Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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Updated: 2 hours 31 min ago

Associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy aging among women.

Wed, 09/25/2019 - 09:42
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Associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy aging among women.

Maturitas. 2019 Nov;129:6-11

Authors: Shadyab AH, Manson JE, Li W, Gass M, Brunner RL, Naughton MJ, Cannell B, Howard BV, LaCroix AZ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of parental ages at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 years among older women.
STUDY DESIGN: This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sub-cohort of 8,983 postmenopausal women from the larger Women's Health Initiative population, recruited during 1993-1998 and followed for up to 25 years through 2018.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was categorized as: 1) healthy survival, defined as survival to age 90 without major morbidities (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, or hip fracture) or mobility disability; 2) usual survival, defined as survival to age 90 without healthy aging (reference category); or 3) death before age 90. Women reported their own and their parents' birth years, and parental ages at childbirth were calculated and categorized as <25, 25-29, 30-34, or ≥35 years.
RESULTS: Women were aged on average 71.3 (standard deviation 2.7; range 65-79) years at baseline. There was no significant association of maternal age at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 or death before age 90. Women born to fathers aged ≥35 compared with 30-34 years at their births were more likely to achieve healthy than usual survival (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32). There was no association of paternal age at childbirth with death before age 90.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that being born to older fathers was associated with healthy survival to age 90 among women who had survived to ages 65-79 years at study baseline. There was no association of maternal age at childbirth with healthy survival to age 90 among these older women.

PMID: 31547915 [PubMed - in process]

High-alcohol-content flavored alcoholic beverages (supersized alcopops) should be reclassified to reduce public health hazard.

Tue, 09/24/2019 - 06:30
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High-alcohol-content flavored alcoholic beverages (supersized alcopops) should be reclassified to reduce public health hazard.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(4):413-417

Authors: Rossheim ME, Thombs DL, Treffers RD

Abstract
In the US, underage drinkers often consume supersized alcopop - a high-alcohol-content, ready-to-drink flavored alcoholic beverage that is currently regulated as beer. However, calculations in this paper illustrate how the high alcohol by volume and low price of supersized alcopops suggest that they rely on a larger proportion of additives for their alcohol content than permitted to meet the legal definition for beer. From a public safety perspective, it is urgently important that the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau assess the formulation of supersized alcopops - specifically, the percent of alcohol in the finished product that is derived from additives. Appropriate reclassification of supersized alcopops as distilled spirits would reduce youth access by resulting in increased price and reduced availability at the retail locations where youth most often obtain alcohol.

PMID: 29672179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gender differences in substance use treatment and substance use among adults on probation.

Tue, 09/24/2019 - 06:30
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Gender differences in substance use treatment and substance use among adults on probation.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(4):480-487

Authors: Reingle Gonzalez JM, Walters ST, Lerch J, Taxman FS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although many formal and informal substance use treatment programs were originally designed for men, no studies have investigated how gender affects the use of substance use treatment modalities, and how gender differences in treatment utilization impact substance use in the unique probation context.
OBJECTIVE: To describe gender differences in use and effectiveness of substance use treatment modalities (formal and informal) among probationers.
METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from 335 individuals (93 women) who participated in the Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) study. Timeline follow-back measures were used to quantify daily substance use and treatment modality (formal treatment included inpatient and outpatient treatment; informal treatment included self-help, religious, and all other group meetings). Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to examine relationships between gender, treatment, and substance use.
RESULTS: Gender was not associated with alcohol use. Use of formal treatment programs reduced the odds of alcohol use by 15%. The probability of alcohol use was the lowest (8%) for men who participated in formal treatment. For men using informal treatment programs, the probability of alcohol use was 11%. The probability of alcohol use for women was similar regardless of the type of treatment utilization (15-16%). No differences in illicit drug use by gender or type of treatment were detected.
CONCLUSION: This research found limited evidence of a relationship between gender, substance use treatment modality, and alcohol use. These findings have clinical significance in that both formal and informal treatment approaches are similarly effective across both men and women.

PMID: 29451815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environmental suitability for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the spatial distribution of major arboviral infections in Mexico.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Environmental suitability for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the spatial distribution of major arboviral infections in Mexico.

Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2019 Aug;6:e00116

Authors: Lubinda J, Treviño C JA, Walsh MR, Moore AJ, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Akgun S, Zhao B, Barro AS, Begum MM, Jamal H, Angulo-Molina A, Haque U

Abstract
Background: This paper discusses a comparative geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Mexico, using environmental suitability modeling and reported cases of arboviral infections.
Methods: Using presence-only records, we modeled mosquito niches to show how much they influenced the distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus based on mosquito records collected at the municipality level. Mosquito surveillance data were used to create models regarding the predicted suitability of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitos in Mexico.
Results: Ae. albopictus had relatively a better predictive performance (area under the curve, AUC = 0.87) to selected bioclimatic variables compared to Ae. aegypti (AUC = 0.81). Ae. aegypti were more suitable for areas with minimum temperature of coldest month (Bio6, permutation importance 28.7%) -6 °C to 21.5 °C, cumulative winter growing degree days (GDD) between 40 and 500, and precipitation of wettest month (Bio13) >8.4 mm. Minimum temperature range of the coldest month (Bio6) was -6.6 °C to 20.5 °C, and average precipitation of the wettest month (Bio13) 8.9 mm ~ 600 mm were more suitable for the existence of Ae. albopictus. However, arboviral infections maps prepared from the 2012-2016 surveillance data showed cases were reported far beyond predicted municipalities.
Conclusions: This study identified the urgent necessity to start surveillance in 925 additional municipalities that reported arbovirus infections but did not report Aedes mosquito.

PMID: 31528740 [PubMed]

Unilateral Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to Absence of Right Pulmonary Artery.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Unilateral Pulmonary Fibrosis Due to Absence of Right Pulmonary Artery.

Cureus. 2019 Jul 17;11(7):e5161

Authors: Sumdani H, Shahbuddin Z, Farhataziz N, Barkley JM

Abstract
Pulmonary fibrosis is typically a bilateral, progressive interstitial lung disease that is often idiopathic but can be associated with risk factors such as advanced age, environmental exposure, and drug toxicity. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood but involves transforming growth factor. The treatment choices for idiopathic disease include medical therapy that manipulates epigenetic pathways and lung transplantation. Here we present a 30-year-old female with no identifiable risk factors who developed unilateral pulmonary fibrosis. Clinical investigation eventually revealed a congenitally absent right pulmonary artery which was presumed to cause her unilateral disease. In contrast to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis due to unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery include ipsilateral pulmonary vasculature embolization and/or pneumonectomy if disease is unmanageable without therapy.

PMID: 31528513 [PubMed]

Glia-immune interactions post-ischemic stroke and potential therapies.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Glia-immune interactions post-ischemic stroke and potential therapies.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2018 12;243(17-18):1302-1312

Authors: Hersh J, Yang SH

Abstract
IMPACT STATEMENT: This article reviews glial cell interactions with the immune system post-ischemic stroke. Research has shown that glial cells in the brain play a role in altering phenotypes of other glial cells and have downstream immune cell targets ultimately regulating a neuroinflammatory response. These interactions may play a deleterious as well as beneficial role in stroke recovery. Furthermore, they may provide a novel way to approach potential therapies, since current stroke drug therapy is limited to only one Food and Drug Administration-approved drug complicated by a narrow therapeutic window. Until this point, most research has emphasized neuroimmune interactions, but little focus has been on bidirectional communication of glial-immune interactions in the ischemic brain. By expanding our understanding of these interactions through a compilation of glial cell effects, we may be able to pinpoint major modulating factors in brain homeostasis to maintain or discover ways to suppress irreversible ischemic damage and improve brain repair.

PMID: 30537868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Precision Medicine Model for Targeted NSAID Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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A Precision Medicine Model for Targeted NSAID Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;66(1):97-104

Authors: O'Bryant SE, Zhang F, Johnson LA, Hall J, Edwards M, Grammas P, Oh E, Lyketsos CG, Rissman RA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date, the therapeutic paradigm for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on a single intervention for all patients. However, a large literature in oncology supports the therapeutic benefits of a precision medicine approach to therapy. Here we test a precision-medicine approach to AD therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a baseline, blood-based proteomic companion diagnostic predicts response to NSAID therapy.
METHODS: Proteomic assays of plasma from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, with 1-year exposure to rofecoxib (25 mg once daily), naproxen (220 mg twice-daily) or placebo.
RESULTS: 474 participants with mild-to-moderate AD were screened with 351 enrolled into the trial. Using support vector machine (SVM) analyses, 89% of the subjects randomized to either NSAID treatment arms were correctly classified using a general NSAID companion diagnostic. Drug-specific companion diagnostics yielded 98% theragnostic accuracy in the rofecoxib arm and 97% accuracy in the naproxen arm.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory-based companion diagnostics have significant potential to identify select patients with AD who have a high likelihood of responding to NSAID therapy. This work provides empirical support for a precision medicine model approach to treating AD.

PMID: 30198872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Atrophied Thymus, a Tumor Reservoir for Harboring Melanoma Cells.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Atrophied Thymus, a Tumor Reservoir for Harboring Melanoma Cells.

Mol Cancer Res. 2018 11;16(11):1652-1664

Authors: Sizova O, Kuriatnikov D, Liu Y, Su DM

Abstract
Tumor metastatic relapse is the primary cause for cancer-associated mortality. Metastatic relapse is believed to arise from quantities of tumor cells that are below detectable thresholds, which are able to resist radio/chemotherapy by obtaining a dormant state and hiding in certain organs, i.e., tumor reservoirs. The thymus, a central T-cell immune organ, has been suggested to be a premetastatic tumor reservoir for B-lymphoma cells. However, it remains unknown whether the thymus is able to harbor nonlymphoid solid tumor cells, and whether chemotherapy can thoroughly eliminate cancer cells in the thymus. If chemotherapy is not able to eliminate these cells in the thymus, then what processes allow for this? Melanoma cell-inoculated and genotoxic doxorubicin-treated mouse model systems were used to determine that the thymus, particularly the atrophied thymus, was able to harbor blood stream-circulating melanoma cells. In addition, a chemotherapy-induced DNA-damage response triggered p53 activation in nonmalignant thymic cells, which in turn resulted in thymocyte death and thymic epithelial cell senescence to develop an inflammatory thymic microenvironment. This inflammatory condition induced thymic-harbored minimal tumor cells to acquire a chemoresistant state.Implications: Here, the thymus serves as a premetastatic reservoir for nonlymphoid solid tumor cells during chemotherapy, which could be a novel target of minimal residual disease in antitumor therapy, thus preventing tumor metastatic relapse. Mol Cancer Res; 16(11); 1652-64. ©2018 AACR.

PMID: 30006356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Alterations to the Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolome of Pimephales promelas and Mus musculus Following Exposure to Dietary Methylmercury.

Thu, 09/19/2019 - 05:38
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Alterations to the Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolome of Pimephales promelas and Mus musculus Following Exposure to Dietary Methylmercury.

Environ Sci Technol. 2018 08 07;52(15):8774-8784

Authors: Bridges KN, Zhang Y, Curran TE, Magnuson JT, Venables BJ, Durrer KE, Allen MS, Roberts AP

Abstract
Mercury is a global contaminant, which may be microbially transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulates. This results in potentially toxic body burdens in high trophic level organisms in aquatic ecosystems and maternal transfer to offspring. We previously demonstrated effects on developing fish including hyperactivity, altered time-to-hatch, reduced survival, and dysregulation of the dopaminergic system. A link between gut microbiota and central nervous system function in teleosts has been established with implications for behavior. We sequenced gut microbiomes of fathead minnows exposed to dietary MeHg to determine microbiome effects. Dietary exposures were repeated with adult CD-1 mice. Metabolomics was used to screen for metabolome changes in mouse brain and larval fish, and results indicate effects on lipid metabolism and neurotransmission, supported by microbiome data. Findings suggest environmentally relevant exposure scenarios may cause xenobiotic-mediated dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, contributing to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, small-bodied teleosts may be a useful model species for studying certain types of neurodegenerative diseases, in lieu of higher vertebrates.

PMID: 29943971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A meta-analysis comparing 48-week treatment outcomes of single and multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of people living with HIV.

Tue, 09/17/2019 - 05:17
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A meta-analysis comparing 48-week treatment outcomes of single and multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of people living with HIV.

AIDS Res Ther. 2018 10 30;15(1):17

Authors: Clay PG, Yuet WC, Moecklinghoff CH, Duchesne I, Tronczyński KL, Shah S, Shao D

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes with single tablet regimens (STR) versus multi-tablet regimens (MTR) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment using published data.
DESIGN: Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of literature on approved and investigational HIV regimens.
METHODS: The research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Single or un-blinded studies reporting a direct comparison between STR and MTR were eligible for the meta-analysis. Double-blinded studies were excluded due to lack of difference in pill burden between cohorts. The key outcomes of interest included: adherence rates/proportion meeting target, efficacy, safety/tolerability, non-clinical and economic outcomes.
RESULTS: After screening 63 full-text articles and posters, 14 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The analysis showed that patients taking STR had improved outcomes over those taking MTR. Patients were significantly more adherent regardless of daily dosing frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 1.96, p < 0.001) and were more likely to achieve virological suppression (relative risk [RR]: 1.05, p = 0.002). There was a trend toward a lower discontinuation risk in the STR cohort, together with reported higher therapy satisfaction, better symptom control, improved health status, reduced healthcare resource utilization and demonstrated cost-effectiveness compared to MTR. There were no differences in CD4 cell count increase (at 48 weeks) or safety outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study confirm previously reported preliminary findings of the advantages of STR over MTR for HIV treatment in adherence, therapy continuation, viral suppression, tolerability, quality of life improvement, cost-effectiveness and healthcare resource utilization.

PMID: 30373620 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients including those with decompensated cirrhosis who failed prior treatment with simeprevir/sofosbuvir.

Tue, 09/17/2019 - 05:17
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Safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients including those with decompensated cirrhosis who failed prior treatment with simeprevir/sofosbuvir.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018 05;47(10):1409-1415

Authors: Modi AA, Nazario HE, Gonzales GR, Gonzalez SA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy of simeprevir (SIM)/sofosbuvir (SOF) is an approved treatment for hepatitis C genotype (gen) 1 with overall SVR12 rate of 85%-95%. The single tablet fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir (LDV)/SOF is also approved for gen 1 with sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12) rates ≥95%. No data are available on the efficacy of retreatment with LDV/SOF in patients who failed initial treatment with SIM/SOF.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of retreatment with LDV/SOF ± ribavirin (RBV) in gen 1 patients who had previously failed treatment with SIM/SOF.
METHODS: Data from a combined treatment cohort of 2 hepatology centres, which included patients previously treated with SIM/SOF ± RBV for 12 weeks but failed to achieve SVR and then underwent retreatment with LDV/SOF ± RBV, were analysed (n = 30). LDV/SOF ± RBV was administered for 12-24 weeks based on the discretion of the treating hepatologist.
RESULTS: Of the 30 patients, 23 (77%) were male, 77% were Caucasian and 26 (87%) were gen 1a. 26 (86%) had cirrhosis, of which 16 (62%) had decompensated, Child's class B or C cirrhosis. Three patients were liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C. Overall, 27/30 (90%) achieved SVR. Treatment was well tolerated with 37% reporting no adverse events. The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, insomnia and nausea. Two patients with Child's B cirrhosis required hospitalization during treatment for variceal haemorrhage and abdominal pain respectively. However, no treatment discontinuations or deaths occurred.
CONCLUSION: Single tablet fixed-dose combination LDV/SOF ± RBV is efficacious and well tolerated in patients who previously failed treatment with SIM/SOF, including those with decompensated cirrhosis and recurrent hepatitis C following liver transplantation.

PMID: 29569736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A single early-life seizure results in long-term behavioral changes in the adult Fmr1 knockout mouse.

Sun, 09/15/2019 - 07:56
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A single early-life seizure results in long-term behavioral changes in the adult Fmr1 knockout mouse.

Epilepsy Res. 2019 Aug 29;157:106193

Authors: Hodges SL, Reynolds CD, Nolan SO, Huebschman JL, Okoh JT, Binder MS, Lugo JN

Abstract
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and a significant genetic contributor to Autism spectrum disorder. In addition to autistic-like phenotypes, individuals with FXS are subject to developing numerous comorbidities, one of the most prevalent being seizures. In the present study, we investigated how a single early-life seizure superimposed on a genetic condition impacts the autistic-like behavioral phenotype of the mouse. We induced status epilepticus (SE) on postnatal day (PD) 10 in Fmr1 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We then tested the mice in a battery of behavioral tests during adulthood (PD90) to examine the long-term impact of an early-life seizure. Our findings replicated prior work that reported a single instance of SE results in behavioral deficits, including increases in repetitive behavior, enhanced hippocampal-dependent learning, and reduced sociability and prepulse inhibition (p <  0.05). We also observed genotypic differences characteristic of the FXS phenotype in Fmr1 KO mice, such as enhanced prepulse inhibition and repetitive behavior, hyperactivity, and reduced startle responses (p <  0.05). Superimposing a seizure on deletion of Fmr1 significantly impacted repetitive behavior in a nosepoke task. Specifically, a single early-life seizure increased consecutive nose poking behavior in the task in WT mice (p <  0.05), yet seizures did not exacerbate the elevated stereotypy observed in Fmr1 KO mice (p >  0.05). Overall, these findings help to elucidate how seizures in a critical period of development can impact long-term behavioral manifestations caused by underlying gene mutations in Fmr1. Utilizing double-hit models, such as superimposing seizures on the Fmr1 mutation, can help to enhance our understanding of comorbidities in disease models.

PMID: 31520894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor pathway inhibits extracellular matrix production by mesangial cells through store-operated Ca2+ channel.

Fri, 09/13/2019 - 07:39
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor pathway inhibits extracellular matrix production by mesangial cells through store-operated Ca2+ channel.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2019 Sep 11;:1535370219876531

Authors: Huang L, Ma R, Lin T, Chaudhari S, Shotorbani PY, Yang L, Wu P

PMID: 31510798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Incidence of Endemic Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the United States.

Fri, 09/13/2019 - 07:39
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Incidence of Endemic Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the United States.

JAMA Dermatol. 2018 09 01;154(9):1032-1039

Authors: McIlwee BE, Weis SE, Hosler GA

Abstract
Importance: Leishmaniasis is recognized as an endemic human disease in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. Yet despite case reports of endemic human leishmaniasis in the United States, and well-documented occurrences of disease in various animal vectors and reservoirs, the endemicity of leishmaniasis in North America has not yet been established. Moreover, leishmaniasis is not a federally reportable disease in the United States. Clinical awareness of endemic disease therefore remains low, with North American physicians considering leishmaniasis a tropical disease.
Objective: To assess the endemicity of human leishmaniasis in the United States.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional multicenter observational study reviewed cases of human leishmaniasis occurring in the United States from 2007 through 2017. Previously diagnosed, deidentified cases of leishmaniasis were reported by the institutions of the authors and acknowledged contributors, as well as the Texas Department of State Health Services. Cases of leishmaniasis were identified by searching by disease name (leishmaniasis) or International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions diagnosis codes in the respective laboratory information systems.
Exposures: Via examination of deidentified demographics, cases of leishmaniasis were classified as one of the following: (1) documentation of no history of travel outside of the United States within 10 years; (2) positive history of travel outside of the United States within 10 years; or (3) unknown or no documentation of travel history.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Cases of leishmaniasis were considered endemic if identified in patients with documentation of no travel history outside of the United States within 10 years.
Results: Of the 69 novel cases of human cutaneous leishmaniasis identified in this study, 41 (59%) were endemic; the median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 3-89 years), and 28 (68%) of the endemic cases occurred in female patients. Twenty-two (32%) cases had documentation of Leishmania speciation performed by polymerase chain reaction, and in 100% of these cases the infectious organism was identified as Leishmania mexicana.
Conclusions and Relevance: Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the United States, and, at least regionally, is acquired endemically more frequently than it is via travel. Our data argue in favor of making leishmaniasis a federally reportable disease and may have substantial implications on North American public health initiatives, with climate models predicting the number of citizens exposed to leishmaniasis will double by 2080.

PMID: 30046836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation for Adolescents Following Rhode Island's School-Entry Requirement, 2010-2016.

Thu, 09/12/2019 - 07:31
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Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation for Adolescents Following Rhode Island's School-Entry Requirement, 2010-2016.

Am J Public Health. 2018 10;108(10):1421-1423

Authors: Thompson EL, Livingston MD, Daley EM, Zimet GD

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation for adolescent girls and boys in Rhode Island compared with all other states.
METHODS: We estimated the gender-specific effects of Rhode Island's school-entry HPV vaccination policy on self-reported HPV vaccination initiation by using a difference-in-differences design with the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2010 through 2016.
RESULTS: Compared with boys in other states, boys in Rhode Island increased their HPV vaccine initiation rate by 11% (b = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05, 0.18) after enactment of the requirement. No difference was seen in the probability of HPV vaccine initiation among girls in Rhode Island compared with girls in the multistate control (b = -0.01; 95% CI = -0.08, 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis identified an 11% increase in HPV vaccine initiation rate among boys in Rhode Island after the school-entry requirement was enacted, whereas no significant change was observed for girls. Public Health Implications. Given suboptimal vaccine uptake rates in the United States, continued pursuit of state-level public policy to improve HPV vaccination is needed. School-entry requirements for HPV vaccination may be a strategy for closing the gap in HPV vaccine uptake for boys and girls.

PMID: 30024803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trajectories of Relative Performance with 2 Measures of Global Cognitive Function.

Thu, 09/12/2019 - 07:31
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Trajectories of Relative Performance with 2 Measures of Global Cognitive Function.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 08;66(8):1575-1580

Authors: Espeland MA, Chen JC, Weitlauf J, Hayden KM, Rapp SR, Resnick SM, Garcia L, Cannell B, Baker LD, Sachs BC, Tindle HA, Wallace R, Casanova R, Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Group

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether trajectories of global cognitive function over time in studies that change assessment protocols may be modeled based on an individual's performance relative to others in the study cohort.
DESIGN: Extended follow-up of a cohort originally enrolled in a clinical trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy.
SETTING: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study switched from an in-person interview with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination to a telephone-based interview with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status to assess global cognitive function over long-term follow-up.
PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 75 to 92 (N=2,561).
MEASUREMENTS: Annual cognitive assessments from participants, ranked according to age-, race- and ethnicity-adjusted performance levels, were used to identify distinct trajectories. Participants assigned to the resulting trajectories were compared for selected risk factor profiles.
RESULTS: Our approach grouped participants into five trajectories according to relative cognitive performance over time. These groups differed significantly according to 3 known risk factors for cognitive decline-education level, apolipoprotein E-ϵ4 genotype, and type 2 diabetes mellitus-and a biomarker based on brain structure that has been linked to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Participants with consistently low relative levels of cognitive function over time and those whose relative performance over time declined to these levels tended to have poorer risk factor profiles.
CONCLUSION: Longitudinal measures of an individual's relative performance on different assessment protocols for global cognitive function can be used to identify trajectories of change over time that appear to have internal validity with respect to known risk factors.

PMID: 29972592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Challenges in the development of dopamine D2- and D3-selective radiotracers for PET imaging studies.

Thu, 09/12/2019 - 07:31
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Challenges in the development of dopamine D2- and D3-selective radiotracers for PET imaging studies.

J Labelled Comp Radiopharm. 2018 03;61(3):291-298

Authors: Mach RH, Luedtke RR

Abstract
The dopamine D2-like receptors (ie, D2/3 receptors) have been the most extensively studied CNS receptor with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The 3 different radiotracers that have been used in these studies are [11 C]raclopride, [18 F]fallypride, and [11 C]PHNO. Because these radiotracers have a high affinity for both dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, the density of dopamine receptors in the CNS is reported as the D2/3 binding potential, which reflects a measure of the density of both receptor subtypes. Although the development of D2- and D3-selective PET radiotracers has been an active area of research for many years, this by and large presents an unmet need in the area of translational PET imaging studies. This article discusses some of the challenges that have inhibited progress in this area of research and the current status of the development of subtype selective radiotracers for imaging D3 and D2 dopamine receptors with PET.

PMID: 28857231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Chronification via Monoaminooxidase and Cortisol Metabolism.

Wed, 09/11/2019 - 07:26

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Chronification via Monoaminooxidase and Cortisol Metabolism.

Horm Metab Res. 2019 Sep;51(9):618-622

Authors: Tseilikman V, Dremencov E, Maslennikova E, Ishmatova A, Manukhina E, Downey HF, Klebanov I, Tseilikman O, Komelkova M, Lapshin MS, Vasilyeva MV, Bornstein SR, Perry SW, Wong ML, Licinio J, Yehuda R, Ullmann E

PMID: 31505706 [PubMed - in process]

Models of poststroke depression and assessments of core depressive symptoms in rodents: How to choose?

Wed, 09/11/2019 - 07:26

Models of poststroke depression and assessments of core depressive symptoms in rodents: How to choose?

Exp Neurol. 2019 Sep 07;:113060

Authors: Tao X, Yang W, Zhu S, Que R, Liu C, Fan T, Wang J, Mo D, Zhang Z, Tan J, Jin K, Yenarih MA, Song T, Wang Q

Abstract
Our previous studies have indicated that depression and declined cognition have been involved in some neurodegenerative diseases including Stroke, Parkinson's diseases and Vascular Parkinsonism. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric disorder following a stroke and has high morbidity and mortality. Studies on PSD are increasingly common, but the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Current research mainly includes clinical and animal aspects. Questionnaires and peripheral blood examination are two of the most common methods used to study clinical PSD. The results of questionnaires are influenced by multiple factors such as disease history, education background, occupation, economic status, family relationships and social support. There are certain limitations to blood sample testing; for example, it is influenced by cerebrovascular diseases and some other disruptions of the internal environment. It is difficult for either method to fully clarify the pathophysiological mechanism of PSD. Animal models provide alternative methods to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of PSD, such as the involvement of neuronal circuits and cytokines. More than ten animal models of PSD have been developed, and new models are constantly being introduced. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate model for any given study. In this paper, we will discuss the characteristics of the different models of PSD and comment on the advantages and disadvantages of each model, drawing from research on model innovation. Finally, we briefly describe the current assessment methods for the core symptoms of PSD models, point out the shortcomings, and present the improved sucrose preference test as a rational evaluation of anhedonia.

PMID: 31505162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pharmacist-Led Chronic Care Management Services.

Wed, 09/11/2019 - 07:26
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Pharmacist-Led Chronic Care Management Services.

Ann Fam Med. 2019 Sep;17(5):465

Authors: Yuet WC, Gardea J, Ebert D, Martin RD

PMID: 31501211 [PubMed - in process]

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