Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 1 hour 55 min ago

Distinct Roles of mTOR Targets S6K1 and S6K2 in Breast Cancer.

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 05:15
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Distinct Roles of mTOR Targets S6K1 and S6K2 in Breast Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 11;21(4):

Authors: Sridharan S, Basu A

Abstract
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a master regulator of protein translation, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation. It forms two complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 is frequently deregulated in many cancers, including breast cancer, and is an important target for cancer therapy. The immunosuppressant drug rapamycin and its analogs that inhibit mTOR are currently being evaluated for their potential as anti-cancer agents, albeit with limited efficacy. mTORC1 mediates its function via its downstream targets 40S ribosomal S6 kinases (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). There are two homologs of S6K: S6K1 and S6K2. Most of the earlier studies focused on S6K1 rather than S6K2. Because of their high degree of structural homology, it was generally believed that they behave similarly. Recent studies suggest that while they may share some functions, they may also exhibit distinct or even opposite functions. Both homologs have been implicated in breast cancer, although how they contribute to breast cancer may differ. The purpose of this review article is to compare and contrast the expression, structure, regulation and function of these two S6K homologs in breast cancer.

PMID: 32054043 [PubMed - in process]

Effect of ocular hypertension on the pattern of retinal ganglion cell subtype loss in a mouse model of early-onset glaucoma.

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 05:15
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Effect of ocular hypertension on the pattern of retinal ganglion cell subtype loss in a mouse model of early-onset glaucoma.

Exp Eye Res. 2019 08;185:107703

Authors: Daniel S, Meyer KJ, Clark AF, Anderson MG, McDowell CM

Abstract
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease with elevated intraocular pressure as one of the major risk factors. Glaucoma leads to irreversible loss of vision and its progression involves optic nerve head cupping, axonal degeneration, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, and visual field defects. Despite its high global prevalence, glaucoma still remains a major neurodegenerative disease. Introduction of mouse models of experimental glaucoma has become integral to glaucoma research due to well-studied genetics as well as ease of manipulations. Many established inherent and inducible mouse models of glaucoma are used to study the molecular and physiological progression of the disease. One such model of spontaneous mutation is the nee model, which is caused by mutation of the Sh3pxd2b gene. In both humans and mice, mutations disrupting function of the SH3PXD2B adaptor protein cause a developmental syndrome including secondary congenital glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the early onset nee glaucoma phenotype on the C57BL/6J background and to evaluate the pattern of RGC loss and axonal degeneration in specific RGC subtypes. We found that the B6.Sh3pxd2bnee mutant animals exhibit glaucoma phenotypes of elevated intraocular pressure, RGC loss and axonal degeneration. Moreover, the non-image forming RGCs survived longer than the On-Off direction selective RGCs (DSGC), and the axonal death in these RGCs was independent of their respective RGC subtype. In conclusion, through this study we characterized an experimental model of early onset glaucoma on a C57BL/6J background exhibiting key glaucoma phenotypes. In addition, we describe that RGC death has subtype-specific sensitivities and follows a specific pattern of cell death under glaucomatous conditions.

PMID: 31211954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Social Determinants of Health and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Adults, National Health Interview Survey 2016.

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 05:15
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Social Determinants of Health and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Adults, National Health Interview Survey 2016.

J Community Health. 2019 02;44(1):149-158

Authors: Thompson EL, Rosen BL, Maness SB

Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of anogenital cancers. Vaccine uptake remains suboptimal, especially among young adults. Social determinants of health (SDOH) are societal level conditions that may indirectly influence health behaviors, including HPV vaccination. The purpose of this study was to assess HPV vaccination and SDOH among young adult women and men. The 2016 National Health Interview Survey was restricted to participants ages 18-26 (n = 3593). The Healthy People 2020 SDOH Framework was used to identify variables for economic stability, health and healthcare, education, social and community context, and neighborhood and built environment. Survey-weighted logistic regression models identified SDOH variables significantly associated with HPV vaccination. Reported HPV vaccination occurred for 45.7% of women and 14.5% of men in the sample. Among women, education determinants-highest level of education completed and English language-were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. Men (adjusted OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79) and women (adjusted OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49, 0.90) who did not use the Internet to look up health information were at lower odds to be vaccinated for HPV. These findings can inform future HPV vaccine uptake efforts by focusing specifically on these SDOH areas-education and health and healthcare. Identifying SDOH leverage points is critical to promoting HPV vaccination and ultimately reducing HPV-associated cancers.

PMID: 30120681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation in traditional Chinese medicine on ultrastructure and metabolism in injured human skeletal muscle cells.

Fri, 02/14/2020 - 07:57
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Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation in traditional Chinese medicine on ultrastructure and metabolism in injured human skeletal muscle cells.

Am J Transl Res. 2020;12(1):248-260

Authors: Guan H, Zhao L, Liu H, Xie D, Liu Y, Zhang G, Mason DC, Zhang S, Li Y, Zhang H

Abstract
Skeletal muscle injuries can cause significant change in the ultrastructure and the metabolism of the skeletal muscle cells. Observation of the ultrastructure and measurements of the metabolism biomarkers such as total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and creatine kinase (CK) can be used to evaluate the degree of damage in human skeletal muscle injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation (IPIRM) of Traditional Chinese Medicine on ultrastructure and metabolism in the injured HSKMCs. Methods: In vitro techniques were used to culture HSKMCs, which were injured with high doses of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Cells were divided into four groups-control normal group (CNG), control injured group (CIG), rolling manipulation group (RMG), and sine pressure group (SPG). RMG and SPG cells were cyclically exposed to 3.0 Kg (6.6 Pounds) of maximum force at a frequency of 2.0 Hz for 10 min in the Flexcell compression system for duration of 3 days continually. The cell ultrastructure, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and creatine kinase (CK) activity of the groups were assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the mechanical effects of rolling manipulation in TCM could not only improve the recovery of injured skeletal muscle cells by ameliorating organelles arrangement, reducing organelle swelling, and maintaining nuclear membrane integrity, but also ameliorate the functions of cellular metabolism by increasing T-SOD activity and decreasing MDA content and CK activity in injured skeletal muscle. Then the Hippo/Yap signal pathway was detected, and the proteins in each group were detected by Western Blot. The protein expression of upstream protein p-LATS1 and downstream protein p-Yap (Ser127) in each group was observed to explore the biomechanical mechanism of the method. The relative protein expression of p-LATS1 and p-Yap in (RMG) group was significantly higher than that in injured (CIG) group (P < 0.05). It was suggested that Hippo/Yap pathway was related to the stimulation of 3D human skeletal muscle cells, and the proliferation pathway of 3D human skeletal muscle cells could be opened by stimulation of three dimensional human skeletal muscle cells. It may be one of the biological mechanisms caused by the mechanical effects of manipulations in TCM.

PMID: 32051750 [PubMed]

Malaria epidemics in India: Role of climatic condition and control measures.

Fri, 02/14/2020 - 07:57
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Malaria epidemics in India: Role of climatic condition and control measures.

Sci Total Environ. 2020 Apr 10;712:136368

Authors: Baghbanzadeh M, Kumar D, Yavasoglu SI, Manning S, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Ghasemzadeh H, Sikder I, Kumar D, Murmu N, Haque U

Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem in India, which is the second most populous country in the world. This study aimed to investigate the impact of climatic parameters and malaria control efforts implemented by the Indian national malaria control program on malaria epidemics between January of 2009 and December of 2015. A chi-squared test was used to study the correlation of all implemented control methods with occurrence of epidemics within 30, 45, 60 and 90 days and in the same district, 50, 100 and 200 km distance radiuses. The effect of each control method on probability of epidemics was also measured, and the effects of district population, season, and incidence of malaria parasite types were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fever survey was found to be effective for decreasing the odds of epidemics within 45, 60 and 90 days in 100 km. Anti-larval activity was also effective within 30, 45 and 60 days in 200 km. Winter had negative effects on odds ratio while summer and fall were more likely to trigger epidemics. These results contribute to understanding the role of climate variability and control efforts performed in India.

PMID: 32050403 [PubMed - in process]

Survival analysis of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in neonatal and pediatric patients - A nationwide cohort study.

Fri, 02/14/2020 - 07:57
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Survival analysis of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in neonatal and pediatric patients - A nationwide cohort study.

J Formos Med Assoc. 2019 Sep;118(9):1339-1346

Authors: Hsu J, Chang CH, Chiang LT, Caffrey JL, Lin JW, Chen YS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides short-term cardiopulmonary support for patients with acute cardiac and respiratory failure. This study reported the survival rate for pediatric patients from Taiwan's national cohort.
METHODS: Patients under the age of 18 who received ECMO from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The underlying etiology for ECMO use was categorized into post-operative (n = 410), cardiac (245), pulmonary (146) groups, and others (120). A Cox regression model was used to determine hazard ratios and to compare 30-day and 1-year survival rates using post-operative group as a reference.
RESULTS: The average age of all 921 patients was 4.83 ± 5.84 years, and 59.1% were male. The overall mortality rate was 29.2% at 1 month, and 46.9% at 1 year. The cardiac origin group, consisting mostly of congenital heart disease without surgical intervention, myocarditis, and heart failure had a better outcome with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.69 (95% CI 0.49-0.96, p = 0.008) at 30 days and 0.50 (95% CI 0.38-0.66, p < 0.001) at 1 year, as compared to the post-operative group.
CONCLUSION: In contrast to the widespread use of ECMO in respiratory distress syndrome in western countries, pediatric ECMO in Taiwan was more often applied to patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Mortality rates varied according to age groups and various etiologies. The results of this large pediatric cohort provides a different prospective in critical care outcomes in medical environments where ECMO is more widely available.

PMID: 30612882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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