Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC

Recent research articles indexed in PubMed from authors affiliated with the UNT Health Science Center.

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="University of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "UNT Health Science Center"[All Fields] OR "Osteopathic Research Center"[All Fields] OR "University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "UNT System College of Pharmacy"[All Fields] OR "College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas System"[All Fields]
Updated: 1 hour 39 min ago

Long-Term Nonmalignant Disease Mortality in Subjects Exposed to Transmissible Agents Present in Animals Used for Food.

Sat, 07/01/2017 - 07:39
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Long-Term Nonmalignant Disease Mortality in Subjects Exposed to Transmissible Agents Present in Animals Used for Food.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 Nov;16(11):696-702

Authors: Ndetan H, Ekanem US, Faramawi MF, Chedjieu IP, Thapa S, Johnson BK, Johnson KD, Surani SS, Johnson ES

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study mortality from nonmalignant diseases in subjects with high exposure to transmissible agents present in animals used for food, and in their raw or inadequately cooked products.
METHODS: Mortality was compared in a cohort of meat handlers in slaughtering and processing plants with that of the U.S. general population.
RESULTS: Excess mortality was observed for conditions known to be associated with infections-these include, septicemia, chronic nephritis, diseases of the kidney and ureter, diseases of the pancreas, cirrhosis of the liver, acute and subacute endocarditis, acute rheumatic fever, functional diseases of the heart, aortic aneurysm, intracranial and intraspinous abscess, and meningitis. Excess mortality was also observed for ischemic heart disease and diabetes, conditions without an established infectious etiology, but which have been linked with infections.
CONCLUSIONS: If transmissible agents present in food animals and their raw products cause long-term diseases and mortality in humans, this study importantly points to the likely diseases, many of which are already known to be associated with infections. The excess mortality observed for ischemic heart disease and diabetes is consistent with existing evidence linking these conditions with infections, and gives rise to the novel hypothesis that microbial agents present in food animals and their products may be candidates for an infective role in the occurrence of these conditions, and therefore needs further investigation.

PMID: 27585393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Temporal Association Between Nonfatal Self-Directed Violence and Tree and Grass Pollen Counts.

Sat, 07/01/2017 - 07:39
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Temporal Association Between Nonfatal Self-Directed Violence and Tree and Grass Pollen Counts.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;77(9):1160-1167

Authors: Jeon-Slaughter H, Claassen CA, Khan DA, Mihalakos P, Lee KB, Brown ES

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Prior research suggests a possible association between pollen and suicide. No studies have examined the relationship between pollen and attempted suicide. This study examines the temporal association between airborne pollen counts and nonfatal suicidal and nonsuicidal self-directed violence (SDV) requiring an emergency department visit.
METHODS: Data on daily emergency department visits due to nonfatal SDV as identified by ICD-9 diagnosis criteria were extracted from emergency department medical records of Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas, between January 2000 and December 2003. Concurrent daily airborne tree, grass, and ragweed pollen data from the city of Dallas were extracted from the National Allergy Bureau online database. The data were analyzed using the time series method of generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant and positive temporal associations between tree pollen counts and the number of nonfatal SDV events among women (P = .04) and between grass pollen counts and number of nonfatal SDV events among both men (P = .03) and women (P < .0001). There was no significant temporal association found between ragweed pollen counts and number of nonfatal SDV events.
CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that an increase in nonfatal SDV is associated with changes in tree and grass pollen counts. This is the first study that has examined an association between seasonal variation in tree and grass pollen levels and nonfatal SDV event data. The study also used a narrowly defined geographic area and temporal window. The findings suggest that pollen count may be a factor influencing seasonal patterns in suicidal behavior.

PMID: 27314288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Glutamate Impairs Mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Capacity and Enhances Glycolysis in Cultured Rat Astrocytes.

Fri, 06/30/2017 - 13:43
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Glutamate Impairs Mitochondria Aerobic Respiration Capacity and Enhances Glycolysis in Cultured Rat Astrocytes.

Biomed Environ Sci. 2017 Jan;30(1):44-51

Authors: Yan X, Shi ZF, Xu LX, Li JX, Wu M, Wang XX, Jia M, Dong LP, Yang SH, Yuan F

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of glutamate on metabolism, shifts in glycolysis and lactate release in rat astrocytes.
METHODS: After 10 days, secondary cultured astrocytes were treated with 1 mmol/L glutamate for 1 h, and the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extra cellular acidification rate (ECAR) was analyzed using a Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Cell viability was then evaluated by MTT assay. Moreover, changes in extracellular lactate concentration induced by glutamate were tested with a lactate detection kit.
RESULTS: Compared with the control group, treatment with 1 mmol/L glutamate decreased the astrocytes' maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity but increased their glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve. Further analysis found that 1-h treatment with different concentrations of glutamate (0.1-1 mmol/L) increased lactate release from astrocytes, however the cell viability was not affected by the glutamate treatment.
CONCLUSION: The current study provided direct evidence that exogenous glutamate treatment impaired the mitochondrial respiration capacity of astrocytes and enhanced aerobic glycolysis, which could be involved in glutamate injury or protection mechanisms in response to neurological disorders.

PMID: 28245898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Title: CpG methylation and the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are required for restraining corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression.

Thu, 06/29/2017 - 07:39
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Title: CpG methylation and the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are required for restraining corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression.

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017 Jun 24;:

Authors: Bhave SA, Uht RM

Abstract
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a critical role in mounting a stress response and maintaining homeostasis. A dysregulated HPA axis and elevated levels of CRH are associated with a number of disorders. Although extensive research has been devoted to understanding molecular events associated with stimulated CRH gene, less is known about the mechanisms that restrain CRH expression. Using a cell culture system, we report here two molecular aspects of CRH gene regulation that are required for maintenance of basal level of CRH gene expression. These are a specific CpG methylation at a single CpG, and adequate levels of the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). The single site methylation allows the recruitment of MeCP2 to the CRH gene promoter region, and MeCP2 knockdown leads to increased expression of CRH gene. Taken together, the results indicate that site-specific methylation and MeCP2 are required for maintenance of basal levels of CRH gene expression.

PMID: 28655627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

NIH's mentoring makes progress.

Thu, 06/29/2017 - 07:39
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NIH's mentoring makes progress.

Science. 2016 Nov 18;354(6314):840-841

Authors: Vishwanatha J, Pfund C, Ofili E, Okuyemi K

PMID: 27856873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Resolving the etiology of atopic disorders by using genetic analysis of racial ancestry.

Thu, 06/29/2017 - 07:39
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Resolving the etiology of atopic disorders by using genetic analysis of racial ancestry.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Sep;138(3):676-99

Authors: Gupta J, Johansson E, Bernstein JA, Chakraborty R, Khurana Hershey GK, Rothenberg ME, Mersha TB

Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD), food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma are common atopic disorders of complex etiology. The frequently observed atopic march from early AD to asthma, allergic rhinitis, or both later in life and the extensive comorbidity of atopic disorders suggest common causal mechanisms in addition to distinct ones. Indeed, both disease-specific and shared genomic regions exist for atopic disorders. Their prevalence also varies among races; for example, AD and asthma have a higher prevalence in African Americans when compared with European Americans. Whether this disparity stems from true genetic or race-specific environmental risk factors or both is unknown. Thus far, the majority of the genetic studies on atopic diseases have used populations of European ancestry, limiting their generalizability. Large-cohort initiatives and new analytic methods, such as admixture mapping, are currently being used to address this knowledge gap. Here we discuss the unique and shared genetic risk factors for atopic disorders in the context of ancestry variations and the promise of high-throughput "-omics"-based systems biology approach in providing greater insight to deconstruct their genetic and nongenetic etiologies. Future research will also focus on deep phenotyping and genotyping of diverse racial ancestry, gene-environment, and gene-gene interactions.

PMID: 27297995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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