Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
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Social support for physical activity: Comparison of family, friends, and coworkers.

Sat, 01/07/2017 - 10:37

Social support for physical activity: Comparison of family, friends, and coworkers.

Work. 2016;55(4):893-899

Authors: Sarkar S, Taylor WC, Lai D, Shegog R, Paxton RJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations among family, friend, and coworker social support for physical activity. It is important to know the sources of social support that facilitate and promote physical activity among fulltime working adults.
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the associations among family, friend, and coworker social support for physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among participants in a worksite study.
METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 144 participants from four worksites in a large, southwestern city in the United States. The intervention for the worksite study was Booster Breaks (a physical activity routine of 15 minutes) practiced daily to break-up prolonged sitting time. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were conducted using SPSS version 20.
RESULTS: Age was inversely associated (p = 0.001), and social support from friends (p = 0.04) and coworkers (p = 0.003) were positively associated with physical activity in the unadjusted model. After controlling for all the covariates (age, sex, marital status, BMI, education, and income) in the model, only coworker social support was positively (p = 0.027) associated with physical activity among participants in the workplace study.
CONCLUSIONS: Coworker social support is an important correlate of physical activity and should be incorporated in workplace health promotion programs.

PMID: 28059824 [PubMed - in process]

Corticotropin-releasing hormone improves survival in pneumococcal pneumonia by reducing pulmonary inflammation.

Sat, 01/07/2017 - 10:37
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Corticotropin-releasing hormone improves survival in pneumococcal pneumonia by reducing pulmonary inflammation.

Physiol Rep. 2017 Jan;5(1):

Authors: Burnley B, P Jones H

Abstract
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a microorganism commonly present among the commensal microflora along the upper respiratory tract. Transmission of disease stems from the resident asymptomatic pneumococcus along the nasal passages. Glucocorticoids are central mediators of immune suppression and are the primary adjuvant pharmacological treatment used to reduce inflammatory responses in patients with severe bacterial pneumonia. However, controversy exists in the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in reducing mortality rates during S. pneumoniae infection. In this study, we compared the effect of the currently utilized pharmacologic glucocorticoid dexamethasone with CRH. Our results demonstrated that intranasal administration of CRH increases survival associated with a decrease in inflammatory cellular immune responses compared to dexamethasone independent of neutrophils. Thus, providing evidence of its use in the management of immune and inflammatory responses brought on by severe pneumococcal infection that could reduce mortality risks.

PMID: 28057851 [PubMed - in process]

Survival Analysis After Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Critically Ill Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Thu, 01/05/2017 - 07:38
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Survival Analysis After Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Critically Ill Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Circulation. 2016 Jun 14;133(24):2423-33

Authors: Chang CH, Chen HC, Caffrey JL, Hsu J, Lin JW, Lai MS, Chen YS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides circulatory and respiratory support for patients with severe acute cardiopulmonary failure. The objective of this study was to examine the survival outcomes for patients who received ECMO.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult patients who received ECMO from September 1, 2002, to December 31, 2012, were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery, myocardial infarction/cardiogenic shock, injury, and infection/septic shock. A Cox regression model was used to determine hazard ratios and to compare 30-day and 1-year survival rates with the myocardial infarction/cardiogenic shock group used as the reference. The mean±SD age of the 4227-patient cohort was 57±17 years, and 72% were male. The overall mortalities were 59.8% and 76.5% at 1 month and 1 year. Survival statistics deteriorated sharply when ECMO was required for >3 days. Acute (30-day) survival was more favorable in the infection/septic shock (n=1076; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.67), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=1077; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.75), and injury (n=369, hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95) groups. The extended survival rapidly approached an asymptote near 20% for the infection/septic shock, myocardial infarction/cardiogenic shock (n=1705), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery groups. The pattern of survival for the injury group was somewhat better, exceeding 30% at year-end.
CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of initial pathology, patients requiring ECMO were critically ill with similar guarded prognoses. Those in the trauma group had somewhat better outcomes. Determining the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ECMO should be a critical future goal.

PMID: 27199466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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