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Identification of long non-coding RNA-related and -coexpressed mRNA biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 05/12/2020 - 05:55
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Identification of long non-coding RNA-related and -coexpressed mRNA biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Med Genomics. 2019 01 31;12(Suppl 1):25

Authors: Zhang F, Ding L, Cui L, Barber R, Deng B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: While changes in mRNA expression during tumorigenesis have been used widely as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of a number of cancers, the approach has limitations. For example, traditional methods do not consider the regulatory and positional relationship between mRNA and lncRNA. The latter has been largely shown to possess tumor suppressive or oncogenic properties. The combined analysis of mRNA and lncRNA is likely to facilitate the identification of biomarkers with higher confidence.
RESULTS: Therefore, we have developed an lncRNA-related method to identify traditional mRNA biomarkers. First we identified mRNAs that are differentially expressed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) by comparing cancer and matched adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Then, we performed mRNA-lncRNA relationship and coexpression analysis and obtained 41 lncRNA-related and -coexpressed mRNA biomarkers. Next, we performed network analysis, gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis to unravel the functional roles and molecular mechanisms of these lncRNA-related and -coexpressed mRNA biomarkers. Finally, we validated the prediction and performance of the 41 lncRNA-related and -coexpressed mRNA biomarkers using Support Vector Machine model with five-fold cross-validation in an independent HCC dataset from RNA-seq.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that mRNAs expression profiles coexpressed with positionally related lncRNAs can provide important insights into early diagnosis and specific targeted gene therapy of HCC.

PMID: 30704465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association of magnesium intake and vitamin D status with cognitive function in older adults: an analysis of US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2014.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 05/11/2020 - 05:40

Association of magnesium intake and vitamin D status with cognitive function in older adults: an analysis of US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2014.

Eur J Nutr. 2020 May 09;:

Authors: Peeri NC, Egan KM, Chai W, Tao MH

Abstract
PURPOSE: Reduced cognitive function associated with aging has gained increasing attention as the US population ages. Magnesium plays a critical role in vitamin D biosynthesis and metabolism; and deficiencies in magnesium and vitamin D show associations with poor cognition. However, no study has examined their interaction. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of magnesium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, indicating vitamin D status, with cognition, and interaction between these nutrients in older adults.
METHODS: Based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014, the study included 2466 participants aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and had data available on serum 25(OH)D and magnesium intake. Cognitive impairment was defined as a DSST score lower than the lowest quartile. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Higher total magnesium intake was independently associated with higher DSST scores (highest quartile vs lowest: β = 4.34, 95% CI 1.14-7.54). The association of total magnesium intake with high DSST score was primarily observed among women, non-Hispanic whites, physically active participants and those with sufficient vitamin D status, although the interactions were not significant. The odds of cognitive impairment was reduced with increasing intake of total magnesium (p trend < 0.01) and higher level of serum 25(OH)D (p trend = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that high magnesium intake alone may improve cognitive function in older adults, and the association may be stronger among subjects with sufficient vitamin D status. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

PMID: 32388734 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Temperature- and Pressure-Regulating Insoles for Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 05/11/2020 - 05:40

Temperature- and Pressure-Regulating Insoles for Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020 May 06;:

Authors: Yavuz M, Ersen A, Monga A, Lavery LA, Garrett AG, Salem Y, Hirschman GB, Myers R

Abstract
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) pose a major threat to the United States healthcare system as well as patients and their families. High ulcer recurrence rates indicate that existing preventive measures are not effective. A new generation of multimodal preventive devices may reduce ulceration and amputation rates. Because previous research has revealed that tissue maintained at cooler temperatures is more resistant to breaking down, the evaluated technology may prevent foot ulceration. The purpose of this study was to test previously designed Temperature and Pressure Monitoring and Regulating Insoles (TAPMARI) in diabetic neuropathic and healthy subjects. A cooling unit, a mini-water pump, a battery pack, and a microcontroller (or simply thermostat) were placed inside a box attached to the subjects' calf, which provided cooling inside the shoe. The microcontroller was set at 28°C. Eight subjects provided informed consent, 3 of whom had diabetic neuropathy. Subjects used the instrumented shoe on the right foot and the matching control shoe on the left and walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at self-selected speeds. Baseline and postwalking thermographs were obtained with a thermal camera. At the 2-hour midpoint, subjects again walked on the treadmill for 5 minutes at self-selected speeds. Second baseline and postwalking thermographs were captured. Plantar pressure distributions were also quantified. The TAPMARI successfully regulated foot temperatures at or below the target temperature. The mean baseline temperature of the right (regulated) and left (control) feet were 28.1 ± 1.9°C (mean ± standard deviation) for all subjects. The mean temperatures at the end of the study were 25.9 ± 2.5°C (right) and 31.7 ± 1.6°C (left) in all subjects. In the diabetic neuropathy group, the final mean temperatures were 27.5 ± 2.4°C (right) and 31.6 ± 0.8°C (left), which indicated that the temperature goal was met inside the instrumented shoe. By regulating temperatures, TAPMARI may reduce the metabolic demands in the foot and prevent cell autolysis by eliminating the imbalance between oxygen demand and supply. This study warrants further development and testing of TAPMARI as well as investigating the clinical effectiveness in preventing DFUs.

PMID: 32386918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Differentiation of Hispanic biogeographic ancestry with 80 ancestry informative markers.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sun, 05/10/2020 - 05:29

Differentiation of Hispanic biogeographic ancestry with 80 ancestry informative markers.

Sci Rep. 2020 May 08;10(1):7745

Authors: Setser CH, Planz JV, Barber RC, Phillips NR, Chakraborty R, Cross DS

Abstract
Ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can identify biogeographic ancestry (BGA); however, population substructure and relatively recent admixture can make differentiation difficult in heterogeneous Hispanic populations. Utilizing unrelated individuals from the Genomic Origins and Admixture in Latinos dataset (GOAL, n = 160), we designed an 80 SNP panel (Setser80) that accurately depicts BGA through STRUCTURE and PCA. We compared our Setser80 to the Seldin and Kidd panels via resampling simulations, which models data based on allele frequencies. We incorporated Admixed American 1000 Genomes populations (1000 G, n = 347), into a combined populations dataset to determine robustness. Using multinomial logistic regression (MLR), we compared the 3 panels on the combined dataset and found overall MLR classification accuracies: 93.2% Setser80, 87.9% Seldin panel, 71.4% Kidd panel. Naïve Bayesian classification had similar results on the combined dataset: 91.5% Setser80, 84.7% Seldin panel, 71.1% Kidd panel. Although Peru and Mexico were absent from panel design, we achieved high classification accuracy on the combined populations for Peru (MLR = 100%, naïve Bayes = 98%), and Mexico (MLR = 90%, naïve Bayes = 83.4%) as evidence of the portability of the Setser80. Our results indicate the Setser80 SNP panel can reliably classify BGA for individuals of presumed Hispanic origin.

PMID: 32385290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Community-Based Eye Health Screening Study in the Elderly Hispanic Population in North Texas.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 05/08/2020 - 08:01
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Community-Based Eye Health Screening Study in the Elderly Hispanic Population in North Texas.

Tex Public Health J. 2020;72(2):19-21

Authors: Mozdbar ST, Deakins J, Terrell J, Johnson LA, Clark AF

Abstract
The Hispanic population is underserved and underrepresented in health care. Epidemiological studies are cmcial for providing insight to identify disparities and unmet eye health needs in this vulnerable group. The purpose of our study is to examine the prevalence of ocular conditions in the elderly Hispanic population in North Texas and identify the frequency in which these conditions were undiagnosed. This study was ancillary to the Health and Aging Brain study among Latino Elders (HABLE). Seventy-three HABLE participants (aged > 50 years) underwent neuropsychological evaluation and an eye health screening at the University of North Texas Health Science Center study site. Descriptive analyses were performed for prevalence of ocular conditions, as well as a comparison of self-reported conditions and ocular Endings. Our results suggest the prevalence patterns for undetected ocular disease in the Hispanic population of North Texas are comparable with the epidemiological trends for this population group in other concentrated areas in the United States.

PMID: 32377644 [PubMed]

Reply to authors.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 05/08/2020 - 05:00

Reply to authors.

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 07;:

Authors: Ruan L, Zeng Q, Feng Y, Jin K, ZhuGe Q

PMID: 32379864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pharmacologic fibroblast reprogramming into photoreceptors restores vision.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 05/08/2020 - 05:00
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Pharmacologic fibroblast reprogramming into photoreceptors restores vision.

Nature. 2020 May;581(7806):83-88

Authors: Mahato B, Kaya KD, Fan Y, Sumien N, Shetty RA, Zhang W, Davis D, Mock T, Batabyal S, Ni A, Mohanty S, Han Z, Farjo R, Forster MJ, Swaroop A, Chavala SH

Abstract
Photoreceptor loss is the final common endpoint in most retinopathies that lead to irreversible blindness, and there are no effective treatments to restore vision1,2. Chemical reprogramming of fibroblasts offers an opportunity to reverse vision loss; however, the generation of sensory neuronal subtypes such as photoreceptors remains a challenge. Here we report that the administration of a set of five small molecules can chemically induce the transformation of fibroblasts into rod photoreceptor-like cells. The transplantation of these chemically induced photoreceptor-like cells (CiPCs) into the subretinal space of rod degeneration mice (homozygous for rd1, also known as Pde6b) leads to partial restoration of the pupil reflex and visual function. We show that mitonuclear communication is a key determining factor for the reprogramming of fibroblasts into CiPCs. Specifically, treatment with these five compounds leads to the translocation of AXIN2 to the mitochondria, which results in the production of reactive oxygen species, the activation of NF-κB and the upregulation of Ascl1. We anticipate that CiPCs could have therapeutic potential for restoring vision.

PMID: 32376950 [PubMed - in process]

Neutrophils Are More Effective than Monocytes at Phagosomal Containment and Killing of Listeria monocytogenes.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/06/2020 - 07:29
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Neutrophils Are More Effective than Monocytes at Phagosomal Containment and Killing of Listeria monocytogenes.

Immunohorizons. 2019 12 13;3(12):573-584

Authors: Okunnu BM, Berg RE

Abstract
Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes are innate immune cells essential for protection during Listeria monocytogenes infection. Although certain functions have been generally assigned to each of the cells, similarities and differences in functions necessary for bacterial clearance have not previously been investigated. In the current study, phagocytosis, phagosomal containment, bacterial killing, and cytokine production by neutrophils and monocytes during L. monocytogenes infection were studied. Data obtained via in vitro studies show that neutrophils are more effective at L. monocytogenes uptake, phagosomal containment, and killing than monocytes. However, monocytes were found to be more effective at cytokine production during L. monocytogenes infection, in vivo. Additionally, the data demonstrated that neutrophils and monocytes are also capable of producing IL-1α, a cytokine that does not yet have a clearly defined role during infection with L. monocytogenes Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate a population of monocytes producing both TNF-α and IL-α, concurrently. This study highlights the multifunctional capabilities of neutrophils and monocytes, further adding to our knowledge of these innate immune cells during L. monocytogenes infection.

PMID: 31836639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Role of Catalase in Oxidative Stress- and Age-Associated Degenerative Diseases.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/06/2020 - 07:29
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Role of Catalase in Oxidative Stress- and Age-Associated Degenerative Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:9613090

Authors: Nandi A, Yan LJ, Jana CK, Das N

Abstract
Reactive species produced in the cell during normal cellular metabolism can chemically react with cellular biomolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, thereby causing their oxidative modifications leading to alterations in their compositions and potential damage to their cellular activities. Fortunately, cells have evolved several antioxidant defense mechanisms (as metabolites, vitamins, and enzymes) to neutralize or mitigate the harmful effect of reactive species and/or their byproducts. Any perturbation in the balance in the level of antioxidants and the reactive species results in a physiological condition called "oxidative stress." A catalase is one of the crucial antioxidant enzymes that mitigates oxidative stress to a considerable extent by destroying cellular hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen. Deficiency or malfunction of catalase is postulated to be related to the pathogenesis of many age-associated degenerative diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anemia, vitiligo, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, cancer, and schizophrenia. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken in many laboratories to explore its use as a potential drug for the treatment of such diseases. This paper describes the direct and indirect involvement of deficiency and/or modification of catalase in the pathogenesis of some important diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, vitiligo, and acatalasemia. Details on the efforts exploring the potential treatment of these diseases using a catalase as a protein therapeutic agent have also been described.

PMID: 31827713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Letter to the editor.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/06/2020 - 07:29
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Letter to the editor.

J Paediatr Child Health. 2019 11;55(11):1407-1408

Authors: Henson R, Collins A, Zia S, Coplin B, Akkad R, Hamby T

PMID: 31691417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Overexpression of somatostatin receptor type 2 in neuroendocrine tumors for improved Ga68-DOTATATE imaging and treatment.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 05/06/2020 - 07:29
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Overexpression of somatostatin receptor type 2 in neuroendocrine tumors for improved Ga68-DOTATATE imaging and treatment.

Surgery. 2020 01;167(1):189-196

Authors: Guenter R, Aweda T, Carmona Matos DM, Jang S, Whitt J, Cheng YQ, Liu XM, Chen H, Lapi SE, Jaskula-Sztul R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors are found throughout the body, including the pancreas. These tumors are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous and can be difficult to accurately image using current imaging standards. However, positron emission tomography/computed tomography with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has shown clinical success because many neuroendocrine tumors overexpress somatostatin receptor subtype 2. Unfortunately, patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors often have a diminished level of somatostatin receptor subtype 2. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors can upregulate the functional expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression at the mRNA and protein level in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines. The effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on surface somatostatin receptor subtype 2 was also investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Changes in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression in neuroendocrine tumor xenografts after treatment were imaged using Ga68-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
RESULTS: The functional increase of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in neuroendocrine tumors after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment was confirmed through in vitro experiments and small animal Ga68-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Histone deacetylase inhibitors increased somatostatin receptor subtype 2 transcription and protein expression in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines. Small animal Ga68-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging confirmed the enhancement of radiopeptide uptake after histone deacetylase inhibitor administration.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a new method to potentially improve imaging and treatments that target somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in neuroendocrine tumors.

PMID: 31629542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Editorial overview: Allosteric assemblies.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 05/05/2020 - 07:10
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Editorial overview: Allosteric assemblies.

Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2020 Apr 30;:

Authors: Liu J, Lai L

PMID: 32362348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High and low anxiety phenotypes in a rat model of complex post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with different alterations in regional brain monoamine neurotransmission.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 05/04/2020 - 07:02
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High and low anxiety phenotypes in a rat model of complex post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with different alterations in regional brain monoamine neurotransmission.

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020 Apr 23;117:104691

Authors: Tseilikman V, Komelkova M, Lapshin M, Alliluev A, Tseilikman O, Karpenko M, Pestereva N, Manukhina E, Downey HF, Kondashevskaya M, Sarapultsev A, Dremencov E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to predator scent stress (PSS) has been used as an animal model of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). The aim of the current study was to assess brain monoamines and their primary metabolites concentrations in male Wistar rats (16 control, 19 exposed to chronic PSS).
METHODS: Rats were exposed to PSS for ten days. Fourteen days later, the rats' anxiety index (AI) was assessed with an elevated plus maze test; based on differences in AI, the rats were segregated into low- (AI ≤ 0.8, n = 9) and high- (AI > 0.8, n = 10) anxiety phenotypes. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Brain monoamines and their metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector.
RESULTS: PSS exposure led to a significant increase in average rats' AI and a reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. Medullar catecholamines and hippocampal and neocortical norepinephrine levels were increased, and pontine norepinephrine and cerebellar dopamine decreased in PSS-exposed rats. Cerebellar norepinephrine levels were increased, and midbrain, hippocampal, and neocortical 5-HT and hypothalamic and hippocampal dopamine levels-decreased in high-, but not in low-anxiety rats. The decrease in hippocampal dopamine levels was accompanied by an increase of DOPAC levels, suggesting and abnormal metabolism of this transmitter.
CONCLUSION: Reductions in 5-HT and dopamine in mid- and forebrain brain areas are associated with stress susceptibility in rodents and perhaps also with PTSD vulnerability in humans. Dopamine and 5-HT metabolism and its modulation by glucocorticoids appear to play a role in stress susceptibility and in CPTSD.

PMID: 32361171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Alternative Technique for Fixation of Tongue-Type Calcaneal Fractures: The "Hurricane Strap".

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Sat, 05/02/2020 - 06:26
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An Alternative Technique for Fixation of Tongue-Type Calcaneal Fractures: The "Hurricane Strap".

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2020 May - Jun;59(3):560-567

Authors: Ernst J, Ryba D, Duncan K, Motley T

Abstract
Traditionally, tongue-type calcaneal fractures have been treated using screw fixation or tension band wiring. In this work, we aim to present a technique guide for an alternative approach to fixation of these fractures given the high potential for failure with traditional methods. Additionally, we present the results of 4 patients treated with this technique. A modified lateral extensile incision is made for application of a midfoot fusion plate that is pre-bent and fit to the calcaneus with 2 holes covering the superior surface of the calcaneus for bicortical interfragmentary purchase. Four screws are then placed orthogonally into the calcaneus through the plate. Typically, this allows for 2 screws to be placed in the superior fragment and 2 screws to be placed in the inferior fragment. All 4 patients went on to timely osseous union and were weightbearing in regular shoe gear at their last follow-up appointment. Average follow-up time was 16.5 (range 15 to 21) months. We believe that the "hurricane strap" provides a more mechanically sound construct than other methods. This construct may be especially useful in patients with osteoporotic bone where screws alone may not maintain adequate reduction or in neuropathic patients where noncompliance with weightbearing status may jeopardize maintenance of reduction.

PMID: 32354512 [PubMed - in process]

Supportive Treatment with Tocilizumab for COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 05/01/2020 - 06:08

Supportive Treatment with Tocilizumab for COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Virol. 2020 Apr 21;127:104380

Authors: Alzghari SK, Acuña VS

PMID: 32353761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Weighing the evidence for using vascular conductance, not resistance, in comparative cardiovascular physiology.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 05/01/2020 - 06:08
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Weighing the evidence for using vascular conductance, not resistance, in comparative cardiovascular physiology.

J Exp Biol. 2019 03 27;222(Pt 6):

Authors: Joyce W, White DW, Raven PB, Wang T

Abstract
Vascular resistance and conductance are reciprocal indices of vascular tone that are often assumed to be interchangeable. However, in most animals in vivo, blood flow (i.e. cardiac output) typically varies much more than arterial blood pressure. When blood flow changes at a constant pressure, the relationship between conductance and blood flow is linear, whereas the relationship between resistance and blood flow is non-linear. Thus, for a given change in blood flow, the change in resistance depends on the starting point, whereas the attendant change in conductance is proportional to the change in blood flow regardless of the starting conditions. By comparing the effects of physical activity at different temperatures or between species - concepts at the heart of comparative cardiovascular physiology - we demonstrate that the difference between choosing resistance or conductance can be marked. We also explain here how the ratio of conductance in the pulmonary and systemic circulations provides a more intuitive description of cardiac shunt patterns in the reptilian cardiovascular system than the more commonly used ratio of resistance. Finally, we posit that, although the decision to use conductance or resistance should be made on a case-by-case basis, in most circumstances, conductance is a more faithful portrayal of cardiovascular regulation in vertebrates.

PMID: 30918087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association of Home Food Availability with Prediabetes and Diabetes among Adults in the United States.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/30/2020 - 05:54
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Association of Home Food Availability with Prediabetes and Diabetes among Adults in the United States.

Nutrients. 2020 Apr 25;12(5):

Authors: McAtee JR, Tao MH, King C, Chai W

Abstract
This study examined associations of home food availabilities with prediabetes and diabetes among 8929 adults (20-70 years) participating in 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Relative to non-diabetic participants (individuals without diabetes or prediabetes), prediabetes participants were associated with lower availabilities of green vegetables (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.91; p = 0.0006) and fat-free/low-fat milk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; p = 0.001) and higher sugary drink availability (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04-1.48; p = 0.02), adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (Model 1). The associations remained significant for vegetables (p = 0.005) and fat-free/low-fat milk (p = 0.02) adjusting for additional confounders (body mass index, education, Model 2). Adjusting for dietary components did not change the above results (in model 2) significantly. Participants with high healthy food availability scores had approximately 31% reduction (p = 0.003) in odds of prediabetes compared to those with low scores in Model 1. No associations were detected for diabetes except for fat-free/low-fat milk availability, for which an inverse association was observed in Model 1 (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99; p = 0.04). The results show prediabetes participants had lower availability of healthy foods and higher availability of unhealthy foods, suggesting the need to improve healthy food availability at home for this population.

PMID: 32344821 [PubMed - in process]

Comparison of Dietary Micronutrient Intakes by Body Weight Status among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic Black Women Aged 19-39 Years: An Analysis of NHANES 2003-2014.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/28/2020 - 05:14
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Comparison of Dietary Micronutrient Intakes by Body Weight Status among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic Black Women Aged 19-39 Years: An Analysis of NHANES 2003-2014.

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 20;11(12):

Authors: Liu J, Zhu X, Fulda KG, Chen S, Tao MH

Abstract
The objective of the current study was to examine micronutrient intake from foods in women of childbearing age and to better understand potential nutritional problems varied by body weight status in minority women. A sample of women aged 19-39 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2014 was analyzed. Dietary intakes of 13 micronutrients were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women were categorized into normal/under-weight, overweight, or obese groups according to their body mass index (BMI). Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women had lower dietary intakes for vitamins A, B2, B6, B12, and D, folate, calcium, and magnesium than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Mexican-Americans, obese women had the lowest dietary intake of vitamins A, B2, C and D. Obese non-Hispanic Black women had significantly lower dietary intakes of iron and zinc than their normal/under-weight counterparts. Comparable percentages (>30%) of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women had dietary intake less than the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for several key nutrients including vitamin A, C and D, folate, calcium and magnesium, and the percentages varied by body weight status. These results indicate micronutrient inadequacies persist among and within racial/ethnic and body weight groups.

PMID: 31757075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

What's the influence of social interactions on substance use and treatment initiation? A prospective analysis among substance-using probationers.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/28/2020 - 05:14
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What's the influence of social interactions on substance use and treatment initiation? A prospective analysis among substance-using probationers.

Addict Behav. 2019 02;89:143-150

Authors: Spohr SA, Livingston MD, Taxman FS, Walters ST

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: A person's social environment greatly affects the likelihood of substance use, which in turn affects risk for criminal behavior. This study examined how people's social environment early in probation contributed to later substance use and treatment outcome, both of which predict probation success.
METHODS: Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial of substance-using probationers (N = 316). Moderation analyses assessed the relationship between social support near the start of probation and substance use and treatment initiation after 2 and 6 months.
RESULTS: Abstinence at 2-months was associated with better baseline measures of support quality (more positive support, fewer negative interactions, and reduced conflict). Similar associations were identified for 6-month abstinence including better baseline quality, more positive support, and less family and peer conflict. There were no significant associations between the baseline social support and treatment initiation at 2-months. However, poorer baseline quality support and more negative interactions predicted increased treatment initiation at 6-months.
CONCLUSIONS: Social support and the quality of an offender's social network have important implications for substance use and treatment compliance. The criminal justice system emphasizes ways to minimize negative social influences among offenders (i.e., probation conditions that limit contact with other offenders). However, this study suggests that behavior change is a function of not only reducing negative influences but also increasing positive or good quality supports.

PMID: 30316139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Leukostasis retinopathy treated with Anti-VEGF therapy.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 04/24/2020 - 07:04

Leukostasis retinopathy treated with Anti-VEGF therapy.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2020 Jun;18:100677

Authors: Shakibai N, Chavala SH

PMID: 32322747 [PubMed]

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