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Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

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Impairment of HNF4α Binding to stim1 Promoter Contributes to High Glucose-induced Upregulation of STIM1 Expression in Glomerular Mesangial Cells.

Tue, 03/24/2015 - 3:30am

Impairment of HNF4α Binding to stim1 Promoter Contributes to High Glucose-induced Upregulation of STIM1 Expression in Glomerular Mesangial Cells.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015 Mar 18;:ajprenal.00563.2014

Authors: Wang Y, Chaudhari S, Ren Y, Ma R

Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate if hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) contributed to high glucose-induced increase in STIM1 protein abundance in glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). Western blot and immunofluorescence studies showed HNF4α expression in MCs. Knockdown of HNF4α using siRNA approach significantly increased mRNA expression levels of both STIM1 and Orai1, and protein expression level of STIM1 in cultured human MCs. Consistently, over expression of HNF4α reduced expressed STIM1 protein expression in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, high glucose treatment did not significantly change abundance of HNF4α protein in MCs, but significantly attenuated HNF4α binding activity to stim1 promoter. Moreover, knockdown of HNF4α significantly augmented store-operated Ca2+ entry that is known to be gated by STIM1 and was recently found to be anti-fibrotic in MCs. In agreement with those results, knockdown of HNF4α significantly attenuated the fibrotic response of high glucose. These results suggest that HNF4α negatively regulates STIM1 transcription in MCs. High glucose increases STIM1 expression level by impairing HNF4α binding activity to stim1 promoter, which subsequently releases stim1 transcription from HNF4α repression. Since the STIM1-gated store-operated Ca(2+) entry pathway in MCs has anti-fibrotic effect, inhibition of HNF4α in MCs might be a potential therapeutic option for diabetic kidney disease.

PMID: 25786776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Transcription Factor Brn-3b Overexpression Enhances Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Under Condition of Hypoxia.

Tue, 03/24/2015 - 3:30am

Transcription Factor Brn-3b Overexpression Enhances Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Under Condition of Hypoxia.

Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Mar 19;

Authors: Phatak NR, Stankowska DL, Krishnamoorthy RR

Abstract
Transcription factor Brn-3b plays a key role in retinal ganglion cell differentiation, survival, and axon outgrowth during development. However, the precise role of Brn-3b in the normal adult retina as well as during neurodegeneration is unclear. In the current study, the effect of overexpression of Brn-3b was assessed in vitro, in PC12 cells under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia. Immunoblot analysis showed that overexpression of Brn-3b in PC12 cells as well as 661W cells produced significant increase in the growth cone marker, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), and acetylated-tubulin (ac-TUBA). In addition, an increased immunostaining for GAP-43 and ac-TUBA was observed in PC12 cells overexpressing Brn-3b, which was accompanied by a marked increase in neurite outgrowth, compared to PC12 cells overexpressing the empty vector. In separate experiments, one set of PC12 cells transfected either with a Brn-3b expression vector or an empty vector was subjected to conditions of hypoxia for 2 h, while another set of similarly transfected PC12 cells was maintained in normoxic conditions. It was found that the upregulation of GAP-43 and ac-TUBA in PC12 cells overexpressing Brn-3b under conditions of normoxia was sustained under conditions of hypoxia. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed not only an upregulation of GAP-43 and ac-TUBA, but also increased neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells transfected with Brn-3b as compared to PC12 cells transfected with empty vector in both normoxia and hypoxia. The findings have implications for a potential role of Brn-3b in neurodegenerative diseases in which hypoxia/ischemia contribute to pathophysiology of the disease.

PMID: 25786379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A novel Alzheimer disease locus located near the gene encoding tau protein.

Fri, 03/20/2015 - 3:29am

A novel Alzheimer disease locus located near the gene encoding tau protein.

Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 17;

Authors: Jun G, Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Vronskaya M, Lambert JC, Chung J, Naj AC, Kunkle BW, Wang LS, Bis JC, Bellenguez C, Harold D, Lunetta KL, Destefano AL, Grenier-Boley B, Sims R, Beecham GW, Smith AV, Chouraki V, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Ikram MA, Fievet N, Denning N, Martin ER, Schmidt H, Kamatani Y, Dunstan ML, Valladares O, Laza AR, Zelenika D, Ramirez A, Foroud TM, Choi SH, Boland A, Becker T, Kukull WA, van der Lee SJ, Pasquier F, Cruchaga C, Beekly D, Fitzpatrick AL, Hanon O, Gill M, Barber R, Gudnason V, Campion D, Love S, Bennett DA, Amin N, Berr C, Tsolaki M, Buxbaum JD, Lopez OL, Deramecourt V, Fox NC, Cantwell LB, Tárraga L, Dufouil C, Hardy J, Crane PK, Eiriksdottir G, Hannequin D, Clarke R, Evans D, Mosley TH, Letenneur L, Brayne C, Maier W, De Jager P, Emilsson V, Dartigues JF, Hampel H, Kamboh MI, de Bruijn RF, Tzourio C, Pastor P, Larson EB, Rotter JI, O'Donovan MC, Montine TJ, Nalls MA, Mead S, Reiman EM, Jonsson PV, Holmes C, St George-Hyslop PH, Boada M, Passmore P, Wendland JR, Schmidt R, Morgan K, Winslow AR, Powell JF, Carasquillo M, Younkin SG, Jakobsdóttir J, Kauwe JS, Wilhelmsen KC, Rujescu D, Nöthen MM, Hofman A, Jones L, IGAP Consortium, Haines JL, Psaty BM, Van Broeckhoven C, Holmans P, Launer LJ, Mayeux R, Lathrop M, Goate AM, Escott-Price V, Seshadri S, Pericak-Vance MA, Amouyel P, Williams J, van Duijn CM, Schellenberg GD, Farrer LA

Abstract
APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ɛ4- (7184 cases and 26 968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ɛ4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ɛ4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ɛ4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ɛ4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ɛ4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ɛ4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P⩽1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P⩽1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P⩽1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ɛ4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 March 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.23.

PMID: 25778476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Underlying Data for Sequencing the Mitochondrial Genome with the Massively Parallel Sequencing Platform Ion Torrent(™) PGM (™).

Fri, 03/20/2015 - 3:29am

Underlying Data for Sequencing the Mitochondrial Genome with the Massively Parallel Sequencing Platform Ion Torrent(™) PGM (™).

BMC Genomics. 2015 Dec;16(1):6938

Authors: Seo SB, Zeng X, King JL, Larue BL, Assidi M, Al-Qahtani MH, Sajantila A, Budowle B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have the capacity to sequence targeted regions or whole genomes of multiple nucleic acid samples with high coverage by sequencing millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. Compared with Sanger sequencing, MPS also can reduce labor and cost on a per nucleotide basis and indeed on a per sample basis. In this study, whole genomes of human mitochondria (mtGenome) were sequenced on the Personal Genome Machine (PGM(TM)) (Life Technologies, San Francisco, CA), the out data were assessed, and the results were compared with data previously generated on the MiSeq(TM) (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The objectives of this paper were to determine the feasibility, accuracy, and reliability of sequence data obtained from the PGM.
RESULTS: 24 samples were multiplexed (in groups of six) and sequenced on the at least 10 megabase throughput 314 chip. The depth of coverage pattern was similar among all 24 samples; however the coverage across the genome varied. For strand bias, the average ratio of coverage between the forward and reverse strands at each nucleotide position indicated that two-thirds of the positions of the genome had ratios that were greater than 0.5. A few sites had more extreme strand bias. Another observation was that 156 positions had a false deletion rate greater than 0.15 in one or more individuals. There were 31-98 (SNP) mtGenome variants observed per sample for the 24 samples analyzed. The total 1237 (SNP) variants were concordant between the results from the PGM and MiSeq. The quality scores for haplogroup assignment for all 24 samples ranged between 88.8%-100%.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, mtDNA sequence data generated from the PGM were analyzed and the output evaluated. Depth of coverage variation and strand bias were identified but generally were infrequent and did not impact reliability of variant calls. Multiplexing of samples was demonstrated which can improve throughput and reduce cost per sample analyzed. Overall, the results of this study, based on orthogonal concordance testing and phylogenetic scrutiny, supported that whole mtGenome sequence data with high accuracy can be obtained using the PGM platform.

PMID: 25776722 [PubMed - in process]

Treatment of acute pulmonary embolism: update on newer pharmacologic and interventional strategies.

Wed, 03/18/2015 - 3:29am
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Treatment of acute pulmonary embolism: update on newer pharmacologic and interventional strategies.

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:410341

Authors: Pelliccia F, Schiariti M, Terzano C, Keylani AM, D'Agostino DC, Speziale G, Greco C, Gaudio C

Abstract
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common complication in hospitalized patients, spanning multiple patient populations and crossing various therapeutic disciplines. Current treatment paradigm in patients with massive PE mandates prompt risk stratification with aggressive therapeutic strategies. With the advent of endovascular technologies, various catheter-based thrombectomy and thrombolytic devices are available to treat patients with massive or submassive PE. In this paper, a variety of newer treatment strategies for PE are analyzed, with special emphasis on various interventional treatment strategies. Clinical evidence for utilizing endovascular treatment modalities, based on our institutional experience as well as a literature review, is provided.

PMID: 25025049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rebound Coagulopathy in Patients With Snakebite Presenting With Marked Initial Coagulopathy.

Fri, 03/13/2015 - 3:29am

Rebound Coagulopathy in Patients With Snakebite Presenting With Marked Initial Coagulopathy.

Wilderness Environ Med. 2015 Mar 7;

Authors: Witham WR, McNeill C, Patel S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: An estimated 70% of patients with pit viper snakebites require antivenom to treat serious complications such as coagulopathy. Evidence-based guidance is limited for the appropriate administration of Crotalinae Polyvalent Immune Fab (FabAV) and the duration of laboratory follow-up. The objective of our study was to assess the incidence of marked and recurrent envenomation coagulopathy at our trauma center and identify practice patterns that may prevent serious complications.
METHODS: A retrospective case review was conducted over a 3-year period on patients treated for symptomatic snakebite injury. Case records were reviewed for the inclusion criteria of international normalized ratio (INR) greater than 2.0. The exclusion criterion was limited to patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.
RESULTS: In all, 61 patients were identified on retrospective chart review and 3 patients (4.9%) met inclusion criteria. Two of the 3 patients had marked rebound coagulopathy requiring readmission and additional treatment. In our small series, 2 patients presenting after crotaline envenomation with increased INR (>6.0), decreased fibrinogen (<60 mg/dL), and decreased platelet count (<100,000/mL) had recurrent coagulopathy and were asymptomatic, and recurrence was noted only with follow-up laboratory testing. All patients responded positively within a matter of hours to repeat FabAV administration, with resolution of rebound coagulopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend periodic monitoring of patients with increased INR, decreased fibrinogen, and decreased platelet count. Patients should be monitored for 10 to 14 days after envenomation to identify asymptomatic rebound coagulopathy. Prompt readministration of FabAV appears to correct the coagulopathy.

PMID: 25758759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A revised definition for cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Fri, 03/13/2015 - 3:29am
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A revised definition for cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leukemia. 2014 Dec;28(12):2336-43

Authors: Pui CH, Pei D, Campana D, Cheng C, Sandlund JT, Bowman WP, Hudson MM, Ribeiro RC, Raimondi SC, Jeha S, Howard SC, Bhojwani D, Inaba H, Rubnitz JE, Metzger ML, Gruber TA, Coustan-Smith E, Downing JR, Leung WH, Relling MV, Evans WE

Abstract
With improved contemporary therapy, we reassess long-term outcome in patients completing treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to determine when cure can be declared with a high degree of confidence. In six successive clinical trials between 1984 and 2007, 1291 (84.5%) patients completed all therapies in continuous complete remission. The post-therapy cumulative risk of relapse or development of a second neoplasm and the event-free survival rate and overall survival were analyzed according to the presenting features and the three treatment periods defined by relative outcome. Over the three treatment periods, there has been progressive increase in the rate of event-free survival (65.2% vs 74.8% vs 85.1% (P<0.001)) and overall survival (76.5% vs 81.1% vs 91.7% (P<0.001)) at 10 years. The most important predictor of outcome after completion of therapy was the type of treatment. In the most recent treatment period, which omitted the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation, the post-treatment cumulative risk of relapse was 6.4%, death in remission 1.5% and development of a second neoplasm 2.3% at 10 years, with all relapses except one occurring within 4 years of therapy. None of the 106 patients with the t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1, t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AFF1 had relapsed after 2 years from completion of therapy. These findings demonstrate that with contemporary effective therapy that excludes cranial irradiation, approximately 6% of children with ALL may relapse after completion of treatment, and those who remain in remission at 4 years post treatment may be considered cured (that is, less than 1% chance of relapse).

PMID: 24781017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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