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Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

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Angiotensin II induces membrane trafficking of natively expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels in hypothalamic 4B cells.

Fri, 02/13/2015 - 4:30am
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Angiotensin II induces membrane trafficking of natively expressed transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels in hypothalamic 4B cells.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Oct 15;307(8):R945-55

Authors: Saxena A, Bachelor M, Park YH, Carreno FR, Nedungadi TP, Cunningham JT

Abstract
Transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 4 (TRPV4) channels are expressed in central neuroendocrine neurons and have been shown to be polymodal in other systems. We previously reported that in the rodent, a model of dilutional hyponatremia associated with hepatic cirrhosis, TRPV4 expression is increased in lipid rafts from the hypothalamus and that this effect may be angiotensin dependent. In this study, we utilized the immortalized neuroendocrine rat hypothalamic 4B cell line to more directly test the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) on TRPV4 expression and function. Our results demonstrate the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) transcripts, for sex-determining region Y (SRY) (male genotype), arginine vasopressin (AVP), TRPV4, and ANG II type 1a and 1b receptor in 4B cells. After a 1-h incubation in ANG II (100 nM), 4B cells showed increased TRPV4 abundance in the plasma membrane fraction, and this effect was prevented by the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (1 μM) and by a Src kinase inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Ratiometric calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that ANG II incubation potentiated TRPV4 agonist (GSK 1016790A, 20 nM)-induced calcium influx (control 18.4 ± 2.8% n = 5 and ANG II 80.5 ± 2.4% n = 5). This ANG II-induced increase in calcium influx was also blocked by 1 μM losartan and 10 μM PP2 (losartan 26.4 ± 3.8% n = 5 and PP2 19.7 ± 3.9% n = 5). Our data suggests that ANG II can increase TRPV4 channel membrane expression in 4B cells through its action on AT1R involving a Src kinase pathway.

PMID: 25080500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma.

Fri, 02/13/2015 - 4:30am
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Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Dec 12;455(3-4):218-22

Authors: Liu Z, Zhang X, Yu Q, He JJ

Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects its target cells in the form of cell-free viruses and through cell-cell contact. Here we report that HCV is associated with exosomes. Using highly purified exosomes and transmission electron microscopic imaging, we demonstrated that HCV occurred in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. Exosome-associated HCV was infectious and resistant to neutralization by an anti-HCV neutralizing antibody. There were more exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV detected in the plasma of HCV-infected patients. These results suggest exosome-associated HCV as an alternative form for HCV infection and transmission.

PMID: 25449270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population.

Wed, 02/11/2015 - 4:31am
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The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population.

Aging Dis. 2015 Feb;6(1):1-5

Authors: Jin K, Simpkins JW, Ji X, Leis M, Stambler I

Abstract
Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels.

PMID: 25657847 [PubMed]

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