, O'Bryant SE, Johnson LA, Hall JR, Villarreal AE, Oviedo DC, Lao ARP, Carreira MB, For The Panama Aging Research Initiative SG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Falls are common among elderly adults, and are predictors of hospitalization, institutionalization and mortality.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between blood-based markers of inflammation and fall events in a sample of elderly Hispanic adults.
METHOD: Data were collected from 190 participants enrolled in the Panama Aging Research Initiative study who completed baseline clinical and cognitive assessments. A non-fasting blood sample was obtained. Self-reported falls were classified as no falls, single falls or recurrent (two or more) falls reported in the 12 months prior to baseline evaluations. Serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP), T-lymphocyte secreting protein (I-309), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 7 (IL-7) were measured. Global cognition was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the link between inflammation and fall events.
RESULTS: Depressive symptoms, limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), IL-7 and I-309 were significantly related to fall events. Elevated levels of IL-7 increased the likelihood of single and recurrent falls, while increased levels of I-309 were associated only with recurrent falls. Greater IADL limitations and depressive symptoms were associated with an increased likelihood of recurrent falls.
CONCLUSION: There is a lack of research investigating the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and fall events. These results provide evidence of risk factors for falls in Hispanic older adults, and could serve to guide public health professionals to establish clinical guidelines to reduce fall risks.

PMID: 30767759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastases to the Pancreas and the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Fri, 02/15/2019 - 06:31
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Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastases to the Pancreas and the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus. 2018 Dec 01;10(12):e3667

Authors: Khiella M, Maximus MA, Fayek SA

Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for having unpredictable clinical behavior. Metastases can occur in unusual locations with a long-time lag after the treatment of the primary cancer. Despite being a sign of poor prognosis, aggressive metastasectomy may prolong survival. Presented is a case of delayed sequential metastases of RCC to the pancreas and the thyroid gland that occurred eight years after the radical nephrectomy. Both were resected. A history of remote nephrectomy for RCC is important and may be suggestive of metastatic disease. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration can be diagnostic and helps in decision-making. Aggressive surgical intervention when possible is recommended.

PMID: 30761220 [PubMed]

A free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet induces hyperphagia, obesity, and cardiovascular dysfunction in female cycling and pregnant rats.

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 06:25

A free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet induces hyperphagia, obesity, and cardiovascular dysfunction in female cycling and pregnant rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2019 Feb 13;:

Authors: Ahmed H, Hannan JL, Apolzan JW, Osikoya O, Cushen SC, Romero SA, Goulopoulou S

Abstract
The main objective of these studies was to characterize metabolic, body composition, and cardiovascular responses to a free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet in female cycling and pregnant rats. In the non-pregnant state, female Sprague-Dawley rats offered a 3-week free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet had greater energy intake, adiposity, serum leptin and triglyceride concentrations compared to rats fed with standard chow, and developed glucose intolerance. In addition, choice diet-fed rats had larger cardiac ventricular weights, smaller kidney and pancreas weights, and higher blood pressure than chow-fed rats, but they did not exhibit resistance artery endothelial dysfunction. When the free-choice diet continued throughout pregnancy, rats remained hyperphagic, hyperleptinemic, and obese. Choice pregnant rats exhibited uterine artery endothelial dysfunction and had smaller fetuses compared to chow pregnant rats. Pregnancy normalized mean arterial blood pressure and pancreas weights in choice rats. These studies are the first to provide a comprehensive evaluation of free-choice high-fat high-sucrose diet on metabolic and cardiovascular functions in female rats, extending the previous studies in males to female cycling and pregnant rodents. Free-choice diet may provide a new model of preconceptual maternal obesity to study the role of increased energy intake, individual food components, and pre-existing maternal obesity on maternal and offspring physiological responses during pregnancy and after birth.

PMID: 30758976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Regulation of Constitutive Tip110 Expression in Human Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Through Selective Usage of the Proximal and Distal Polyadenylation Sites Within the 3'Untranslated Region.

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 06:25
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Regulation of Constitutive Tip110 Expression in Human Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Through Selective Usage of the Proximal and Distal Polyadenylation Sites Within the 3'Untranslated Region.

Stem Cells Dev. 2018 04 15;27(8):566-576

Authors: Liu Y, Huang X, Timani KA, Broxmeyer HE, He JJ

Abstract
Tip110 plays important roles for stem cell pluripotency and hematopoiesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of Tip110 expression in this process. In this study, we first showed that constitutive Tip110 expression was cell proliferation and differentiation dependent and self-regulated in both human cord blood CD34+ cells. Using a series of molecular techniques, we found that ectopic Tip110 expression led to increased constitutive Tip110 expression through its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR), specifically through preferential usage of proximal polyadenylation sites within its 3'UTR in cells, including human cord blood CD34+ cells, which indeed led to an increased number of CD34+ cells during differentiation of those cells. Lastly, we showed that Tip110 protein interacted with cleavage stimulation factor 64 (CstF64) protein and that more CstF64 was recruited to the promixal polyadenylation site than the distal polyadenylation site within its 3'UTR. These finding together demonstrates that constitutive Tip110 expression is regulated, at least in part, through its interaction with CstF64, recruitment of CstF64 to, and selective usage of those two polyadenylation sites within its 3'UTR.

PMID: 29583087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Radiographic Prepatellar Fat Thickness Ratio Correlates With Infection Risk After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Thu, 02/14/2019 - 06:25
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The Radiographic Prepatellar Fat Thickness Ratio Correlates With Infection Risk After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty. 2018 07;33(7):2251-2255

Authors: Wagner RA, Hogan SP, Burge JR, Bates CM, Sanchez HB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with complications after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Surgical site infection (SSI) after TKA is one of the feared complications as it increases revision rates, costs, and stress to the patient. There is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding body mass index (BMI) and risk of infection after TKA, and some studies have suggested that site-specific fat distribution may be a better metric for determining risk of postoperative infections. Here, we investigate the correlation of soft tissue distribution about the knee to SSI after TKA.
METHODS: We retrospectively review 572 patients who underwent primary TKA at a single institution from 2006 to 2010. We introduce the prepatellar fat thickness ratio (PFTR) as a radiographic means to quantitatively assess fat distribution about the knee and evaluate this measurement's ability to assess the risk of developing an SSI after TKA.
RESULTS: The PFTR was shown to be a better predictor of SSI than BMI in both the univariate (P = .05) and multivariate (P = .01) analyses.
CONCLUSION: Although BMI cannot fully account for variations in adipose distribution, the PFTR may account for this variability and may be a helpful tool for assessing a patient's preoperative risk of SSI after TKA.

PMID: 29555491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pharmacy educator evaluation of web-based learning.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 06:17
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Pharmacy educator evaluation of web-based learning.

Clin Teach. 2019 Feb 11;:

Authors: Isaacs AN, Walton AM, Gonzalvo JD, Howard ML, Nisly SA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Web-based learning (WBL), instruction facilitated through the Internet, has demonstrated utility in classroom and clinical education settings; however, there is a void of literature about the use of WBL by clinical educators within pharmacy. The purpose of this research is to evaluate a WBL initiative within clinical pharmacy education.
METHODS: Based on the results of a pilot survey, 10 asynchronous WBL clinical modules (videos and interactive patient cases) were developed for pharmacy educators and students in clinical education affiliated with two schools of pharmacy in the midwest USA. A 21-item, cross-sectional, electronic survey was administered to pharmacy educators within acute and primary care to assess the use of WBL within clinical pharmacy education.
RESULTS: Of the 115 eligible clinical educators, 69 participated in the survey (60% response rate), with the majority working within acute care; 38% of educators encouraged the use of WBL. Respondents not using WBL stated a lack of awareness (48%) or existing student time commitments (33%) as reasons. For educators encouraging WBL, 87% agreed that it enhanced student clinical knowledge, 68% stated that it decreased direct instruction time commitments and 100% stated they would encourage its use for future clinical education.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical pharmacy educators reported that the WBL initiative resulted in a perceived stronger student clinical foundation, and all pharmacy educators using WBL encouraged its continued use for future clinical education. Web-based learning provides clinical educators with a learning tool to augment clinical experiences by reinforcing student knowledge, at the same time minimising direct instruction time.

PMID: 30746845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A global call to action to improve the care of people with fragility fractures.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 06:17
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A global call to action to improve the care of people with fragility fractures.

Injury. 2018 Aug;49(8):1393-1397

Authors: Dreinhöfer KE, Mitchell PJ, Bégué T, Cooper C, Costa ML, Falaschi P, Hertz K, Marsh D, Maggi S, Nana A, Palm H, Speerin R, Magaziner J, on behalf of: the Fragility Fracture Network (FFN), European Geriatric Medicine Society (EuGMS), European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT), International Collaboration of Orthopaedic Nursing (ICON), International Geriatric Fracture Society (IGFS), International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)

Abstract
The ageing of society is driving an enormous increase in fragility fracture incidence and imposing a massive burden on patients, their families, health systems and societies globally. Disrupting the status quo has therefore become an obligation and a necessity. Initiated by the Fragility Fracture Network (FFN) at a "Presidents' Roundtable" during the 5th FFN Global Congress in 2016 several leading organisations agreed that a global multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration, resulting in a Global Call to Action (CtA), would be the right step forward to improve the care of people presenting with fragility fractures. So far global and regional organisations in geriatrics/internal medicine, orthopaedics, osteoporosis/metabolic bone disease, rehabilitation and rheumatology were contacted as well as national organisations in five highly populated countries (Brazil, China, India, Japan and the United States), resulting in 81societies endorsing the CtA. We call for implementation of a systematic approach to fragility fracture care with the goal of restoring function and preventing subsequent fractures without further delay. There is an urgent need to improve: To address this fragility fracture crisis, the undersigned organisations pledge to intensify their efforts to improve the current management of all fragility fractures, prevent subsequent fractures, and strive to restore functional abilities and quality of life.

PMID: 29983172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Tyrosine hydroxylase as a sentinel for central and peripheral tissue responses in Parkinson's progression: Evidence from clinical studies and neurotoxin models.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 06:17
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Tyrosine hydroxylase as a sentinel for central and peripheral tissue responses in Parkinson's progression: Evidence from clinical studies and neurotoxin models.

Prog Neurobiol. 2018 Jun - Aug;165-167:1-25

Authors: Johnson ME, Salvatore MF, Maiolo SA, Bobrovskaya L

Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. While the typical motor symptoms of PD are well known, the lesser known non-motor symptoms can also greatly impact the patient's quality of life. These symptoms often appear before motor impairment, therefore identifying biomarkers that may predict PD risk or pathology has been a major and challenging endeavour. Given that the loss of dopamine, and its rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) occurs in PD, the expression and accompanying post-translational changes in TH during PD progression could yield insight into the disruption of cellular signalling occurring in the CNS, and also in peripheral tissues wherein catecholamine function plays a role. Furthermore, changes in expression and phosphorylation of TH in the brain and periphery can potentially reveal how TH stability and function are compromised in PD. As such, these changes can reveal how catecholamine synthesis capacity is gradually compromised and how changes in cellular signalling may govern the functional status of remaining catecholaminergic neurons. This review summarises the findings of clinical PD and neurotoxin models of PD that assessed TH expression or phosphorylation in catecholaminergic pathways in the brain and relevant peripheral tissues. We propose that establishing similar changes in TH expression and function in the CNS and periphery of established neurotoxin models can be a potential reference for comparison to changes in TH in human peripheral tissues. These changes in TH expression and phosphorylation may have predictive validity to estimate risk of PD progression before motor impairment is evident.

PMID: 29331395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of elastic band exercise on the frailty states in pre-frail elderly people.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 06:11

Effects of elastic band exercise on the frailty states in pre-frail elderly people.

Physiother Theory Pract. 2019 Feb 11;:1-9

Authors: Chen R, Wu Q, Wang D, Li Z, Liu H, Liu G, Cui Y, Song L

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of elastic band exercise on the frailty states in pre-frail elderly people.
METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration number is ChiCTR-IOC-17012579. Seventy pre-frail elderly people were randomly divided into elastic band group (n = 35) and control group (n = 35). Elastic band exercise was applied to elastic band group, 45-60 min per time for 8 weeks by 3 days a week; no exercise was applied to the control group. The frailty states, grip strength (female/male), walking speed, and physical activity were measured by the Fried frailty phenotype at pre-intervention, 4, and 8 weeks after intervention to assess the effects of exercise.
RESULTS: The elastic band group showed significant improvements in the frailty states, grip strength (female) and walking speed both after 4-week and 8-week intervention (P< 0.001), and significant improvements in grip strength (male) and physical activity after 8-week intervention (P< 0.05). Within-group analysis (pre-intervention vs. after 4-week, after 4-week vs after 8-week, pre-intervention vs after 8-week) showed significant improvements (P< 0.001) in grip strength (female/male) and walking speed in the elastic band group over time, while no significant differences in the control group (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Elastic band exercise can improve frailty states in pre-frail elderly people, make them broke away from pre-frailty and restore them to non-frailty through improving the grip strength, walking speed and physical activity, and the effects after 8 weeks are better than those after 4 weeks.

PMID: 30741081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Treatment and Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection with Functionalized Bovine Antibody-Enriched Whey in a Hamster Primary Infection Model.

Sun, 02/10/2019 - 05:56
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Treatment and Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection with Functionalized Bovine Antibody-Enriched Whey in a Hamster Primary Infection Model.

Toxins (Basel). 2019 Feb 06;11(2):

Authors: Heidebrecht HJ, Weiss WJ, Pulse M, Lange A, Gisch K, Kliem H, Mann S, Pfaffl MW, Kulozik U, von Eichel-Streiber C

Abstract
Toxin-induced Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major disease characterized by severe diarrhea and high morbidity rates. The aim with this study was to develop an alternative drug for the treatment of CDI. Cows were repeatedly immunized to establish specific immunoglobulin G and A titers against toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) and against C. difficile cells in mature milk or colostrum. The effect of three different concentrations of anti-C. difficile whey protein isolates (anti-CD-WPI) and the standard of care antibiotic vancomycin were investigated in an animal model of CD infected hamsters (6 groups, with 10 hamsters each). WPI obtained from the milk of exactly the same cows pre-immunization and a vehicle group served as negative controls. The survival of hamsters receiving anti-CD-WPI was 50, 80 and 100% compared to 10 and 0% for the control groups, respectively. Vancomycin suppressed the growth of C. difficile and thus protected the hamsters at the time of administration, but 90% of these hamsters nevertheless died shortly after discontinuation of treatment. In contrast, the surviving hamsters of the anti-CD-WPI groups survived the entire study period, although they were treated for only 75 h. The specific antibodies not only inactivated the toxins for initial suppression of CDI, but also provoked the inhibition of C. difficile growth after discontinuation, thus preventing recurrence. Oral administration of anti-CD-WPI is a functional therapy of CDI in infected hamsters for both primary treatment and prevention of recurrence. Thus, anti-CD-WPI could address the urgent unmet medical need for treating and preventing recurrent CDI in humans.

PMID: 30736358 [PubMed - in process]

Dental opinion leaders' perspectives on barriers and facilitators to HPV-related prevention.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 05:51

Dental opinion leaders' perspectives on barriers and facilitators to HPV-related prevention.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 Feb 08;:

Authors: Griner SB, Thompson EL, Vamos CA, Chaturvedi AK, Vazquez-Otero C, Merrell LK, Kline NS, Daley EM

Abstract
Evidence suggests a causal connection between the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers are increasing and are the most common HPV-associated cancer. Previous research suggests that dental professionals recognize a role in the prevention of HPV and oropharyngeal cancers. As an initial step to investigating effective mechanisms of incorporating HPV prevention into dental practices, including the HPV vaccine, this qualitative study explored dental opinion leaders' perspectives on barriers and facilitators to HPV-related prevention in the dental profession. Dental opinion leaders were identified through: (1) national professional organizations and advocacy groups, (2) by indication of an expert panel, and (3) focus groups conducted with oral health providers. Thirteen participants representing 11 organizations were interviewed via telephone. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically coded using a priori and emergent codes. Opinion leaders described multi-level factors influencing dental providers' HPV-related prevention practice behaviors. Barriers included HPV as a sensitive topic and the need for HPV-related education and skills. Facilitators included perceptions of HPV prevention as part of the dental providers' role and the potential development of passive educational methods to provide HPV-related information to patients. Opinion leaders reported dental providers have a role in the prevention of HPV and oropharyngeal cancer; yet, to fully incorporate this topic into their practice, dental providers need further education and skill-based training. Opinion leaders have significant role in shaping this topic as a priority and identifying potential interventions to assist dental providers' HPV-related prevention. Future research should maximize the role of opinion leaders as key change agents.

PMID: 30735476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosomes Derived From Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Early Inflammatory Responses Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 05:51
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Exosomes Derived From Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Early Inflammatory Responses Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Neurosci. 2019;13:14

Authors: Ni H, Yang S, Siaw-Debrah F, Hu J, Wu K, He Z, Yang J, Pan S, Lin X, Ye H, Xu Z, Wang F, Jin K, Zhuge Q, Huang L

Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Although treatment guidelines have been developed, no best treatment option or medicine for this condition exists. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes have shown lots of promise for the treatment of brain disorders, with some results highlighting the neuroprotective effects through neurogenesis and angiogenesis after TBI. However, studies focusing on the role of exosomes in the early stages of neuroinflammation post-TBI are not sufficient. In this study, we investigated the role of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-exosomes in attenuating neuroinflammation at an early stage post-TBI and explored the potential regulatory neuroprotective mechanism. We administered 30 μg protein of BMSCs-exosomes or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via the retro-orbital route into C57BL/6 male mice 15 min after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI. The results showed that the administration of BMSCs-exosomes reduced the lesion size and improved the neurobehavioral performance assessed by modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and rotarod test. In addition, BMSCs-exosomes inhibited the expression of proapoptosis protein Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and proinflammation cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β, while enhancing the expression of the anti-apoptosis protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2). Furthermore, BMSCs-exosomes modulated microglia/macrophage polarization by downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS) and upregulating the expression of clusters of differentiation 206 (CD206) and arginase-1 (Arg1). In summary, our result shows that BMSCs-exosomes serve a neuroprotective function by inhibiting early neuroinflammation in TBI mice through modulating the polarization of microglia/macrophages. Further research into this may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the future treatment of TBI.

PMID: 30733666 [PubMed]

Copycats in Pilot Aircraft-Assisted Suicides after the Germanwings Incident.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 05:51
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Copycats in Pilot Aircraft-Assisted Suicides after the Germanwings Incident.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 03 11;15(3):

Authors: Laukkala T, Vuorio A, Bor R, Budowle B, Navathe P, Pukkala E, Sajantila A

Abstract
Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU) Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015. The relative risk (RR) of the aircraft-assisted pilot suicides was calculated. Two years after the incident, three out of 454 (0.66%) fatal incidents were aircraft-assisted suicides compared with six out of 1292 (0.46%) in the prior five years in the NTSB database. There were no aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the German database during the two years after or five years prior to the Germanwings crash. The relative aircraft-assisted pilot suicide risk for the U.S. was 1.4 (95% CI 0.3-4.2) which was not statistically significant. Six of the pilots who died by suicide had told someone of their suicidal intentions. We consider changes in the rate to be within a normal variation. Responsible media coverage of aircraft incidents is important due to the large amount of publicity that these events attract.

PMID: 29534475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism - A Cohort Study.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 05:51
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Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism - A Cohort Study.

Sci Rep. 2017 07 28;7(1):6754

Authors: Chang CH, Yeh YC, Caffrey JL, Shih SR, Chuang LM, Tu YK

Abstract
Prior cross-sectional analyses have demonstrated an association between subclinical hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and selected components. However, the temporal relation between metabolic syndrome and declining thyroid function remains unclear. In a prospective study, an unselected cohort of 66,822 participants with and without metabolic syndrome were followed. A proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for hypothyroidism. Exploratory analyses for the relation between components of metabolic syndrome and declining thyroid function were also undertaken. During an average follow-up of 4.2 years, the incident rates for subclinical hypothyroidism were substantially higher in participants who began the study with metabolic syndrome compared with metabolically normal controls. After controlling for risk factors, patients with metabolic syndrome were at a 21% excess risk of developing subclinical hypothyroidism (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.03-1.42). When individual components were analyzed, an increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with high blood pressure (1.24; 1.04-1.48) and high serum triglycerides (1.18; 1.00-1.39), with a trend of increasing risk as participants had additional more components. Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at a greater risk for developing subclinical hypothyroidism, while its mechanisms and temporal consequences of this observation remain to be determined.

PMID: 28754977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of Sitting Ba-Duan-Jin Exercises on Balance and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Preliminary Study.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 17:46
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Effect of Sitting Ba-Duan-Jin Exercises on Balance and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Preliminary Study.

Rehabil Nurs. 2019 Feb 06;:

Authors: Bao X, Qiu QX, Shao YJ, Quiben M, Liu H

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether ba-duan-jin (BDJ) can improve balance and enhance the quality of life among older adults.
DESIGN: This pilot study was designed as a single group pre-post comparison test.
METHODS: Sixteen older adults were qualified and recruited for this study at local retirement communities. Assessments for pre- and postintervention among the subjects included Single-Leg Stance, Chair Rising Test, Tinetti Balance Test, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire for quality of life.
FINDINGS: After 12 weeks of BDJ training, significant improvements were identified in Single-Leg Stance, Tinetti Balance Test, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (all ps < .01); however not for the Chair Rising Test(p > .05).
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that BDJ can improve balance, lower extremity strength, quality of life, and decrease fear of falling among older adults.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: BDJ is an effective rehabilitation training method and can improve balance and motor function among older people. Rehabilitation nursing plays a key role in functional rehabilitation of older people.

PMID: 30730382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identifying Behaviors Predicting Early Morning Emotions by Observing Permanent Supportive Housing Residents: An Ecological Momentary Assessment.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 17:46
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Identifying Behaviors Predicting Early Morning Emotions by Observing Permanent Supportive Housing Residents: An Ecological Momentary Assessment.

JMIR Ment Health. 2019 Feb 07;6(2):e10186

Authors: Nandy RR, Nandy K, Hébert ET, Businelle MS, Walters ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Behavior and emotions are closely intertwined. The relationship between behavior and emotions might be particularly important in populations of underserved people, such as people with physical or mental health issues. We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relationship between emotional state and other characteristics among people with a history of chronic homelessness who were participating in a health coaching program.
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify relationships between daily emotional states (valence and arousal) shortly after waking and behavioral variables such as physical activity, diet, social interaction, medication compliance, and tobacco usage the prior day, controlling for demographic characteristics.
METHODS: Participants in m.chat, a technology-assisted health coaching program, were recruited from housing agencies in Fort Worth, Texas, United States. All participants had a history of chronic homelessness and reported at least one mental health condition. We asked a subset of participants to complete daily EMAs of emotions and other behaviors. From the circumplex model of affect, the EMA included 9 questions related to the current emotional state of the participant (happy, frustrated, sad, worried, restless, excited, calm, bored, and sluggish). The responses were used to calculate two composite scores for valence and arousal.
RESULTS: Nonwhites reported higher scores for both valence and arousal, but not at a statistically significant level after correcting for multiple testing. Among momentary predictors, greater time spent in one-on-one interactions, greater time spent in physical activities, a greater number of servings of fruits and vegetables, greater time spent interacting in a one-on-one setting as well as adherence to prescribed medication the previous day were generally associated with higher scores for both valence and arousal, and statistical significance was achieved in most cases. Number of cigarettes smoked the previous day was generally associated with lower scores on both valence and arousal, although statistical significance was achieved for valence only when correcting for multiple testing.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an important glimpse into factors that predict morning emotions among people with mental health issues and a history of chronic homelessness. Behaviors considered to be positive (eg, physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables) generally enhanced positive affect and restrained negative affect the following morning. The opposite was true for behaviors such as smoking, which are considered to be negative.

PMID: 30730296 [PubMed]

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