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Defending against the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: How Can the Internet of Things (IoT) help to save the World?

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 04/24/2020 - 07:04

Defending against the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: How Can the Internet of Things (IoT) help to save the World?

Health Policy Technol. 2020 Apr 22;:

Authors: Rahman MS, Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Zaki R, Haque U, Hamid SHA

Abstract
•IoT within infectious disease epidemiology is an emerging field of research, however the ubiquitous availability of smart technologies, as well as increased risks of infectious disease spread through the globalization and interconnectedness of the world necessitates its use for predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases•Considering the present situation in China, IoT based smart disease surveillance systems have the potential to be a major breakthrough in efforts to control the current pandemic. With much of the infrastructure itself in place already (i.e. smartphones, wearable technologies, internet access) the role this technology can have in limiting the spread of the pandemic involves only the collection and analysis of data already gathered.•More research must be carried out for the development of automated and effective alert systems to provide early and timely detection of outbreaks of such diseases in order to reduce morbidity mortality and prevent global spread.

PMID: 32322475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Utility of the Ion S5™ and MiSeq FGx™ sequencing platforms to characterize challenging human remains.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/23/2020 - 06:52
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Utility of the Ion S5™ and MiSeq FGx™ sequencing platforms to characterize challenging human remains.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2019 Nov;41:101623

Authors: Elwick K, Bus MM, King JL, Chang J, Hughes-Stamm S, Budowle B

Abstract
Often in missing persons' and mass disaster cases, the samples remaining for analysis are hard tissues such as bones, teeth, nails, and hair. These remains may have been exposed to harsh environmental conditions, which pose challenges for downstream genotyping. Short tandem repeat analysis (STR) via capillary electrophoresis (CE) is still the gold standard for DNA typing; however, a newer technology known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS) could improve upon our current techniques by typing different and more markers in a single analysis, and consequently improving the power of discrimination. In this study, bone and tooth samples exposed to a variety of DNA insults (cremation, embalming, decomposition, thermal degradation, and fire) were assessed and sequenced using the Precision ID chemistry and a custom AmpliSeq™ STR and iiSNP panel on the Ion S5™ System, and the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit on the MiSeq FGx™ system, as well as the GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit on the 3500™ Genetic Analyzer. The results demonstrated that using traditional CE-based genotyping performed as expected, producing a partial or full DNA profile for all samples, and that both sequencing chemistries and platforms were able to recover sufficient STR and SNP information from a majority of the same challenging samples. Run metrics including profile completeness and mean read depth produced good results with each system, considering the degree of damage of some samples. Most sample insults (except decomposed) produced similar numbers of alleles for both MPS systems. Comparable markers produced full concordance between the two platforms.

PMID: 31499459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Calpain inhibitor MDL28170 improves the transplantation-mediated therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells following traumatic brain injury.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/23/2020 - 06:52
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Calpain inhibitor MDL28170 improves the transplantation-mediated therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells following traumatic brain injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2019 03 15;10(1):96

Authors: Hu J, Chen L, Huang X, Wu K, Ding S, Wang W, Wang B, Smith C, Ren C, Ni H, ZhuGe Q, Yang J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) protects against brain damage. However, the low survival number of transplanted BMSCs remains a pertinent challenge and can be attributed to the unfavorable microenvironment of the injured brain. It is well known that calpain activation plays a critical role in traumatic brain injury (TBI)-mediated inflammation and cell death; previous studies showed that inhibiting calpain activation is neuroprotective after TBI. Thus, we investigated whether preconditioning with the calpain inhibitor, MDL28170, could enhance the survival of BMSCs transplanted at 24 h post TBI to improve neurological function.
METHODS: TBI rat model was induced by the weight-drop method, using the gravitational forces of a free falling weight to produce a focal brain injury. MDL28170 was injected intracranially at the lesion site at 30 min post TBI, and the secretion levels of neuroinflammatory factors were assessed 24 h later. BMSCs labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were locally administrated into the lesion site of TBI rat brains at 24 h post TBI. Immunofluorescence and histopathology were performed to evaluate the BMSC survival and the TBI lesion volume. Modified neurological severity scores were chosen to evaluate the functional recovery. The potential mechanisms by which MDL28170 is involved in the regulation of inflammation signaling pathway and cell apoptosis were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence staining.
RESULTS: Overall, we found that a single dose of MDL28170 at acute phase of TBI improved the microenvironment by inhibiting the inflammation, facilitated the survival of grafted GFP-BMSCs, and reduced the grafted cell apoptosis, leading to the reduction of lesion cavity. Furthermore, a significant neurological function improvement was observed when BMSCs were transplanted into a MDL28170-preconditioned TBI brains compared with the one without MDL28170-precondition group.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that MDL28170 improves BMSC transplantation microenvironment and enhances the neurological function restoration after TBI via increased survival rate of BMSCs. We suggest that the calpain inhibitor, MDL28170, could be pursued as a new combination therapeutic strategy to advance the effects of transplanted BMSCs in cell-based regenerative medicine.

PMID: 30876457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Examining the Influence of Religious and Spiritual Beliefs on HPV Vaccine Uptake Among College Women.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 04/22/2020 - 06:35
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Examining the Influence of Religious and Spiritual Beliefs on HPV Vaccine Uptake Among College Women.

J Relig Health. 2019 Dec;58(6):2196-2207

Authors: Best AL, Thompson EL, Adamu AM, Logan R, Delva J, Thomas M, Cunningham E, Vamos C, Daley E

Abstract
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is an effective mechanism to prevent HPV-associated cancers; however, uptake is low among women aged 18-26. Religiosity/spirituality is associated with sexual health decision-making. This study examined the role of religious/spiritual beliefs on HPV vaccination among college women (N = 307) using logistic regression and mediation analyses. Findings indicate that sexual activity is the main factor associated with HPV vaccination; and sexual activity fully mediates the relationship between religious/spiritual beliefs and HPV vaccination. Health promotion efforts should highlight the importance of HPV vaccination regardless of current sexual activity and may benefit from partnerships with religious/spiritual organizations.

PMID: 31352665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Combining Select Blood-Based Biomarkers with Neuropsychological Assessment to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment among Mexican Americans.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/21/2020 - 06:17

Combining Select Blood-Based Biomarkers with Neuropsychological Assessment to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment among Mexican Americans.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2020 Apr 15;:

Authors: Petersen M, Hall J, Parsons T, Johnson L, O'Bryant S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recent work has supported use of blood-based biomarkers in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Inclusion of neuropsychological measures has shown promise in enhancing utility of biomarkers to detect disease.
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to develop cognitive-biomarker profiles for detection of MCI.
METHODS: Data were analyzed on 463 participants (normal control n = 378; MCI n = 85) from HABLE. Random forest analyses determined proteomic profile of MCI. Separate linear regression analyses determined variance accounted for by select biomarkers per neuropsychological measure. When neuropsychological measure with the least shared variance was identified, it was then combined with select biomarkers to create a biomarker-cognitive profile.
RESULTS: The biomarker-cognitive profile was 90% accurate in detecting MCI. Among amnestic MCI cases, the detection accuracy of the biomarker-cognitive profile was 92% and increased to 94% with demographic variables.
CONCLUSION: The biomarker-cognitive profile for MCI was highly accurate in its detection with use of only five biomarkers.

PMID: 32310167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Liquid Biopsy for Cancer: Review and Implications for the Radiologist.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/21/2020 - 06:17
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Liquid Biopsy for Cancer: Review and Implications for the Radiologist.

Radiology. 2020 01;294(1):5-17

Authors: Underwood JJ, Quadri RS, Kalva SP, Shah H, Sanjeevaiah AR, Beg MS, Sutphin PD

Abstract
Imaging and image-guided procedures play an imperative role in the screening, diagnosis, and surveillance of cancer. Although emerging imaging techniques now enable more precise molecular characterization of tumors, multigenetic tumor profiling for targeted therapeutic selection remains limited to direct tissue acquisition. Even in the context of targeted therapy, tumors adapt to acquire resistance. This necessitates serial monitoring, traditionally through tissue acquisition, to identify the molecular mechanism of resistance and to guide second-line therapy. An alternative to tissue acquisition is the collection of circulating tumor markers such as cell-free nucleic acids and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood. This noninvasive diagnostic approach is referred to as the liquid biopsy. The liquid biopsy is currently used clinically for therapeutic guidance when tissue acquisition is impossible or when the specimen is inadequate. It is also being studied in the context of screening, diagnosis, and surveillance. As cancer treatment continues to move toward a focus on precision medicine, this developing technology may alter and/or augment the role of imaging in the management of cancer. This review aims to outline the use of liquid biopsy in cancer and its potential impact on diagnostic imaging and image-guided procedures.

PMID: 31746691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

National Trends in Human Papillomavirus Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/21/2020 - 06:17
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National Trends in Human Papillomavirus Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers.

Am J Prev Med. 2019 04;56(4):e117-e123

Authors: Wheldon CW, Krakow M, Thompson EL, Moser RP

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The President's Cancer Panel released a report in 2014 calling for communication strategies to promote the human papillomavirus vaccine among males and females. The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers from 2014 to 2017 using a nationally representative survey of adults in the U.S. and (2) identify differences in population subgroups that showed significant changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus-related cancers.
METHODS: Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2014 and 2017 surveys). Health Information National Trends Survey is a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized adults (aged ≥18 years) in the U.S. Human papillomavirus awareness was assessed with one item indicating aware or never heard of human papillomavirus. Human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge was assessed with four items asking if human papillomavirus can cause cervical, anal, oral, or penile cancer (responses coded yes/no or not sure).
RESULTS: The majority (64%, SE=1.4) were aware of human papillomavirus. Awareness was higher among females and the vaccine-eligible subpopulation. No change in awareness was observed. Knowledge of cervical cancer was high (78%), but low for anal (26%); oral (30%); and penile (30%) cancers. Cervical cancer knowledge significantly increased among females, and anal cancer knowledge increased among college graduates and non-vaccine eligible subgroups. No other increases in human papillomavirus-related cancer knowledge were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The general public was moderately aware of human papillomavirus, but associated human papillomavirus with cervical cancer. Knowledge of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers is low, even among vaccine-eligible subgroups. Public health education is needed to raise awareness of non-cervical human papillomavirus-related cancers.

PMID: 30772151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clotam enhances anti-proliferative effect of vincristine in Ewing sarcoma cells.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/21/2020 - 06:17
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Clotam enhances anti-proliferative effect of vincristine in Ewing sarcoma cells.

Apoptosis. 2019 02;24(1-2):21-32

Authors: Shelake S, Sankpal UT, Eslin D, Bowman WP, Simecka JW, Raut S, Ray A, Basha R

Abstract
Current therapeutic strategies used in Ewing sarcoma (ES) especially for relapsed patients have resulted in modest improvements in survival over the past 20 years. Combination therapeutic approach presents as an alternative to overcoming drug resistance in metastatic ES. This study evaluated the effect of Clotam (tolfenamic acid or TA), a small molecule and inhibitor of Specificity protein1 (Sp1) and survivin for sensitizing ES cell lines to chemotherapeutic agent, vincristine (VCR). ES cells (CHLA-9 and TC-32) were treated with TA or VCR or TA + VCR (combination), and cell viability was assessed after 24/48/72 h. Effect of TA or VCR or TA + VCR treatment on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated using propidium iodide, cell cycle assay and Annexin V flow cytometry respectively. The apoptosis markers, caspase 3/7 (activity levels) and cleaved-PARP (protein expression) were measured. Cardiomyocytes, H9C2 were used as non-malignant cells. While, all treatments caused time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, interestingly, combination treatment caused significantly higher response (~ 80% inhibition, p < 0.05). Cell viability inhibition was accompanied by inhibition of Sp1 and Survivin. TA + VCR treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased caspase 3/7 activity which strongly correlated with upregulated c-PARP level and Annexin V staining. Cell cycle arrest was observed at G0/G1 (TA) or G2/M (VCR and TA + VCR). All treatments did not cause cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. These results suggest that TA could enhance the anti-cancer activity of VCR in ES cells. Therefore, TA + VCR combination could be further tested to develop as safe/effective therapeutic strategy for treating ES.

PMID: 30610505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phylogeography of montane dragons could shed light on the history of forests and diversification processes on Sumatra.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Mon, 04/20/2020 - 06:06
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Phylogeography of montane dragons could shed light on the history of forests and diversification processes on Sumatra.

Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2020 Apr 16;:106840

Authors: Shaney KJ, Maldonado J, Smart U, Thammachoti P, Fujita M, Hamidy A, Kurniawan N, Harvey MB, Smith EN

Abstract
Biogeographical evidence, both, for and against the "regional endemism paradigm" hypothesis has been uncovered across the Greater Sunda Region (Sundaland) of Southeast Asia. Additionally, there are competing hypotheses regarding how Pleistocene forests may have impacted biological patterns and processes in Sumatra. Using montane agamid lizards from Sumatra, we derived and analyzed a phylogenetic dataset, genetic divergence estimates, and contemporary distributional patterns among species. We tested whether (1) Sumatra's highland Draconinae diversification fits the regional endemism paradigm hypothesis and (2) Draconinae phylogeography provides biological evidence for Pleistocene forest extent at various points in history. Our results suggest in situ diversification was the main driver behind montane Draconinae lizard diversification in Sumatra, rejecting the "regional endemism paradigm". Contemporary distribution of endemic species and their genetic relationships may potentially provide biologicalevidence for determining more precise elevational lower limits of montane forests during the Pleistocene epoch. Our data suggests montane forests did not retreat more than 700 - 750 meters during glacial maxima because lower retreating forests would have become interconnected, allowing for widespread dispersal, exchange of gene flow and sympatric distributions contemporarily. To the contrary, our divergence estimates show that cloud forest dragons have been isolated for millions of years, suggesting there may have been a continuous disconnect between some areas, predating the Pleistocene. There may also be other ecological and evolutionary factors that impacted Draconinae distributions, such as competition, making this an excellent system for testing questions regarding montane biogeography. Additionally, we provide the first phylogeny for a wide range of Sundaland agamid species and identify some biogeographic pressures that may have triggered montane Draconinae diversification in Sumatra.

PMID: 32305510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Repeated measurements of serum urate and mortality: a prospective cohort study of 152,358 individuals over 8 years of follow-up.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Fri, 04/17/2020 - 05:09
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Repeated measurements of serum urate and mortality: a prospective cohort study of 152,358 individuals over 8 years of follow-up.

Arthritis Res Ther. 2020 Apr 15;22(1):84

Authors: Li S, Cui L, Cheng J, Shu R, Chen S, Nguyen US, Misra D, Wu S, Gao X

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal evidence on change of serum urate level with mortality risk is limited as prior studies have a measurement of serum urate at a single time point. Further, the combined effect of serum urate and systemic inflammation on mortality is unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 152,358 participants (122,045 men and 30,313 women) with repeated measurements of serum urate in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012 (107,751 participants had all four measurements of serum urate). We used the Cox proportional hazard model to examine the association between cumulative average and changes in serum urate with mortality. The combined effect of serum urate and systemic inflammation was determined by testing the interaction of serum urate and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in relation to mortality risk.
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.7 (interquartile range 6.3-9.2) years, we identified 7564 all-cause deaths, 1763 CVD deaths, 1706 cancer deaths, and 1572 other deaths. We observed U-shaped relationships of cumulative average serum urate with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and other mortalities. Compared with participants with stable serum urate, those with greater increases in serum urate had a 1.7-fold elevated mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-1.84), and those with decreased serum urate had a 2-fold elevated mortality risk (HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.93-2.37). Participants with both hyperuricemia and hs-CRP had 1.6 times higher mortality, compared with those with low serum urate and hs-CRP levels (HR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.37-1.76).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a U-shaped relationship of long-term cumulative average serum urate with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and other mortalities. Compared with participants with relatively stable serum urate levels, a greater increase or decrease in serum urate was associated with elevated mortality. Participants with both hyperuricemia and high systemic inflammation had the greatest mortality risk compared with those with low serum urate and low hs-CRP levels.

PMID: 32295651 [PubMed - in process]

Comment on: Curative-intent radiotherapy for pediatric osteosarcoma: The St. Jude experience.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/16/2020 - 07:52
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Comment on: Curative-intent radiotherapy for pediatric osteosarcoma: The St. Jude experience.

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2020 Apr 15;:e28287

Authors: Vicenzi P, Johnnidis M, Hamby T, Ray A

PMID: 32293779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correction to: Serum exosomal-annexin A2 is associated with African-American triple-negative breast cancer and promotes angiogenesis.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/16/2020 - 07:52
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Correction to: Serum exosomal-annexin A2 is associated with African-American triple-negative breast cancer and promotes angiogenesis.

Breast Cancer Res. 2020 Mar 23;22(1):31

Authors: Chaudhary P, Gibbs LD, Maji S, Lewis CM, Suzuki S, Vishwanatha JK

Abstract
After publication of the original article [1], we were notified that the wrong version of Fig. 2b has been published.

PMID: 32293512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Appropriateness of Term Limits for Administrative Appointments in Pharmacy Programs.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/16/2020 - 07:52
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Appropriateness of Term Limits for Administrative Appointments in Pharmacy Programs.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2020 Jan;84(1):7462

Authors: Malcom DR, Farris K, Feola DJ, Gannett PM, Law AV, O'Neal KS, Salinitri FD, Tromp K, White A

Abstract
The appropriateness of term limits for administrative appointments is a subject of much discussion, not just within pharmacy programs, but in organizations of all types. The prospect of term limits for involves a wide variety of important organizational issues, including succession planning, institutional memory, strategic decision-making, and concepts regarding leadership styles overall. This paper examines both sides of the debate regarding the appropriateness of term limits for administrative appointments. Arguments supporting term limits include the ability for strategic changes in the diversity of leaders as well as a more focused effort on continuous quality improvement. The arguments against term limits focus around the need for stability and the time involved in the development of effective leaders.

PMID: 32292194 [PubMed - in process]

Breastfeeding practices among childhood cancer survivors.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Thu, 04/16/2020 - 07:52
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Breastfeeding practices among childhood cancer survivors.

J Cancer Surviv. 2020 Apr 14;:

Authors: Ogg S, Klosky JL, Chemaitilly W, Srivastava DK, Wang M, Carney G, Ojha R, Robison LL, Cox CL, Hudson MM

Abstract
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study compared breastfeeding outcomes among childhood cancer survivors to those of women in the general population and evaluated whether breastfeeding is adversely affected by cancer treatment or endocrine-related late effects.
METHODS: A self-reported survey ascertained breastfeeding practices and incorporated items from the questionnaires used in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) to allow comparison with the general population. Among 710 eligible survivors, 472 (66%) responded. The participants were predominantly non-Hispanic White (84%), married (73%), and had some college or less (60%). The mean maternal age at the time of birth of the first child after cancer treatment was 24 years (SD 24.3 ± 4.8).
RESULTS: Fewer survivors planned to breastfeed than did IFPS II controls (67% vs. 82%, P < .0001), and fewer survivors initiated breastfeeding (66% vs. 85%, P < .0001). The median breastfeeding duration was shorter among survivors, with early undesired weaning occurring sooner in the survivor group (1.4 months, interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-3.5 months) than in the IFPS II group (2.7 months, IQR 0.9-5.4 months). A higher proportion of survivors reported an unfavorable breastfeeding experience (19% vs. 7.5%, P < .0001) and early, undesired weaning (57.5%, 95% CI 51-64) than did IFPS II participants (45.2%, 95% CI 44-47, P = .0164). Among survivors who expressed intention and chose to breastfeed, 46% endorsed disrupted lactation related to physiologic problems with high risk in those overweight/obese.
CONCLUSIONS: Survivors are at risk of negative breastfeeding experiences; however, lactation outcomes were not significantly associated with cancer diagnosis, treatments, or endocrine complications.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Prior research has not examined the association of cancer treatments and clinically validated late effects with lactation outcomes in a clinically diverse childhood cancer survivor cohort. Findings from this study suggest that childhood cancer survivors, especially those who are overweight/obese, are at risk of having negative breastfeeding experiences. Early undesired weaning, physiologic problems related to lactation and misconceptions about breastfeeding, especially fears of passing on cancer through breastmilk, highlight the need for counseling and specialized support to optimize lactation outcomes in this vulnerable population.

PMID: 32291564 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An algorithm for random match probability calculation from peptide sequences.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 04/15/2020 - 07:38
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An algorithm for random match probability calculation from peptide sequences.

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2020 Apr 06;47:102295

Authors: Woerner AE, Hewitt FC, Gardner MW, Freitas MA, Schulte KQ, LeSassier DS, Baniasad M, Reed AJ, Powals ME, Smith AR, Albright NC, Ludolph BC, Zhang L, Allen LW, Weber K, Budowle B

Abstract
For the past three decades, forensic genetic investigations have focused on elucidating DNA signatures. While DNA has a number of desirable properties (e.g., presence in most biological materials, an amenable chemistry for analysis and well-developed statistics), DNA also has limitations. DNA may be in low quantity in some tissues, such as hair, and in some tissues it may degrade more readily than its protein counterparts. Recent research efforts have shown the feasibility of performing protein-based human identification in cases in which recovery of DNA is challenged; however, the methods involved in assessing the rarity of a given protein profile have not been addressed adequately. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that describes the computation of a random match probability (RMP) resulting from a genetically variable peptide signature. The approach described herein explicitly models proteomic error and genetic linkage, makes no assumptions as to allelic drop-out, and maps the observed proteomic alleles to their expected protein products from DNA which, in turn, permits standard corrections for population structure and finite database sizes. To assess the feasibility of this approach, RMPs were estimated from peptide profiles of skin samples from 25 individuals of European ancestry. 126 common peptide alleles were used in this approach, yielding a mean RMP of approximately 10-2.

PMID: 32289731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Treating Non-fentanyl-derived Synthetic Opioid Overdose with a Traditional Opioid Reversal Agent.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 04/15/2020 - 07:38
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Treating Non-fentanyl-derived Synthetic Opioid Overdose with a Traditional Opioid Reversal Agent.

Cureus. 2020 Mar 11;12(3):e7241

Authors: Acuna VS, Abels EM, Alhelwani A, Alzghari SK

Abstract
As the opioid crisis in the United States continues to grow, non-fentanyl-derived synthetic opioids (NSOs) are growing in both availability and popularity. NSO use comes with considerable risk including a high potential for both abuse and overdose. In this editorial, we review the consequences of overdose with the NSOs U-47700 and butyrfentanyl (BF) and the potential for the use of naloxone as a treatment for such instances. Naloxone administration was found to be successful in reversing opioid effects and re-establishing independent breathing in a patient taking U-47700 or BF. With a high rate of success in treating opioid overdose and a low chance of negatively affecting healthy non-dependent persons, naloxone is an ideal medication in these situations. We recommend the use of naloxone in cases of NSO opioid overdose and advocate for the increased availability of naloxone products to improve overdose outcomes nationwide.

PMID: 32284916 [PubMed]

Personalized normative feedback for heavy drinking: An application of deviance regulation theory.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Wed, 04/15/2020 - 07:38
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Personalized normative feedback for heavy drinking: An application of deviance regulation theory.

Behav Res Ther. 2019 04;115:73-82

Authors: Neighbors C, DiBello AM, Young CM, Steers MN, Rinker DV, Rodriguez LM, Ryamond Knee C, Blanton H, Lewis MA

Abstract
Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) proposes that individuals regulate their behavior to be in line with the behaviors of others. Specifically, individuals desire to stand out in positive way and not stand out in a negative way. DRT has been successfully applied to encourage other health behaviors and offers a unique method to utilize both injunctive norms in combination with descriptive norms in brief alcohol interventions. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a computer-delivered, norms-based personalized feedback intervention which systematically varied the focus on whether specific drinking behaviors were described as common or uncommon (a descriptive norm), whether the drinking behaviors were healthy versus unhealthy, and whether the drinking behaviors were positively or negatively framed (an injunctive norm). Nine-hundred and fifty-nine college drinkers completed baseline, three-month, and six-month follow-up assessments. Results indicated messages focusing on unhealthy drinking behaviors, particularly when described as uncommon, were most effective in reducing drinking and alcohol-related problems over time. This research utilizes deviance regulation theory as a way of improving personalized normative feedback by elucidating how to construct messages for brief interventions based on descriptive characteristics associated with specific target drinking behaviors in combination with perceptions of prevalence and acceptability of such drinking behaviors (an injunctive norm).

PMID: 30580836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Joint Trajectories of Cognition and Gait Speed in Mexican American and European American Older Adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/14/2020 - 07:23
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Joint Trajectories of Cognition and Gait Speed in Mexican American and European American Older Adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2020 Apr 12;:

Authors: Gonzales MM, Wang CP, Quiben M, MacCarthy D, Seshadri S, Jacob M, Hazuda H

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline and gait speed slowing are independent predictors of disability and mortality. While both factors increase in prevalence with advancing age, little is known about their combined patterns of change. The study goal was to identify joint trajectories of cognition and gait speed within an aging bi-ethnic cohort of Mexican Americans and European Americans.
METHODS/DESIGN: Participants included 182 Mexican Americans and 188 European Americans, ages 65-74, who were followed over a mean of 9.5 years. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination and gait speed was examined with a timed 10-ft walk. Joint trajectory classes of cognition and gait speed were identified with latent growth mixture modeling. Odd-ratios assessed predictors for trajectory classes.
RESULTS: Three latent trajectory classes were identified: 1) relatively stable cognition and gait (termed stable cognition and gait class, 65.4%); 2) deteriorating cognition and gait (termed cognitive and physical vulnerability class, 22.2%); 3) stable cognition and deteriorating gait (termed physical vulnerability class, 12.4%). The odds of classification in the cognitive and physical vulnerability class vs stable cognition and gait class was associated with Mexican American ethnicity (OR = 3.771, P = 0.016), age (OR = 1.186, P = 0.017), income (OR = 0.828, P = 0.029), education (OR = 0.703, P < 0.001), and diabetes (OR = 4.547, P = 0.010). The odds of classification in the physical vulnerability class was associated with female sex (OR = 6.481, P = 0.004) and body mass index (OR = 1.118, P = 0.025).
CONCLUSIONS: The trajectories of cognition and gait speed were generally parallel, suggesting the two domains may act synergistically to shape important health outcomes. Socioeconomic disparities and Mexican American ethnicity independently conferred risk for accelerated decline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 32281153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiogenic Shock.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/14/2020 - 07:23
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Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiogenic Shock.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2020 Jan-Mar;16(1):68

Authors: Patel A, Nguyen P

Abstract
This column is supplied by Amol Patel, DO, and Peter Nguyen, MD. Dr. Patel is an internal medicine resident at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he is in his final year as chief resident. He received his bachelor's degree in biomedical engineering at Texas A&M University and his medical degree at UNT Health Science center in Forth Worth, Texas. Dr. Nguyen is a nephrologist with Houston Kidney Consultants and practices at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he is currently the secretary of the medical staff. He obtained his medical degree from Texas Tech School of Medicine and completed his residency and nephrology fellowship at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.

PMID: 32280422 [PubMed - in process]

Innovation in hand therapy: A reflection on the past and thoughts for the future.

Recent Research Articles from UNTHSC - Tue, 04/14/2020 - 07:23
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Innovation in hand therapy: A reflection on the past and thoughts for the future.

J Hand Ther. 2020 Apr 09;:

Authors: Priganc VW, Patterson RM

PMID: 32279879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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