Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 29 min 14 sec ago

Cataract Preventive Role of Isolated Phytoconstituents: Findings from a Decade of Research.

Wed, 10/31/2018 - 05:16
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Cataract Preventive Role of Isolated Phytoconstituents: Findings from a Decade of Research.

Nutrients. 2018 Oct 26;10(11):

Authors: Lim V, Schneider E, Wu H, Pang IH

Abstract
Cataract is an eye disease with clouding of the eye lens leading to disrupted vision, which often develops slowly and causes blurriness of the eyesight. Although the restoration of the vision in people with cataract is conducted through surgery, the costs and risks remain an issue. Botanical drugs have been evaluated for their potential efficacies in reducing cataract formation decades ago and major active phytoconstituents were isolated from the plant extracts. The aim of this review is to find effective phytoconstituents in cataract treatments in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A literature search was synthesized from the databases of Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus using different combinations of keywords. Selection of all manuscripts were based on inclusion and exclusion criteria together with analysis of publication year, plant species, isolated phytoconstituents, and evaluated cataract activities. Scientists have focused their attention not only for anti-cataract activity in vitro, but also in ex vivo and in vivo from the review of active phytoconstituents in medicinal plants. In our present review, we identified 58 active phytoconstituents with strong anti-cataract effects at in vitro and ex vivo with lack of in vivo studies. Considering the benefits of anti-cataract activities require critical evaluation, more in vivo and clinical trials need to be conducted to increase our understanding on the possible mechanisms of action and the therapeutic effects.

PMID: 30373159 [PubMed - in process]

An In Vitro Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Model for Studying Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Neuronal Cells.

Wed, 10/31/2018 - 05:16
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An In Vitro Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Model for Studying Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Neuronal Cells.

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1717:229-235

Authors: Ryou MG, Mallet RT

Abstract
Ischemia-reperfusion syndromes of the heart and brain are the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatments for myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest and their sequelae requires preclinical models that replicate specific features of ischemia-reperfusion. The complexities of intact animals, including the integrated function of organ systems, autonomic innervation and endocrine factors, often preclude detailed study of specific components of ischemia-reperfusion injury cascades. Ischemia represents the interruption of metabolic fuel and oxygen delivery to support cellular oxidative metabolism; reintroduction of oxygen upon reperfusion of ischemic tissue triggers oxidative stress which initiates the reperfusion injury cascade culminating in injury and death of cells and tissues. Thus, cultured cells subjected to hypoxia, fuel deprivation and reoxygenation replicate the cardinal features of ischemia-reperfusion, while accommodating interventions such as siRNA suppression of specific genes and pharmacological activation or inhibition of signaling cascades that are not feasible in more complex preparations, especially intact animals. This chapter describes an in vitro OGD-reoxygenation cell culture model, an excellent preparation to examine the cellular mechanisms mediating ischemia-reperfusion injury and/or cytoprotection.

PMID: 29468596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sex-related differences in oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Wed, 10/31/2018 - 05:16
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Sex-related differences in oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Steroids. 2018 05;133:21-27

Authors: Tenkorang MA, Snyder B, Cunningham RL

Abstract
Oxidative stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases spanning various fields of research. Reactive oxygen species can be beneficial or harmful, depending on their concentration. High levels of reactive oxygen species can lead to oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants. Increased oxidative stress can result in cell loss. Interestingly, sex differences have been observed in oxidative stress generation, which may underlie sex differences observed in neurodegenerative disorders. An enhanced knowledge of the role of sex hormones on oxidative stress signaling and cell loss can yield valuable information, leading to sex-based mechanistic approaches to neurodegeneration.

PMID: 29274405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sex differences in sleep apnea and comorbid neurodegenerative diseases.

Wed, 10/31/2018 - 05:16
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Sex differences in sleep apnea and comorbid neurodegenerative diseases.

Steroids. 2018 05;133:28-33

Authors: Snyder B, Cunningham RL

Abstract
Sleep apnea is a disorder, which increasingly affects people worldwide. Whether the associated hypoxic events during sleep are central or obstructive in origin, the end result is excessive daytime sleepiness and an increased risk for several comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Sleep apnea is diagnosed more frequently in men than women, suggesting a role of sex hormones in the pathology of the disease. Furthermore, there are sex differences in the development and progression of comorbid diseases associated with sleep apnea. Therefore, treatment of sleep apnea may be clinically relevant for prevention of subsequent sex-specific comorbid disorders. While the impact sleep apnea has on cardiovascular events has been the subject of many research studies, the role of sleep apnea in neurodegeneration is less established. Here we review known risk factors for sleep apnea and the implications of the observed sex differences in this disease. We also summarize the evidence and mechanisms for how sleep apnea may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

PMID: 29258810 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N-terminal truncations in sex steroid receptors and rapid steroid actions.

Wed, 10/31/2018 - 05:16
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N-terminal truncations in sex steroid receptors and rapid steroid actions.

Steroids. 2018 05;133:15-20

Authors: Schreihofer DA, Duong P, Cunningham RL

Abstract
Sex steroid receptors act as ligand activated nuclear transcription factors throughout the body, including the brain. However, post-translational modification of these receptors can direct them to extranuclear sites, including the plasma membrane, where they are able to initiate rapid signaling. Because of the conserved domain structure of these receptors, alternative exon splicing can result in proteins with altered nuclear and extranuclear actions. Although much attention has focused on internal and C-terminal splice variants, both estrogen and androgen receptors undergo N-terminal truncations, as well. These truncated proteins not only influence the transcriptional activity of the full-length receptors, but also associate with caveolin and initiate signaling at the plasma membrane. Such actions may have important physiological consequences in neuronal, endothelial, and cancer signaling and cell survival.

PMID: 29104096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The "Warm Zone" Cases: Environmental Monitoring Immediately Outside the Fire Incident Response Arena by Firefighters.

Tue, 10/30/2018 - 05:13
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The "Warm Zone" Cases: Environmental Monitoring Immediately Outside the Fire Incident Response Arena by Firefighters.

Saf Health Work. 2018 Sep;9(3):352-355

Authors: Caban-Martinez AJ, Kropa B, Niemczyk N, Moore KJ, Baum J, Solle NS, Sterling DA, Kobetz EN

Abstract
Hazardous work zones (i.e., hot, warm, and cold) are typically established by emergency response teams during hazardous materials (HAZMAT) calls but less consistently for fire responses to segment personnel and response activities in the immediate geographic area around the fire. Despite national guidelines, studies have documented the inconsistent use of respiratory protective equipment by firefighters at the fire scene. In this case-series report, we describe warm zone gas levels using multigas detectors across five independent fire incident responses all occurring in a large South Florida fire department. Multigas detector data collected at each fire response indicate the presence of sustained levels of volatile organic compounds in the "warm zone" of each fire event. These cases suggest that firefighters should not only implement strategies for multigas detector use within the warm zone but also include respiratory protection to provide adequate safety from toxic exposures in the warm zone.

PMID: 30370169 [PubMed]

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