Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 2 hours 31 min ago

A blood-based biomarker panel indicates IL-10 and IL-12/23p40 are jointly associated as predictors of β-amyloid load in an AD cohort.

Thu, 07/25/2019 - 05:15
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A blood-based biomarker panel indicates IL-10 and IL-12/23p40 are jointly associated as predictors of β-amyloid load in an AD cohort.

Sci Rep. 2017 10 25;7(1):14057

Authors: Pedrini S, Gupta VB, Hone E, Doecke J, O'Bryant S, James I, Bush AI, Rowe CC, Villemagne VL, Ames D, Masters CL, Martins RN, AIBL Research Group

Abstract
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterised by extracellular amyloid deposition as plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. As no current clinical test can diagnose individuals at risk of developing AD, the aim of this project is to evaluate a blood-based biomarker panel to identify individuals who carry this risk. We analysed the levels of 22 biomarkers in clinically classified healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's participants from the well characterised Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging. High levels of IL-10 and IL-12/23p40 were significantly associated with amyloid deposition in HC, suggesting that these two biomarkers might be used to detect at risk individuals. Additionally, other biomarkers (Eotaxin-3, Leptin, PYY) exhibited altered levels in AD participants possessing the APOE ε4 allele. This suggests that the physiology of some potential biomarkers may be altered in AD due to the APOE ε4 allele, a major risk factor for AD. Taken together, these data highlight several potential biomarkers that can be used in a blood-based panel to allow earlier identification of individuals at risk of developing AD and/or early stage AD for which current therapies may be more beneficial.

PMID: 29070909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Management of Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction After Transplantation of Pediatric En Bloc Kidneys, a Case Report and Review of Available Literature.

Wed, 07/24/2019 - 11:08
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Management of Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction After Transplantation of Pediatric En Bloc Kidneys, a Case Report and Review of Available Literature.

Transplant Direct. 2019 Jul;5(7):e466

Authors: Allam SR, Iyamu I, Pan G, Martinez E, Sankarapandian B, Fayek S, Rofaiel G

PMID: 31334340 [PubMed]

Brain Delivery of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone via a Novel Prodrug Approach.

Sun, 07/21/2019 - 10:33
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Brain Delivery of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone via a Novel Prodrug Approach.

Pharmaceutics. 2019 Jul 18;11(7):

Authors: Prokai-Tatrai K, De La Cruz DL, Nguyen V, Ross BP, Toth I, Prokai L

Abstract
Using thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as a model, we explored whether synergistic combination of lipoamino acid(s) and a linker cleaved by prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) can be used as a promoiety for prodrug design for the preferential brain delivery of the peptide. A representative prodrug based on this design principle was synthesized, and its membrane affinity and in vitro metabolic stability, with or without the presence of a POP inhibitor, were studied. The in vivo formation of TRH from the prodrug construct was probed by utilizing the antidepressant effect of the peptide, as well as its ability to increase acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. We found that the prototype prodrug showed excellent membrane affinity and greatly increased metabolic stability in mouse blood and brain homogenate compared to the parent peptide, yet a POP inhibitor completely prevented prodrug metabolism in brain homogenate. In vivo, administration of the prodrug triggered antidepressant-like effect, and microdialysis sampling showed greatly increased ACh release that was also antagonized upon a POP inhibitor treatment. Altogether, the obtained promising exploratory data warrant further investigations on the utility of the prodrug approach introduced here for brain-enhanced delivery of small peptides with neurotherapeutic potential.

PMID: 31323784 [PubMed]

Enhanced interrogation of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains: Increased genetic data recovery using the expanded CODIS loci, multiple sex determination markers, and consensus testing.

Sat, 07/20/2019 - 07:19
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Enhanced interrogation of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains: Increased genetic data recovery using the expanded CODIS loci, multiple sex determination markers, and consensus testing.

Anthropol Anz. 2019 Jul 19;:

Authors: Ambers A, Zeng X, Votrubova J, Vanek D

Abstract
Skeletal remains are among the most difficult types of samples encountered in forensic DNA casework and historical investigations due to prolonged exposure to environmental insults. DNA extracted from bone often is degraded, in low quantities, and contains co-purified inhibitors from the surrounding soil and/or burial vault material. When sexually dimorphic skeletal elements are not recovered, determining the sex of a decedent can be challenging. With unidentified human skeletal remains, genetic data often are evaluated in concert with anthropological analyses, as well as other types of metadata, to improve confidence in making associations or for positive identifications. This study evaluated a multi-faceted molecular genetic approach to increasing the amount of data that can be recovered from degraded skeletal remains. Results demonstrate that using a newer-generation multiplex (GlobalFiler™) with an expanded set of highly discriminatory DNA markers - combined with co-amplification of three different sex-determining loci, one additional PCR cycle, and testing multiple cuttings from the same bone or multiple regions within a skeleton - can improve reliability and accuracy in skeletal remains identifications by providing data concordance.

PMID: 31322643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Linkage, recombination, and mutation rate analyses of 19 X-chromosomal STR loci in Chinese Southern Han pedigrees.

Fri, 07/19/2019 - 07:10
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Linkage, recombination, and mutation rate analyses of 19 X-chromosomal STR loci in Chinese Southern Han pedigrees.

Int J Legal Med. 2019 Jul 17;:

Authors: Yang X, Chen Y, Zeng X, Chen L, Liu C, Liu H, Xu Q, Budowle B, Liu C

Abstract
From Southern Han Chinese samples, we analyzed 19 X-STR markers for linkage, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and mutation rate. The data were collected from two- and three-generation Southern Han Chinese families. These data suggested that both linkage and linkage disequilibrium should be considered while calculating likelihood ratios with X-STR markers in relationship tests. The linkage disequilibrium of these 19 X-STR markers was calculated in our previous research study that was conducted on Southern Han Chinese population. In this study, the recombination fractions between pairs of markers and those obtained from the second-generation Rutgers combined linkage-physical map of the human genome were compared. The observed differences indicated that recombination was not homogeneous along the X chromosome. Therefore, we evaluated the effect on likelihood calculations by referring to haplotype frequencies obtained from allele distributions rather than haplotype counts of Southern Han Chinese population.

PMID: 31317316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Age- and body weight-dependent association between sleep duration and hypertension in US adults: findings from the 2014-2017 National Health Interview Survey.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36

Age- and body weight-dependent association between sleep duration and hypertension in US adults: findings from the 2014-2017 National Health Interview Survey.

Sleep Health. 2019 Jul 10;:

Authors: Okunowo O, Orimoloye HT, Bakre SA, Njesada NS, Solomon A

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have confirmed the relationship between sleep duration and hypertension. However, there are unanswered questions on how this relationship is affected by age and body mass index (BMI). This study examined the association between sleep duration and hypertension in US adults and evaluated interaction by age and BMI.
DESIGN: Nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 2014 to 2017.
PARTICIPANTS: Adult participants aged 18 years or older (n = 130,139).
MEASUREMENTS: Sleep duration, hypertension, age, and BMI status were assessed based on self-reported survey responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sleep duration-hypertension associations were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders.
RESULTS: The proportion of participants who reported sleeping less than 7 hours (short sleepers) and more than 9 hours (long sleepers) per night was 32% and 4%, respectively. In adjusted analysis, short sleepers had higher odds of hypertension (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10-2.17). Although not statistically significant, long sleepers also had higher odds of hypertension (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.80-2.05). In stratified analyses by age and BMI, the association between short sleep and hypertension was especially notable in adults aged 18-44 years (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.16-1.35) and adults with normal weight (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.11-1.33).
CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep is associated with increased odds of hypertension among American adults and this relationship is dependent on age and BMI.

PMID: 31302069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Applying Organizational Health Literacy to Maternal and Child Health.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Applying Organizational Health Literacy to Maternal and Child Health.

Matern Child Health J. 2019 May;23(5):597-602

Authors: Vamos CA, Thompson EL, Griner SB, Liggett LG, Daley EM

Abstract
Purpose Describe the development of an innovative teaching activity that applies organizational health literacy to maternal and child health (MCH). Description Health literacy is a strong predictor of health behavior and outcomes. While the study of health literacy has traditionally been confined to skills and capacities of individuals, the significant role of the social and physical environmental contexts in facilitating or hindering one's ability to obtain, understand, and make informed decision about their health has been recognized. MCH organizations play a critical role in influencing health literacy across system levels. This teaching activity aims to equip students with knowledge and skills needed to foster organizational health literacy. Assessment The teaching activity is assembled within a toolkit which includes the following: (1) instructor lesson plan; (2) interactive PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes; (3) field assignment description; (4) health literacy attribute assessment worksheets; and (5) grading rubric. The teaching tool was pilot tested by a student research team member to assess the educational value and assignment logistics, resulting in minor edits (i.e., addition of interviewer probes, and option of a group project-format to permit triangulation of multiple organizational interviews). Conclusion The field of MCH is expanding in complexity, and the demands of health systems on women, children, and families must be mediated by conscious efforts within organizations. Through teaching the importance and function of organizational health literacy to students in MCH, educators can prepare an emerging workforce to improve health literacy, and ultimately the quality of healthcare for women, children, and families.

PMID: 30600522 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Progressive disclosure cases: The design and evaluation of use in multiple therapeutics courses.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Progressive disclosure cases: The design and evaluation of use in multiple therapeutics courses.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018 06;10(6):723-729

Authors: Howard ML, Gaviola ML

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case-based learning is used frequently throughout pharmacy education. Although beneficial, stand-alone cases may result in segmented learning that does not simulate realistic longitudinal patient care. We report the development, implementation, and evaluation of a longitudinal progressive disclosure case surrounding a single patient spanning two different therapeutics courses.
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A patient case was developed surrounding topics in two third professional year therapeutics courses occurring sequentially in the same semester. Changes to the patient's status were provided to students longitudinally via "disclosures." Students were assessed via quizzes and written assessment and plans. Students completed four perceptions of confidence surveys via a four-point Likert Scale. Surveys included questions surrounding confidence in areas of the pharmacists' patient care process (PPCP) before and after courses utilizing the progressive disclosure case. Case assessment grades were used to evaluate the impact on student performance on course examinations. Students also completed a survey on final perceptions of the activity.
FINDINGS: Seventy students were enrolled in the two courses participating in the progressive disclosure case and there were 50 (71.4%) matched, completed surveys completed for analysis. Significant improvements were seen in several questions surrounding confidence in the areas of the PPCP between the beginning and conclusion of courses that contained the progressive disclosure case. No correlation between case activity grades and examination performance was found.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Overall, student confidence in patient care skills associated with information collection, assessment, plan design, and monitoring improved with the use of progressive disclosure cases within two sequential therapeutics courses.

PMID: 30025772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Treatments and Preventative Measures for Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification: A Review.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Treatments and Preventative Measures for Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification: A Review.

Clin Transl Sci. 2018 07;11(4):365-370

Authors: Juarez JK, Wenke JC, Rivera JC

PMID: 29697199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Time course of compensatory physiological responses to central hypovolemia in high- and low-tolerant human subjects.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Time course of compensatory physiological responses to central hypovolemia in high- and low-tolerant human subjects.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018 08 01;315(2):R408-R416

Authors: Xiang L, Hinojosa-Laborde C, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Convertino VA

Abstract
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) simulates hemorrhage in human subjects. Most subjects (67%) exhibited high tolerance (HT) to hypovolemia, while the remainder (33%) had low tolerance (LT). To investigate the mechanisms for decompensation to central hypovolemia in HT and LT subjects, we characterized the time course of total peripheral resistance (TPR), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during LBNP to tolerance determined by the onset of decompensation (presyncope, PS). We hypothesized that 1) maximum (Max) TPR, HR, and MSNA would coincide, and 2) PS would result from simultaneous decreases in TPR, HR, and MSNA in LT and HT subjects but occur earlier in LT than in HT subjects. Max TPR was lower and occurred earlier in LT ( n = 59) than in HT ( n = 113) subjects (LT: 24 ± 1 mmHg·min·1-1 at 756 ± 31 s; HT: 28 ± 1 mmHg·min·1-1 at 1,265 ± 37 s, P < 0.01). Max TPR occurred several minutes before PS. During subsequent decrease in TPR, HR and MSNA continued to increase. Max HR (LT: 111 ± 2 beat/min at 923 ± 27 s; HT: 130 ± 2 beats/min at 1489 ± 23 s, P < 0.01) occurred several seconds before PS. Higher MSNA ( P < 0.01) was attained in HT ( n = 10; 51 ± 5 bursts/min at max TPR; 54 ± 5 bursts/min at max HR) than LT subjects ( n = 4; 41 ± 8 bursts/min at max TPR; 39 ± 8 bursts/min at max HR). The onset of cardiovascular decompensation is a biphasic process in which vasodilation occurs before bradycardia and sympathetic withdrawal. This pattern was similar in LT and HT but occurred earlier in LT subjects. We conclude that sudden bradycardia plays a critical role in the determination of tolerance to central hypovolemia.

PMID: 29668322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Magnesium intake and mortality due to liver diseases: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Cohort.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Magnesium intake and mortality due to liver diseases: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Cohort.

Sci Rep. 2017 12 20;7(1):17913

Authors: Wu L, Zhu X, Fan L, Kabagambe EK, Song Y, Tao M, Zhong X, Hou L, Shrubsole MJ, Liu J, Dai Q

Abstract
People with fatty liver disease are at high risk of magnesium deficiency. Meanwhile, low magnesium status is linked to both chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, no study has investigated the association between intake of magnesium and risk of mortality due to liver diseases. We evaluated the association between total magnesium intake and mortality due to liver diseases in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES III) cohort, which included 13,504 participants who completed liver ultrasound examination for hepatic steatosis. Overall magnesium intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to liver disease at borderline significance (P = 0.05). In fully-adjusted analyses, every 100 mg increase in intake of magnesium was associated with a 49% reduction in the risk for mortality due to liver diseases. Although interactions between magnesium intake and alcohol use and hepatic steatosis at baseline were not significant (P > 0.05), inverse associations between magnesium intake and liver disease mortality were stronger among alcohol drinkers and those with hepatic steatosis. Our findings suggest higher intakes of magnesium may be associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to liver disease particularly among alcohol drinkers and those with hepatic steatosis. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings.

PMID: 29263344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress in the trabecular meshwork.

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:36
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Increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress in the trabecular meshwork.

Sci Rep. 2017 11 02;7(1):14951

Authors: Kasetti RB, Maddineni P, Millar JC, Clark AF, Zode GS

Abstract
Increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the trabecular meshwork (TM) is associated with TM dysfunction and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in glaucoma. However, it is not understood how ECM accumulation leads to TM dysfunction and IOP elevation. Using a mouse model of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced glaucoma, primary human TM cells and human post-mortem TM tissues, we show that increased ECM accumulation leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the TM. The potent GC, dexamethasone (Dex) increased the secretory protein load of ECM proteins in the ER of TM cells, inducing ER stress. Reduction of fibronectin, a major regulator of ECM structure, prevented ER stress in Dex-treated TM cells. Overexpression of fibronectin via treatment with cellular fibronectin also induced chronic ER stress in primary human TM cells. Primary human TM cells grown on ECM derived from Dex-treated TM cells induced ER stress markers. TM cells were more prone to ER stress from ECM accumulation compared to other ocular cell types. Moreover, increased co-localization of ECM proteins with ER stress markers was observed in human post-mortem glaucomatous TM tissues. These data indicate that ER stress is associated with increased ECM accumulation in mouse and human glaucomatous TM tissues.

PMID: 29097767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prevalence of HIV in Patients with Malignancy and of Malignancy in HIV Patients in a Tertiary Care Center from North India.

Fri, 07/12/2019 - 11:59
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Prevalence of HIV in Patients with Malignancy and of Malignancy in HIV Patients in a Tertiary Care Center from North India.

Curr HIV Res. 2018;16(4):315-320

Authors: Sinha S, Agarwal A, Gupta K, Mandal D, Jain M, Detels R, Nandy K, DeVos MA, Sharma SK, Manoharan N, Julka PK, Rath GK, Ambinder RF, Mitsuyasu RT

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV/AIDS are at an increased risk of developing cancer. The goals of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of HIV in the cancer population and vice versa at a major tertiary cancer and HIV center in North India.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 3-year period from July 2013 to June 2016, wherein successive HIV positive patients from an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center were screened for malignancy. Simultaneously, successive cancer patients at the cancer center were screened for HIV. Baseline demographic details, risk factors, and laboratory investigations were obtained for all the patients.
RESULTS: Among the 999 HIV-positive patients at the ART center, the prevalence of malignancy was 2% (n=20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.87). Among the 998 patients with a malignancy, the prevalence of HIV infection was 0.9% (n=9; 95% CI 0.31, 1.49). Weight loss, loss of appetite, and fever were the most common symptoms in patients with HIV and cancer. Among 29 patients with HIV and cancer, AIDS-defining cancer was found in 19 patients; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the most common malignancy reported (n=13).
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: There is a low prevalence of HIV in cancer patients as well as a low prevalence of cancer in HIV patients. AIDS-defining cancers remain much more common than non-AIDS-defining cancers. With the increased coverage of ART, it is expected that non-AIDSdefining cancers will increase, as is evident from data from more developed countries.

PMID: 30338741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Evolving Role of Pharmacists in Transgender Health Care.

Thu, 07/11/2019 - 14:46

The Evolving Role of Pharmacists in Transgender Health Care.

Transgend Health. 2019;4(1):118-130

Authors: Redfern JS, Jann MW

Abstract
Pharmacists are increasingly part of a multifaceted team providing health care to members of the often marginalized transgender (TG) community. Some pharmacists, however, may feel unprepared to care for and interact with TG individuals. By providing comprehensive, respectful, and gender-affirming support, improving physical pharmacy environments with policies and procedures, pharmacists can be trustworthy providers for TG patients. This review focuses primarily on the health issues of TG persons and the pharmacist's role in promoting health, identifying barriers to health care, and providing health care resources for TG persons. The evolution of psychiatric diagnostic criteria, access to health care, and inclusion of TG, lesbian, gay, and bisexual topics in the educational curriculum are presented. Cultural competency and diversity training that addresses gender identity and sexual orientation issues should be important interdisciplinary and interprofessional activities for all health care professional education programs. Pharmacists play a key role in the health care needs of TG persons that include appropriate laboratory monitoring, complex pharmacotherapeutic challenges, and providing unbiased gender-affirming interactions. The pharmacy's physical environment, staff training, and policies and procedures can offer unique services to TG persons.

PMID: 31289749 [PubMed]

Identifying and targeting angiogenesis-related microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

Thu, 07/11/2019 - 14:46

Identifying and targeting angiogenesis-related microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

Oncogene. 2019 Jul 09;:

Authors: Chen X, Mangala LS, Mooberry L, Bayraktar E, Dasari SK, Ma S, Ivan C, Court KA, Rodriguez-Aguayo C, Bayraktar R, Raut S, Sabnis N, Kong X, Yang X, Lopez-Berestein G, Lacko AG, Sood AK

Abstract
Current anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer is based mainly on inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. However, due to the transient and only modest benefit from such therapy, additional approaches are needed. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated to be involved in tumor angiogenesis and offers opportunities for a new therapeutic approach. However, effective miRNA-delivery systems are needed for such approaches to be successful. In this study, miRNA profiling of patient data sets, along with in vitro and in vivo experiments, revealed that miR-204-5p could promote angiogenesis in ovarian tumors through THBS1. By binding with scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1), reconstituted high-density lipoprotein-nanoparticles (rHDL-NPs) were effective in delivering miR-204-5p inhibitor (miR-204-5p-inh) to tumor sites to suppress tumor growth. These results offer a new understanding of miR-204-5p in regulating tumor angiogenesis.

PMID: 31289363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Structure and Dynamics of Cas9 HNH Domain Catalytic State.

Thu, 07/11/2019 - 14:46
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Structure and Dynamics of Cas9 HNH Domain Catalytic State.

Sci Rep. 2017 12 08;7(1):17271

Authors: Zuo Z, Liu J

Abstract
The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 immune system has been harnessed as a powerful and versatile genome-editing tool and holds immense promise for future therapeutic applications. Despite recent advances in understanding Cas9 structures and its functional mechanism, little is known about the catalytic state of the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain, and identifying how the divalent metal ions affect the HNH domain conformational transition remains elusive. A deeper understanding of Cas9 activation and its cleavage mechanism can enable further optimization of Cas9-based genome-editing specificity and efficiency. Using two distinct molecular dynamics simulation techniques, we have obtained a cross-validated catalytically active state of Cas9 HNH domain primed for cutting the target DNA strand. Moreover, herein we demonstrate the essential roles of the catalytic Mg2+ for the active state formation and stability. Importantly, we suggest that the derived catalytic conformation of the HNH domain can be exploited for rational engineering of Cas9 variants with enhanced specificity.

PMID: 29222528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of pharmacy-based telephone interventions on medication pick-up rates: a retrospective, quality improvement study at charity outpatient clinics.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 11:35

Evaluation of pharmacy-based telephone interventions on medication pick-up rates: a retrospective, quality improvement study at charity outpatient clinics.

Int J Pharm Pract. 2019 Jul 09;:

Authors: Tatachar A, Cole LC, Nguyen HL, Heinrich K

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a live telephonic outreach intervention made by clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy technicians on medication pick-up rates.
METHODS: A retrospective, quality improvement study conducted at six outpatient charity clinics in Dallas-Fort Worth area between 1 January 2017 and 31 July 2017. A live telephonic call was made by a pharmacy team member if the patient did not pick-up at least one prescription item. Patients may receive more than one call if they did not pick-up medication(s) more than once during the study period. A live telephonic call resulted in three categories: contacted, left a voice message and unable to contact. Medication pick-up rates were obtained from a pharmacy claims database.
KEY FINDINGS: The study population included 1726 individual patients who failed to pick-up at least one medication from Baylor Scott & White Health pharmacy. A total of 2551 live telephonic calls were made for the study population. A total of 1175 live telephonic calls (46.1%, n = 2551) resulted in a patient picking up medication(s). Results from the generalized estimating equation logistic regression models showed that patients who received a voice message (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.80; P < 0.021) or was contacted (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.60; P < 0.001) were more likely to pick-up their medications as compared to the 'unable to contact' group.
CONCLUSIONS: Telephonic interventions from the pharmacy team can serve as a successful means to increase medication pick-up rates among charity clinic patients.

PMID: 31287202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Systemically administered peptain-1 inhibits retinal ganglion cell death in animal models: implications for neuroprotection in glaucoma.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 11:35

Systemically administered peptain-1 inhibits retinal ganglion cell death in animal models: implications for neuroprotection in glaucoma.

Cell Death Discov. 2019;5:112

Authors: Stankowska DL, Nam MH, Nahomi RB, Chaphalkar RM, Nandi SK, Fudala R, Krishnamoorthy RR, Nagaraj RH

Abstract
Axonal degeneration and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the primary causes of vision loss in glaucoma. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a peptide (peptain-1) that exhibits robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities against RGC loss in two rodent models and in cultured RGCs. In cultures of rat primary RGCs and in rat retinal explants peptain-1 significantly decreased hypoxia-induced RGC loss when compared to a scrambled peptide. Intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected peptain-1 (conjugated to a Cy7 fluorophore) was detected in the retina indicative of its ability to cross the blood-retinal barrier. Peptain-1 treatment inhibited RGC loss in the retina of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A reduction in anterograde axonal transport was also ameliorated by peptain-1 treatment in the retina of I/R injured mice. Furthermore, i.p. injections of peptain-1 significantly reduced RGC death and axonal loss and partially restored retinal mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b2 (COX 6b2) levels in rats subjected to five weeks of elevated intraocular pressure. We conclude that i.p. injected peptain-1 gains access to the retina and protects both RGC somas and axons against the injury caused by I/R and ocular hypertension. Based on these findings, peptain-1 has the potential to be developed as an efficacious neuroprotective agent for the treatment of glaucoma.

PMID: 31285855 [PubMed]

ANXA2 expression in African American triple-negative breast cancer patients.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 11:35
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ANXA2 expression in African American triple-negative breast cancer patients.

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019 Feb;174(1):113-120

Authors: Gibbs LD, Chaudhary P, Mansheim K, Hare RJ, Mantsch RA, Vishwanatha JK

Abstract
PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine the role of Annexin A2 (AnxA2), which we have previously found to contribute to the aggressiveness of TNBC, with AA TNBC patients and clinical outcome.
METHODS: We analyzed TCGA breast cancer database (n = 1098) to observe AnxA2 expression within breast cancer subtypes and is correlation with overall survival. Further, we examined breast tissue specimens (n = 119) through chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and specimen were scored independently by two pathologists in a blinded study.
RESULTS: In our TCGA analysis, high expression of AnxA2 was correlated with poor survival in patients with TNBC. AnxA2 gene expression was not correlated with poor survival in other breast cancer subtypes. AnxA2 average CISH intensity score (CISH score = 0, null expression to 3, high expression) for TNBC was significantly higher in comparison to estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor positive, and non-malignant tissues. Furthermore, AnxA2 average score was significantly higher in AA TNBC patients (CISH average score = 2.45 ± 0.3266) in comparison to Caucasian TNBC patients (CISH average score = 1.1 ± 0.4069).
CONCLUSION: AnxA2 is overexpressed in TNBC, implicating AnxA2 as a contributor to the aggressive biology of TNBC in AA women.

PMID: 30478786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) test acceptability in primary screening for cervical cancer: A mixed methods research synthesis.

Wed, 07/10/2019 - 11:35
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Factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) test acceptability in primary screening for cervical cancer: A mixed methods research synthesis.

Prev Med. 2018 11;116:40-50

Authors: Tatar O, Thompson E, Naz A, Perez S, Shapiro GK, Wade K, Zimet G, Gilca V, Janda M, Kahn J, Daley E, Rosberger Z

Abstract
Primary screening for cervical cancer is transitioning from the longstanding Pap smear towards implementation of an HPV-DNA test, which is more sensitive than Pap cytology in detecting high-risk lesions and offers greater protection against invasive cervical carcinomas. Based on these results, many countries are recommending and implementing HPV testing-based screening programs. Understanding what factors (e.g., knowledge, attitudes) will impact on HPV test acceptability by women is crucial for ensuring adequate public health practices to optimize cervical screening uptake. We used mixed methods research synthesis to provide a categorization of the relevant factors related to HPV primary screening for cervical cancer and describe their influence on women's acceptability of HPV testing. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Web of Science for journal articles between January 1, 1980 and October 31, 2017 and retained 22 empirical articles. Our results show that while most factors associated with HPV test acceptability are included in the Health Belief Model and/or Theory of Planned Behavior (e.g., attitudes, knowledge), other important factors are not encompassed by these theoretical frameworks (e.g., health behaviors, negative emotional reactions related to HPV testing). The direction of influence of psychosocial factors on HPV test acceptability was synthesized based on 14 quantitative studies as: facilitators (e.g., high perceived HPV test benefits), barriers (e.g., negative attitudes towards increased screening intervals), contradictory evidence (e.g., sexual history) and no impact (e.g., high perceived severity of HPV infection). Further population-based studies are needed to confirm the impact of these factors on HPV-based screening acceptability.

PMID: 30172799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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